Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in cytokine- and nutrient-induced insulin resistance. The role of STAT3 in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathogenesis is incompletely defined. We tested the hypothesis that STAT3 signaling contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2D. Protein abundance and phosphorylation of STAT3 signaling molecules were determined in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from BMI- and age-matched overweight individuals with normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and T2D patients. The direct role of STAT3 in the development of lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance was determined using small interfering (si)RNA. Phosphorylated STAT3, phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) protein abundance was increased in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. STAT3 phosphorylation positively correlated with free fatty acid level and measures of insulin ...
Disclosed is a composition for promoting local muscle growth or slowing down or preventing local muscle atrophy, which composition contains a polypeptide in the C2 region of the enterotoxin Staphylococcus aureus and a myostatin polypeptide. By means of the composition, the defect in the prior art of only systemic muscle growth being possible has been overcome so as to achieve effects of promoting local muscle growth, or slowing down or preventing local muscle atrophy.
Muscle chart series - just charts at muscles. Skeletal Muscle Chart allowed in order to my personal website, in this particular time period I will demonstrate about Skeletal muscle chart.. And after this, this is the initial graphic, skeletal muscle chart, skeletal muscle diagram, skeletal muscle diagram labeled, skeletal muscle diagram quiz, skeletal muscle diagram worksheet, skeletal muscle diagram posterior, skeletal muscle mass chart, skeletal muscle measurement chart, skeletal muscle identification chart, skeletal muscle flow chart :. ...
Studying Rac1. The activation of Rac1 causes reorganization of cell components creating highways that allow other proteins such as glucose transport 4 or GLUT4 to relocate to the cell membrane and allow sugar from blood to enter skeletal muscle cells for processing. Consequently, Rac1 shows increased activity in response to insulin and exercise promoting the metabolism and storage of sugar in skeletal muscle. Harrison suspects that the dysfunction of Rac1 may play a large role in insulin resistance, and his lab is looking to better understand the dysfunction of skeletal muscle physiology that may contribute to insulin resistance. To study insulin resistance, Harrison is currently comparing Rac1 activity in skeletal muscle cells and skeletal muscle tissue of lean and obese mice. Learn more about Rac1, GO TO ARTICLE.. Harrison has always been drawn to human health, and is particularly intrigued by how adaptable the human body is. He completed his undergraduate degree and Masters in Exercise ...
Antioxidants are assumed to provide numerous benefits, including better health, a reduced rate of aging, and improved exercise performance. Specifically, antioxidants are commonly prescribed by the media, supplement industry, and fitness experts for individuals prior to training and performance, with assumed benefits of improved fatigue resistance and recovery. This has provoked expansion of the supplement industry which responded by creation of a plethora of products aimed at facilitating the needs of the active individual. However, what does the experimental evidence say about the efficacy of antioxidants on skeletal muscle function? Are antioxidants actually as beneficial as the general populous believes? Or, could they in fact lead to deleterious effects on skeletal muscle function and performance? This Mini Review addresses these questions with an unbiased look at what we know about antioxidant effects on skeletal muscle, and what we still need to know before conclusions can be made. ...
C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) 1Osb/J mouse skeletal muscle tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Poststroke plantar flexor muscle weakness has been attributed to muscle atrophy and impaired activation, which cannot collectively explain the limitations in force-generating capability of the entire muscle group. It is of interest whether changes in poststroke plantar flexor muscle fascicle length and pennation angle influence the individual force-generating capability and whether plantar flexor weakness is due to uniform changes in individual muscle force contributions. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles for the soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius were measured using ultrasound and compared between ten hemiparetic poststroke subjects and ten healthy controls. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions to poststroke plantar flexor torque were estimated for each muscle. No statistical differences were observed for any muscle fascicle lengths or for the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus pennation angles between paretic, nonparetic, and healthy limbs. There was a significant
Human muscle cell line - human body diagram at muscles. Human Muscle Cell Line encouraged for you to our website, on this period I am going to teach you with regards to Human muscle cell line.. Now, this can be a very first image, human muscle cell line, human muscle cell line atcc, human smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle cell line atcc, human cardiac muscle cell line, human heart muscle cell line, human vascular smooth muscle cell line, human airway smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, immortalized human skeletal muscle cell line :. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells. AU - Zhang, Hong. AU - Liu, Howe. AU - Lin, Qing. AU - Zhang, Guohui. AU - Mason, David C.. PY - 2016/8/26. Y1 - 2016/8/26. N2 - Background: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca2+-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca2+ mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating ...
Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells are isolated form normal mouse skeletal muscle tissue. T25 flasks is required for cell adhension to the culture vessels. Grow cells in ECM-coated culture vessels with 5% CO2. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml ...
TY - THES. T1 - Satellite cells and skeletal muscle characteristics in sarcopenia. AU - Verdijk, L.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. PB - Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht. CY - Maastricht. ER - ...
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Skeletal muscle mass and strength are crucial determinants of health. Muscle mass loss is associated with weakness, fatigue, and insulin resistance. In fact, it is predicted that controlling muscle atrophy can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diseases such as cancer cachexia and sarcopenia. We analyzed gene expression data from muscle of mice or human patients with diverse muscle pathologies and identified LMCD1 as a gene strongly associated with skeletal muscle function. We transiently expressed or silenced LMCD1 in mouse gastrocnemius muscle or in mouse primary muscle cells and determined muscle/cell size, targeted gene expression, kinase activity with kinase arrays, protein immunoblotting, and protein synthesis levels. To evaluate force, calcium handling, and fatigue, we transduced the flexor digitorum brevis muscle with a LMCD1-expressing adenovirus and measured specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in individual fibers. Finally, to explore the relationship between
In DMD and many other types of muscular dystrophies, cardiac and skeletal muscles are both compromised. The interplay between heart disease and skeletal muscle disease remains to be fully appreciated. It is generally agreed that normalizing skeletal muscle function alone cannot halt heart disease (Muntoni et al. 1995; Towbin et al. 1993; Townsend et al. 2007; Zhu et al. 2002). Limb muscles and respiratory muscles (in particular, the diaphragm) are auxiliary pumps that promote venous return. When skeletal muscle contractility is severely compromised (such as in m-dko mice), cardiac output will decrease as a consequence of reduced venous return. This seems to suggest that treating skeletal muscle alone should increase cardiac output and improve heart function. If left unchecked, severe skeletal muscle disease will aggravate cardiomyopathy. This argument is supported by findings from two clinical studies (Hunsaker et al. 1982; Matsuda et al. 1977). Hunsaker et al. (1982) followed nine ambulant DMD ...
Background: Nitric oxide (NO), generated in skeletal muscle mostly by the neuronal NO synthases (nNOS mu), has profound effects on both mitochondrial bioenergetics and muscle development and function. The importance of NO for muscle repair emerges from the observation that nNOS signalling is defective in many genetically diverse skeletal muscle diseases in which muscle repair is dysregulated. How the effects of NO/nNOS mu on mitochondria impact on muscle function, however, has not been investigated yet. Methods: In this study we have examined the relationship between the NO system, mitochondrial structure/activity and skeletal muscle phenotype/growth/functions using a mouse model in which nNOS mu is absent. Also, NO-induced effects and the NO pathway were dissected in myogenic precursor cells. Results: We show that nNOS mu deficiency in mouse skeletal muscle leads to altered mitochondrial bioenergetics and network remodelling, and increased mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and ...
The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a potential treatment to relieve symptoms of menopause and prevent the onset of disease such as osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although estrogen has a possible protective effect against exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage, it is unclear if HRT enhances estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional activity in skeletal muscle at rest and following resistance exercise. We sought to evaluate changes in the gene expression of ER coregulators (SRC-1 and SMRT) and markers of skeletal muscle damage (CK, LDH, and TNF-α) in postmenopausal women following a high-intensity resistance exercise bout. Fourteen postmenopausal women were divided into two groups: Control, women not using HRT (n=6, 59±4 yr, 63±17 kg), or HRT, women using traditional HRT (n=8, 59±4 yr, 89±24 kg). Both groups performed 10 sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of single-leg extension on the Cybex dynamometer at 60°/s with 20 second rest periods between sets. Muscle ...
