Growth kinetics and collagen production were determined in smooth muscle cells isolated from human jejunum and maintained in cell culture. Collagen synthesis increased during the first 15 days in culture at a time when the rate of cell proliferation was maximal. When confluent, these cells produced significantly more collagen than human dermal fibroblasts cultured under identical conditions. The smooth muscle cells required daily replenishment of ascorbate for maximal collagen synthesis. The types of collagen produced by human intestinal smooth muscle cells in culture were the same as those collagens extracted from strictured human bowel (types I, III, and V). These findings suggest that collagen production by human intestinal smooth muscle cells has a role in the repair as well as the fibrosis of the gastrointestinal tract. © 1987 ...
Smooth muscle is responsible for the contractility of hollow organs, such as blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, and the uterus. Its structure differs greatly from that of skeletal muscle. The human stomach contains three layers of muscle in its walls, the outer longitudinal, the middle circular and the inner oblique and visceral smooth muscle cells makes up all three layers along the entire organ. Smooth muscle contraction is critical to peristalsis in the human stomach and the contraction may be mediated by activation of phospholipase through two distinct mechanisms (increased intracellular Ca2+ and G protein activation) and activating PKCepsilon-dependent mechanisms. In vitro study also shows that gastric smooth muscle cells express ET and eNOS and both calcium and sodium may be involved as current carriers in the generation of the plateau potential.HGSMC from Bioarray Research Laboratories are isolated from the human stomach. HGSMC are cryopreserved at secondary culture ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel Ca2+ influx pathway activated by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Kume, Hiroaki. AU - Naruse, Keiji. AU - Kondo, Masashi. AU - Takeda, Naoya. AU - Iwata, Susumu. AU - Hasegawa, Yoshinori. AU - Sokabe, Masahiro. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - In response to mechanical stretch, airway smooth muscle exhibits various cellular functions such as contraction, proliferation, and cytoskeletal remodeling, all of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stretch of airway smooth muscle cells increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+] i) by activating stretch-activated (SA) nonselective cation channels. A single uniaxial stretch (3 s) was given to human bronchial smooth muscle cells cultured on an elastic silicone membrane. After the mechanical stretch, a transient increase in [Ca2+]i was observed. The [Ca 2+]i increase was significantly dependent on stretch amplitude. The ...
Organization of cytoskeletal and myofilament elements in smooth at muscles. Diagram Of Smooth Muscle delightful to be able to the website, on this period I will teach you regarding Diagram of smooth muscle.. Now, here is the very first impression, diagram of smooth muscle, diagram of smooth muscle cells, diagram of smooth muscle tissue, diagram of smooth muscle contraction, labelled diagram of smooth muscle cell, labelled diagram of smooth muscle, histological diagram of smooth muscle, diagram of smooth cardiac and skeletal muscles :. ...
Smooth muscle fibers are spindle-shaped, and, like all muscle, can contract and relax. In the relaxed state, each cell is spindle-shaped, 20-500 micrometers long, and 5 micrometers wide.[1] There are two types of smooth muscle arrangements in the body: multi-unit and single-unit. The single-unit type, also called unitary smooth muscle, is far more common. Whereas the former presents itself as distinct muscle fibers that are usually activated by their own nerve fibers, the latter operate as a single unit and are arranged in sheets or bundles. Unitary smooth muscle is also commonly referred to as visceral smooth muscle because it is found in the walls of the viscera, or internal organs, of the body, including the intestines, ducts such as the bile ducts, ureters and oviducts, and most blood vessels.[2] Unitary smooth muscle can be further divided into phasic and tonic. The cells that compose smooth muscle have, in general, single nuclei. The cells are arranged in sheets or bundles and connected by ...