Perturbations in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism are both involved in the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes (2,3). Previously, our laboratory (30) as well as others (31) have observed that the severity of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and obesity is related to diminished activity of oxidative enzymes. In addition, accumulation of triglycerides in skeletal muscle is also correlated with the severity of insulin resistance and with diminished oxidative enzyme activity in these disorders (23). These observations led therefore to the hypothesis of the current investigation, which is that a functional impairment of mitochondria might contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.. Skeletal muscle is a tissue richly endowed with mitochondria and strongly reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. To test our hypothesis, we assessed the size and morphology of skeletal muscle mitochondria ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gsα deficiency in skeletal muscle leads to reduced muscle mass, fiber-type switching, and glucose intolerance without insulin resistance or deficiency. AU - Chen, Min. AU - Feng, Han Zhong. AU - Gupta, Divakar. AU - Kelleher, James. AU - Dickerson, Kathryn E.. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Hunt, Desmond. AU - Jou, William. AU - Gavrilova, Oksana. AU - Jin, Jian Ping. AU - Weinstein, Lee S.. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - The ubiquitously expressed G protein α-subunit Gsα is required for receptor-stimulated intracellular cAMP responses and is an important regulator of energy and glucose metabolism. We have generated skeletal muscle-specific Gsα-knockout (KO) mice (MGsKO) by mating Gsα-floxed mice with muscle creatine kinase-cre transgenic mice. MGsKO mice had normal body weight and composition, and their serum glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, and triglyceride levels were similar to that of controls. However, MGsKO mice were glucose intolerant despite the fact that insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types in a rat model of critical illness myopathy. AU - Barnes, Benjamin T.. AU - Confides, Amy L.. AU - Rich, Mark M.. AU - Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.. PY - 2015/6/18. Y1 - 2015/6/18. N2 - Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe muscle atrophy and fatigue in affected patients. Apoptotic signaling is involved in atrophy and is elevated in muscles from patients with CIM. In this study we investigated underlying mechanisms of apoptosis-related pathways in muscles with different fiber type composition in a rat model of CIM using denervation and glucocorticoid administration (denervation and steroid-induced myopathy, DSIM). Soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed severe muscle atrophy (40-60 % of control muscle weight) and significant apoptosis in interstitial as well as myofiber nuclei that was similar between the two muscles with DSIM. Caspase-3 and -8 activities, but not ...
Due to insufficient exercise training, skeletal mucle loss is beginning form 25 years old. Sarcopenia is the critical reason to effect activities of daily life in seniors. Strength training has been proven to be a great strategy to increase mucle mass and functions. Exercise training provokes skeletal muscle protein synthesis, in the meantime also causes muscle injury, induces muscle protien degradation and muscle cell inflammatory. Net muscle protein balace will become negative in nutrients or rest deficiency. Muscle biogenesis decreasing with aging may induce by signal transmit weakening in muscle protein synthesis pathway. Current studies showed that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/ mTOR) pathway is an important pathway to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the first year, resveratrol is uesd as a nutriental ergogenic aid which may activate related protein expression of muscle synthesis pathway. In order to understand promotion or ...
Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries and present a challenge in primary care and sports medicine. Most types of muscle injuries would follow three stages: the acute inflammatory and degenerative phase, the repair phase and the remodeling phase. Present conservative treatment includes RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy. However, if use improper, NSAIDs may suppress an essential inflammatory phase in the healing of injured skeletal muscle. Furthermore, it remains controversial whether or not they have adverse effects on the healing process or on the tensile strength. However, several growth factors might promote the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle, many novel treatments have involved on enhancing complete functional recovery. Exogenous growth factors have been shown to regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation and fusion in myotubes in vivo and in vitro, TGF-β1 antagonists behave
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age- and stroke-related skeletal muscle changes a review for the geriatric clinician. AU - Sions, Jaclyn Megan. AU - Tyrell, Christine M.. AU - Knarr, Brian A.. AU - Jancosko, Angela. AU - Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.. PY - 2012/7/1. Y1 - 2012/7/1. N2 - Independently, aging and stroke each have a significant negative impact on skeletal muscle, but the potential cumulative effects of aging and stroke have not been explored. Optimal interventions for individuals post-stroke may include those that specifically target skeletal muscle. Addressing changes in muscles may minimize activity limitations and enhance participation post stroke. This article reviews the impact of aging and stroke on muscle morphology and composition, including fiber atrophy, reductions in muscle cross-sectional area, changes in muscle fiber distributions, and increases in intramuscular fat. Relationships between changes in muscle structure, muscle function, and physical mobility are reviewed. Clinical ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction develops in skeletal muscle with aging and may contribute to insulin resistance, which increases cardiovascular risk. A link between skeletal muscle insulin resistance and perturbed mitochondrial fusion and fission has been suggested but not proven. Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that plays a fundamental role in mitochondrial fusion, quality control and respiratory function. OPA1 levels are reduced in muscle from elderly subjects; however, the specific roles of OPA1 in the aging muscle have not been studied. We, therefore, generated a mouse model with inducible deletion of the OPA1 gene in skeletal muscle of adult C57Bl6 mice, by crossing OPA1 floxed mice with HSA-Cre (ERT2) mice (KO). Four-week-old KO and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with tamoxifen for 5 days to induce recombination, resulting in a 60% reduction in OPA1 protein levels 8 weeks after treatment (12-wk-old mice). OPA1 deficiency resulted in altered mitochondrial ...