Smooth muscle has elongated spindle shaped cells with a single nucleus. Unlike skeletal muscle, which appears striated when stained and viewed under a light microscope, the contractile filaments in smooth muscle cells arent arranged in such an ordered, linear way. The contractile proteins are actin and myosin, the same as in skeletal muscle cells.The amount of myosin in smooth muscle cells is considerably less than in cells of skeletal muscle; the ratio of actin to myosin is about 15:1 for smooth muscle, compared to only 2:1. Smooth muscle cells are located within the walls of tubular or hollow organs or vessels for structural support. These can be divided into subtypes of smooth muscle cells; those in the vascular system, respiratory system, intestines, the eye and reproductive organs.[1] Contraction of smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, meaning its movements are primarily involuntary. However, as opposed to skeletal muscle, it can also be controlled by chemical and ...
Asthma is characterized by structural changes in the airways - airway remodelling. These changes include an increase in the bulk of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) and alterations in the profile of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the airway wall. The mechanisms leading to airway remodelling are not well understood. ASM cells have the potential to play a key role in these processes through the production and release of ECM proteins. The ASM cells and ECM proteins are each able to influence the behaviour and characteristics of the other. The modified ECM profile in the asthmatic airway may contribute to the altered behaviour of the ASM cells, such responses to ECM proteins are modulated through the cell surface expression of integrin receptors. ASM cells from asthmatic individuals express different levels of some integrin subunits compared to nonasthmatic ASM cells, which have the potential to further influence their responses to the ECM proteins in the airways. ECM homeostasis requires the ...
BACKGROUND Airway smooth muscle contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases by secreting inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 production is in part regulated via activation of Gq-and Gs-coupled receptors. Here we study the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) effectors protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac1 and Epac2) in the bradykinin-induced IL-8 release from a human airway smooth muscle cell line and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this response. METHODS IL-8 release was assessed via ELISA under basal condition and after stimulation with bradykinin alone or in combination with fenoterol, the Epac activators 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP and Sp-8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMPS, the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cGMP. Where indicated, cells were pre-incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors Clostridium difficile toxin B-1470 (GTPases), U0126 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2) and Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (PKA). The
The lack of an inducible differentiation or lineage system for smooth muscle has been a major limitation in studies of smooth muscle development and has impeded efforts to identify genetic elements involved in the regulation of smooth muscle lineage determination and/or differentiation. The positive identification of smooth muscle lineages has also been problematic for several reasons. First, SMCs do not undergo terminal differentiation or cell fusion and therefore are not readily identifiable by morphological criteria. Second, many markers of differentiated smooth muscle such as SM α-actin, h-caldesmon, (α, β)-metavinculin, and γ-vinculin are or can be expressed by non-SMCs, including developing skeletal and cardiac muscle28 29 and other contractile cells in vivo53 54 55 and in a variety of cultured cell lines.30 31 32 33 Additionally, it is well established that the differentiated state of SMCs is extremely plastic40 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 and appears to be dependent on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in airway smooth muscle. Role of endothelial differentiation gene 1, c-Src tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. AU - Rakhit, S. AU - Conway, A M. AU - Tate, R. AU - Bower, T. AU - Pyne, N J. AU - Pyne, S. PY - 1999/3/15. Y1 - 1999/3/15. N2 - We report here that cultured airway smooth muscle cells contain transcripts of endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG-1), a prototypical orphan Gi-coupled receptor whose natural ligand is sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). This is consistent with data that showed that S1P activated both c-Src and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44 MAPK) in a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive manner in these cells. An essential role for c-Src was confirmed by using the c-Src inhibitor, PP1, which markedly decreased p42/p44 MAPK activation. We have also shown that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002) decreased p42/p44 ...
Distinguishing bladder muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae can be problematic especially in transurethral resection specimens performed for bladder carcinoma. Moreover, bladder carcinoma can be associated with a proliferative/desmoplastic myofibroblastic response that can resemble smooth muscle and potentially lead to overdiagnosis of muscularis propria invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of immunohistochemistry in staging bladder carcinoma by evaluating the expression of different markers in myofibroblasts and nonvascular smooth muscle cells in 15 cases of invasive bladder carcinoma. Reactive myofibroblasts were consistently positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, consistently negative for caldesmon, desmin, and smoothelin, and had variable expression of actin and CD10. Nonvascular smooth muscle cells of the bladder were consistently positive for smooth muscle actin, actin, desmin, and caldesmon, and consistently negative for CD10. In contrast to ...
The small GTPase RhoA increases smooth muscle contractility, and IQGAP1 has previously been shown to bind RhoA (9). Consistent with a pattern of increased RhoA activation, MLC phosphatase phosphorylation and MLC phosphorylation were both increased in Iqgap1-/- compared with WT samples (Figure 2D). RhoA-GTP, the active form, was increased in Iqgap1-/- tracheal smooth muscle and in human airway smooth muscle cells with shRNA-mediated IQGAP1 knockdown (Figure 2, E and F, and Supplemental Figure 3A). These data suggest that IQGAP1 normally blunts airway smooth muscle contractility by inhibiting RhoA activation.. Since IQGAP1 is known to act as a protein scaffold (4, 5, 14), we reasoned that IQGAP1 might bind a RhoGAP and RhoA simultaneously, thus enhancing the inhibitory effect of the RhoGAP on RhoA activation. One RhoGAP in particular, p190A-RhoGAP, is well characterized in multiple cell types (15-17), and we found p190A-RhoGAP knockdown to increase RhoA activation in human airway smooth muscle ...
Cysteine-containing leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs) are pivotal inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions. In particular, cysteinyl-LTs exert a variety of effects with relevance to the aetiology of asthma such as smooth muscle contraction, eosinophil recruitment, increased microvascular permeability, enhanced mucus secretion and decreased mucus transport and, finally, airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) proliferation. We used human ASMC (HASMC) to identify the signal transduction pathway(s) of the leukotriene D4 (LTD4)-induced DNA synthesis. Proliferation of primary HASMC was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGF-R) and ERK1/2 was assessed with a polyclonal anti-EGF-R or anti-phosphoERKl/2 monoclonal antibody. A Ras pull-down assay kit was used to evaluate Ras activation. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by measuring dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF
Expression of the alpha7 integrin is developmentally regulated and is thought to be tissue-specific for both skeletal and cardiac muscles. We now report that alpha7 is also strongly and ubiquitously expressed by various types of smooth muscle, including vascular, gastrointestinal and genitourinary smooth muscles. In addition, alpha7 was surface-expressed by a number of smooth muscle cell lines that maintained their differentiated phenotype following adaptation to culture. Studies with the mouse 9E11G smooth muscle cell line showed that the alpha7 integrin mediated both adhesion and motility of these cells on laminin 1 substrates. Alpha7 expression appears to correlate with the smooth-muscle-differentiated phenotype. The multipotential P19 mouse embryonic stem cell line lacks alpha7 but uses the alpha6 integrin to adhere to laminin 1. Following retinoic acid-induced P19 differentiation predominantly to the smooth muscle cell lineage, high expression of alpha7 was detected along with partial ...
Smooth muscle from newborn guinea-pig vas deferens was enzymically dispersed into single cells or small clumps and grown in culture in the presence or absence of sympathetic ganglion explants.. Most single smooth muscle cells gradually lost their typical ultrastructural features and contractile properties during the first few days in culture. At 7 days of culture these dedifferentiated smooth muscle cells underwent extensive proliferation. If sufficient cells were present in the culture inoculate, a continuous monolayer formed at about 9 days of culture and redifferentiation of smooth muscle began. At 11-12 days of culture the cells reaggregated into clumps, began to contract spontaneously, and formed into well-organized muscle bundles in two layers at right angles, resembling the muscle layer organization of the in vivo vas deferens. In cultures where a continuous monolayer was not formed at 9 days, isolated cells did not redifferentiate. The process of dedifferentiation and proliferation was ...