It has been demonstrated that skeletal muscle adaptions, including muscle fibers transition, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in the regular exercise-induced improvement of endurance capacity and metabolic status. Herein, we investigated the effects of pterostilbene (PST) supplementation on skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise training in rats. Six-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sedentary control group (Sed), an exercise training group (Ex), and exercise training combined with 50 mg/kg PST (Ex + PST) treatment group. After 4 weeks of intervention, an exhaustive running test was performed, and muscle fiber type transformation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial content in the soleus muscle were measured. Additionally, the effects of PST on muscle fiber transformation, paracrine regulation of angiogenesis, and mitochondrial function were tested in vitro using C2C12 myotubes. In vivo study showed that exercise training resulted in significant increases
Combining detailed musculoskeletal models and simulations with empirical data allows for the estimation of quantities that can greatly enhance our understanding of specific functional roles during dynamic movements [28,29,51]. Although anatomical and EMG studies can provide insight into muscle classification relative to gait events (e.g. stance versus swing phase), a detailed understanding of a muscles functional role(s) requires additional quantities that are not readily obtained using experimental techniques. The musculotendon force and mechanical work data generated in this study enable the determination of specific muscle mechanical roles such as motor, brake, strut or spring during gait [19-21]. These roles provide important information regarding how energy flows through the limb and generates the required external work during movement. Muscle functional roles were also mainly insensitive to optimization approach or gait type (table 4).. However, there were some subtle differences between ...
Quantification of skeletal muscle damage in response to injurious stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) would be beneficial in elucidating the effect of different biomechanical exposures on the amount of muscle damage. Purpose: To investigate the effect of stretch-shortening cycle range of motion (ROM) on skeletal muscle damage in rats. Methods: Testing was performed on the dorsiflexor muscles of Spra
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validity of ultrasound muscle thickness measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass in healthy Japanese middle-aged and older individuals. AU - Takai, Yohei. AU - Ohta, Megumi. AU - Akagi, Ryota. AU - Kato, Emika. AU - Wakahara, Taku. AU - Kawakami, Yasuo. AU - Fukunaga, Tetsuo. AU - Kanehisa, Hiroaki. PY - 2013/9/25. Y1 - 2013/9/25. N2 - Background: The skeletal muscle mass of the lower limb plays a role in its mobility during daily life. From the perspective of physical resources, leg muscle mass dominantly decreases after the end of the fifth decade. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the muscle mass is important for the middle-aged and older population. The present study aimed to clarify the validity of ultrasound muscle thickness (MT) measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass (SM) in the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population.Findings: MTs at four sites of the lower limb and the bone-free lean tissue mass (LTM) of the right leg were determined ...
We are interested in how skeletal muscle processes fat and its effect on insulin resistance. This is an important question since insulin resistance predates and predicts type 2 diabetes. We know that if pharmaceutical grade lipid is infused into people, they develop insulin resistance. Thus, we would like to infuse pharmaceutical grade lipid into trained subjects, believing that trained subjects will develop less insulin resistance, less decline in muscle energy function, and less accumulation of fat metabolites than untrained subjects. For comparing the effects of the pharmaceutical grade fat infusion, we will also have a group of trained and untrained subjects given a control (glycerol) infusion. Glycerol is basically the same as pharmaceutical grade lipid infusion without the lipid component.. Three visits will be required. The first visit will involve measurement of fitness. A second visit will involve measurement of insulin resistance. The third visit will involve an inpatient stay, with a ...