Ca(2+) sparks are highly localized Ca(2+) transients caused by Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyR). In smooth muscle, Ca(2+) sparks activate nearby large-conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) (BK) channels to generate spontaneous transient outward currents (STOC). The properties of individual sites that give rise to Ca(2+) sparks have not been examined systematically. We have characterized individual sites in amphibian gastric smooth muscle cells with simultaneous high-speed imaging of Ca(2+) sparks using wide-field digital microscopy and patch-clamp recording of STOC in whole cell mode. We used a signal mass approach to measure the total Ca(2+) released at a site and to estimate the Ca(2+) current flowing through RyR [I(Ca(spark))]. The variance between spark sites was significantly greater than the intrasite variance for the following parameters: Ca(2+) signal mass, I(Ca(spark)), STOC amplitude, and 5-ms isochronic STOC amplitude. Sites that failed to generate
The results of this present thesis show a deficiency of IL-10 production in alveolar macrophages in asthma. The reduced IL-10 expression on protein and m-RNA level correlated with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-(, MIP1- ( and GM-CSF. These observations implicate an impaired IL-10 synthesis in asthma with a subsequent prolongation of the inflammatory response. This leads to the conclusion that a dysbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is present in asthma and may be therefore of pathogenetic importance. The reduced sensitivity of alveolar macrophages to the inhibitory effects of exogenous IL-10 compared to peripheral blood monocytes may be caused by different signal transduction mechanisms. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines RANTES and IL-8 in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells led to the conclusion that airway smooth muscle cells may act beside their contractile function as immunomodulatory cells in the pathogenesis of ...
The results of this present thesis show a deficiency of IL-10 production in alveolar macrophages in asthma. The reduced IL-10 expression on protein and m-RNA level correlated with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-(, MIP1- ( and GM-CSF. These observations implicate an impaired IL-10 synthesis in asthma with a subsequent prolongation of the inflammatory response. This leads to the conclusion that a dysbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is present in asthma and may be therefore of pathogenetic importance. The reduced sensitivity of alveolar macrophages to the inhibitory effects of exogenous IL-10 compared to peripheral blood monocytes may be caused by different signal transduction mechanisms. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines RANTES and IL-8 in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells led to the conclusion that airway smooth muscle cells may act beside their contractile function as immunomodulatory cells in the pathogenesis of ...
Airway remodeling is not specifically targeted by current asthma medications, partly owing to the lack of understanding of remodeling mechanisms, altogether posing great challenges in asthma treatment. Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass due to hyperplasia/hypertrophy contributes significantly to overall airway remodeling and correlates with decline in lung function. Recent evidence suggests that IgE sensitization can enhance the survival and mediator release in inflammatory cells. Human ASM (HASM) cells express both low affinity (FcεRII/CD23) and high affinity IgE Fc receptors (FcεRI), and IgE can modulate the contractile and synthetic function of HASM cells. IgE was recently shown to induce HASM cell proliferation but the detailed mechanisms remain unknown. We report here that IgE sensitization induces HASM cell proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine, EdU incorporation, and manual cell counting. As an upstream signature component of FcεRI signaling, inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase
Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction Hyperresponsiveness to mast cell-derived mediators (eg, histamine) is a distinctive feature of asthma, but its etiology is
BMP4 regulates development of many smooth muscle targets by promoting differentiation, organization, and maturation of smooth muscle cells. Typically, BMP4 from adjacent epithelium, endothelium, or fibroblasts acts in a paracrine manner to regulate smooth muscle development (Frank et al., 2005; Cai, 2009; Wang et al., 2009; Tasian et al., 2010). Our findings show that, in the adult, vaginal smooth muscle cells themselves synthesize BMP4, raising the possibility that BMP4 may also act in an autocrine manner. Indeed, a recent report suggests that BMP4 exerts autocrine effects by promoting C2C12 cell myotube formation (Umemoto et al., 2011). Hence, BMP4 may regulate smooth muscle integrity and function beyond the developmental period.. Smooth muscle cells are generally well innervated and, accordingly, secrete proteins that potentially influence axon growth and integrity. These include neurotrophins, extracellular matrix components, growth factors, and cytokines (Weintraub et al., 1996; Knox et ...
Definition of smooth muscle, mechanism of contraction in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is smooth muscle, mechanism of contraction? Meaning of smooth muscle, mechanism of contraction as a finance term. What does smooth muscle, mechanism of contraction mean in finance?
The functional properties of airway smooth muscle are fundamental to the properties of the airways in vivo. However, many of the distinctive characteristics of smooth muscle are not easily accounted for on the basis of molecular models developed to account for the properties of striated muscles. The specialized ultrastructural features and regulatory mechanisms present in smooth muscle are likely to form the basis for many of its characteristic properties. The molecular organization and structure of the contractile apparatus in smooth muscle is consistent with a model of force generation based on the relative sliding of adjacent actin and myosin filaments. In airway smooth muscle, actomyosin activation is initiated by the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa light chain of myosin; but there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of myosin light chain phosphorylation in tension maintenance. Tension generated by the contractile filaments is transmitted throughout the cell via a network of actin ...
Smoothelin (SMTN) is a cytoskeletal protein associated with stress fibers. It is 917 amino acids (aa) in length and shares 77% and 82% aa identity with mouse and rat SMTN. SMTN has two major isoforms, A and B with reported molecular weights of approximately 59 and 110 kDa, respectively. Isoform A is associated with visceral smooth muscle cells while isoform B is specific to vascular smooth muscle. Loss of SMTN has been associated with defects in intestinal smooth muscle cell contraction as well as increased arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy ...
There are three types of muscle in the human body. Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. Striated muscle is voluntary and attached to our skeleton so that we can skip and dance. Smooth muscle is not voluntary, we have no conscious control over it. It is found in the walls of hollow viscera, airways, blood vessels, the iris and in hair follicles. There is no fourth category of muscle. If uterine smooth muscle was so different from other smooth muscle then it would be in a section of its own. If uterine smooth muscle was designed to cause pain when contracting, as many people believe, then it would be very different from the smooth muscle in your stomach. It is not ...
Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) mediates a variety of biological functions following nerve-evoked release, via activation of either G protein-coupled P2Y- or ligand-gated P2X-receptors. In smooth muscle, ATP, acting via P2Y receptors (P2YR), may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear, but have been proposed to involve the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) by phospholipase C (PLC), to evoke Ca2+ release from the internal store and stimulation of Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa) channels to cause membrane hyperpolarization. This mechanism requires Ca2+ release from the store. However, in the present study, ATP evoked transient Ca2+ increases in only ∼10% of voltage-clamped single smooth muscle cells. These results do not support activation of KCa as the major mechanism underlying inhibition of smooth muscle activity. Interestingly, ATP inhibited IP3-evoked Ca2+ release in cells that did not show a Ca2+ rise in response to purinergic ...
In the present study, we followed the expression of α4 and VCAM-1 in SMCs during human vascular ontogeny and in atherosclerotic vessels. Our results indicate that α4 integrin subunit and VCAM-1 are expressed in SMCs at the early embryonic stage of human aortic development (10 weeks of gestation). Their expression decreased dramatically between 10 and 24 weeks of gestation, moving to the external part of the media, and became undetectable in normal adult media. The pattern of α4 integrin and VCAM-1 expression in human embryonic aortic tissue appears to be different from that described in the mouse.11 During mouse development, α4 is expressed in the aorta as early as embryonic day 10, predominantly in the smooth muscle layer surrounding the endothelium, and persists into adulthood. In contrast, VCAM-1 was not detected in vascular smooth muscle during development but was evident in the lung mesenchymal cell precursors of SMCs and endothelial cells. In human adult arteries, we showed that α4 ...
Background In allergic asthma, IgE increases airway remodelling but the mechanism is incompletely understood. Airway remodelling consists of two independent events increased cell numbers and enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and the mechanism by which IgE up-regulates cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition by human airway smooth muscle cells in asthma is unclear. Objective Characterise the role of the two IgE receptors and associated signalling cascades in airway smooth muscle cell remodelling. Methods Primary human airway smooth muscle cells (8 asthmatics, 8 non-asthmatics) were stimulated with human purified antibody-activated IgE. Proliferation was determined by direct cell counts. Total collagen deposition was determined by Sircol; collagen species deposition by ELISA. IgE receptors were silenced by siRNA and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling was blocked by chemical inhibitors. Results IgE dose-dependently increased extracellular matrix and collagen
Describes when the smooth muscle antibody (SMA) test is ordered, how the SMA test is used, and what the results of a SMA test might mean
Selected publications. Han TY, Lourenssen S, Miller KG, and Blennerhassett MG (2015). Intestinal smooth muscle phenotype determines enteric neuronal survival via GDNF expression. Neuroscience 290:357-68. Venkataramana S, Lourenssen S, Miller KG, and Blennerhassett MG (2015). Early inflammatory damage to intestinal neurons occurs via inducible nitric oxide synthase. Neurobiol. Dis. 75:40-52. Nair DG, Miller KG, Lourenssen SR and Blennerhassett MG (2014). Inflammatory cytokines promote growth of intestinal smooth muscle cells by induced expression of PDGF-Rβ. J Cell Mol. Med. 18(3):444-54. Gougeon PY, Lourenssen S, Han TY, Nair DG, Ropeleski MJ, and Blennerhassett MG (2013). The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα are neurotrophic for enteric neurons. J Neurosci. 20;33(8):3339-51. Pelletier AM, Venkataramana S, Miller KG, Bennett BM, Nair DG, Lourenssen S and Blennerhassett MG (2010). Neuronal nitric oxide inhibits intestinal smooth muscle growth. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling in chronic asthma involves structural and functional changes from healthy into hyper-reactive and proliferative/hypertrophic ASM. ASM remodeling is an important determinant in airway obstruction and decline pulmonary function in asthma that compounds the well- established immune/inflammatory components. These ASM phenotypic changes are of great clinical importance yet remains poorly understood. A more recent concept is that ASM not only contributes to physical obstruction of airways, but acts as immune effector in asthma. Orai1 encodes canonical, ubiquitous and evolutionarily-conserved Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor STIM1. We showed that CRAC mediate proliferative signals during pathological smooth muscle remodeling. However, Orai1-mediated CRAC is widely functional in most, if not all, tissues rendering its specific targeting for therapy challenging. ...
Muscular layer of the uterus The middle layer, or myometrium, makes up most of the uterine volume and is the muscular layer, composed primarily of smooth muscle cells. The wall of uterus is composed of three layers. The innermost layer is The middle layer is the muscular layer, myometrium. Interlacing smooth.
1. In order to discover whether the changes in reactivity are related to the primary cause of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or are just an adaptation induced by the high arterial blood pressure we tested the contractile respon
Ok so my measurements are sporadic I decided to just look on here for info to fix it. I found Remeks post about TGC. MIne is more BPFSL then BPEL at about half and inch. Mostly because I cannot get a full enough erection to measure correctly which annoys me. So I need to have a girth heavy exercises to increase my smooth muscle in my penis. I have gotten one persons input on this I would like a few more. I want mainly length gains. But in order for me to grow I need to do girth exercises. My question is that if I do the girth heavy exercises like TGC says I should will the gains most likely be in length because my tunica is more developed and just need more smooth muscle to cut off the veins more. Or will the gains be girth because Im doing girth exercises and ill have to wait to gain length until after I have increased my smooth muscle. All opionions are very much appreciated ...
Having left the field a while ago, for reasons that I wont go into, suffice it to say I no longer have access to the relevant literature, Ive been drawn quite by accident to consider the recent proposal that the inhibitory junction potential (IJP) recorded in the gastrointestinal smooth muscle has its origin in cells…
TY - CONF. T1 - The catch smooth muscle contains small fusiform cells: stem cells, sensors or else?. AU - Gilloteaux, Jacques. AU - Davey, Tracey. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - New structures found in paramyosin smooth muscles. AB - New structures found in paramyosin smooth muscles. M3 - Paper. ER - ...
J:84903 Bolcato-Bellemin AL, Lefebvre O, Arnold C, Sorokin L, Miner JH, Kedinger M, Simon-Assmann P, Laminin alpha5 chain is required for intestinal smooth muscle development. Dev Biol. 2003 Aug 15;260(2):376-90 ...
A device and method for treating bodily conduits involves the application of energy to the smooth muscle tissue of the conduit walls to reduce the bulk of smooth muscle tissue and mucus glands. The irradiation treatment of the smooth muscle tissue causes a reduction in the amount of smooth muscle tissue over time which increases the inner diameter of the body conduit for improved fluid flow and prevents smooth muscle spasms. The treatment is particularly useful in the lungs for treatment of asthma to prevent bronchospasms, increase the airway diameter for improved air exchange, and reduce mucus secretions in the lungs.
Depth of carcinoma invasion: Smoothelin is a novel smooth muscle-specific marker expressed only in terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells as part of its contractile cytoskeletons. Unlike traditional smooth muscle markers (ie, SMA and MSA), smoothelin expression is absent or limited in noncontractile and proliferative smooth muscle cells or cells with smooth muscle-like features (ie, myofibroblasts). Smoothelin expression is detected in the muscularis propria (strong) of the urinary bladder and the gastrointestinal tract, but is weak or absent in the muscularis mucosae. This immunohistochemical staining pattern is very helpful in determining the depth of bladder carcinoma invasion since normal or hyperplastic muscularis mucosae may be easily misdiagnosed as muscularis propria in superficial bladder biopsy or transurethral resection specimens ...
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells have been shown to secrete significant amounts of immunomodulatory factors (IMFs), many of which are typically ascribed to trafficking leukocytes (e.g., GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-13, and eotaxin), and may be indicative of an immunomodulatory role for ASM in control of airway …
The primary function of smooth muscle cells is to help hollow organs contract. These organs include the bladder and uterus as well as organs in the gastrointestinal tract. Smooth muscle cells also...
Dekkers, B.G., Maarsingh, H., Meurs, H. and Gosens, R. (2009) Airway structural components drive airway smooth muscle remodelling in asthma. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 6, 683-692. doi10.1513/pats.200907-056DP
Smooth Muscle. Smooth muscle is the muscle that forms the supporting tissue, and is used to hold up hollow organs. They are the muscles that allow your body to perform basic functions. There is not a specific number of smooth muscles, they are found in large, sheet like, forms. Smooth muscle is the typically non-striated, uni-nucleated, and involuntary or reflexive muscle. This muscle allows you to. Major Organs?. The smooth muscle is found in most hollow organs in the body. This includes: the bladder, the intestines, and the stomach. Smooth muscle can also be found on the walls of blood vessels.. ...
Purchase Vascular Smooth Muscle: Metabolic, Ionic, and Contractile Mechanisms - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121952204, 9780323159876
Like cardiac muscle, smooth muscle is involuntary and capable of contracting without nervous stimulation. Some smooth muscle contracts in response to chemical
View Stock Photo of Colon Mucosa Or Glandular Epithelium And Underlying Connective And Smooth Muscle Tissue Lm X140. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
The motor function of the gastrointestinal tract remains an empirically realised activity, incomprehensible and unpredictable to a high degree in comparison to other areas of systemic physiology. A...
The Human body has over six hundred muscles. The muscles are very important because they control body movements, they pump blood to various parts of the body, they help in lifting heavy equipment among other roles of the body muscles. Heavy lifting is used when doing the Bar Brothers workout program which is great for muscle improvement Muscles are made of an elastic material that relaxes and contracts to bring movements. Smooth muscles also known as the involuntary muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. This means you dont control their activities.. ...
IL-17A is a critical proinflammatory cytokine for the pathogenesis of asthma including neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. In
Esophageal submucosa includes scattered esophageal glands, which may or may occur in any given specimen. Muscularis externa of the esophagus consists of the standard inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle, with Auerbachs plexus in between. Only the circular muscle is included in this micrograph (at lower left corner, interrupted by connective tissue at upper left). ...