|P|Skeletal Muscle is a peer-reviewed, open access, online journal that publishes articles investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the biology of skeletal muscle. A wide range of skeletal muscle biology is included: development, metabolism, the regulation of mass and function, aging, degeneration, dystrophy and regeneration. The emphasis is on understanding adult skeletal muscle, its maintenance, and its interactions with non-muscle cell types and regulatory modulators.|/P| |P|Skeletal Muscle aims to provide a venue for the publication of novel, cutting-edge research and technological developments involving the application of molecular biology, cellular biology, and biochemistry-based approaches, and to answer questions relevant to the understanding of skeletal muscle.|/P|
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of Skeletal Muscle Mass on Long-Term Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. AU - Harada, Kazuhiro. AU - Suzuki, Susumu. AU - Ishii, Hideki. AU - Aoki, Toshijiro. AU - Hirayama, Kenshi. AU - Shibata, Yohei. AU - Negishi, Yosuke. AU - Sumi, Takuya. AU - Kawashima, Kazuhiro. AU - Kunimura, Ayako. AU - Shimbo, Yusaku. AU - Tatami, Yosuke. AU - Kawamiya, Toshiki. AU - Yamamoto, Dai. AU - Morimoto, Ryota. AU - Yasuda, Yoshinari. AU - Murohara, Toyoaki. PY - 2017/4/15. Y1 - 2017/4/15. N2 - Sarcopenia, defined as skeletal muscle loss and dysfunction, is attracting considerable attention as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular events. Although the loss of skeletal muscle is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, the relation between sarcopenia and cardiovascular events in CKD patients is not well defined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relation between skeletal muscle mass and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in CKD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motor unit composition has little effect on the short-range stiffness of feline medial gastrocnemius muscle. AU - Cui, Lei. AU - Perreault, Eric J.. AU - Sandercock, Thomas G.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Studies on skinned fibers and single motor units have indicated that slow-twitch fibers are stiffer than fast-twitch fibers. This suggests that skeletal muscles with different motor unit compositions may have different short-range stiffness (SRS) properties. Furthermore, the natural recruitment of slow before fast motor units may result in an SRS-force profile that is different from electrical stimulation. However, muscle architecture and the mechanical properties of surrounding tissues also contribute to the net SRS of a muscle, and it remains unclear how these structural features each contribute to the SRS of a muscle. In this study, the SRS-force characteristics of cat medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured during natural activation using the crossed-extension reflex, ...
- know that the main function of muscle is movement - know what the word contract/contraction means - know where you find skeletal muscle - know what the term myocyte is - know that skeletal muscle cells are as long as the belly of the muscle - know that the word striation means stripped or stripes - be able to identify striations - be able to identify skeletal muscle by its morphological characteristics This packet is about the histology of skeletal muscle. This packet will show you the morphological characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue that you need to know in order to identify it under a microscope. You will also learn about the basic functions of skeletal muscle in here as well.
1 Introduction Adult rodent skeletal muscles are composed of four types of myofibers (Bassel-Duby and Olson, 2006; Schiaffino and Reggiani, 1996; 2011), which are present in different proportions in different muscles. Slow-twitch (Type I) fibers have fatigue resistance properties by virtue of large numbers of mitochondria. The remaining three types are fast-twitch (Type II) fibers, subclassified as types IIA, IIX, and IIB. Of these, type IIA fibers exhibit the slowest shortening velocity and display fatigue resistance due to a high density of mitochondria. Conversely, type IIB fibers have the fastest shortening velocity and exhibit exercise intolerance due to a low density of mitochondria, while type IIX fibers are intermediate. Although the predominant fiber types in each muscle are determined during embryonic and fetal myogenesis (Agbulut et al., 2003; Lu et al., 1999), functional adaptations can lead to the alteration of these proportions through changes in gene expression (Oh et al., 2005; Swoap et
Most athletes stretch as part of their training regimen and it is commonly believed that this practice prevents muscle injury. We tested this belief using an animal model, in situ mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. One lower hindlimb was slowly stretched for 1 min on alternate days for 12 days; the other leg served as a control. The mouse was lightly anaesthetized during the stretching protocol (isofluorane). Both legs were tested in situ by measuring maximum isometric force and Show moreMost athletes stretch as part of their training regimen and it is commonly believed that this practice prevents muscle injury. We tested this belief using an animal model, in situ mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. One lower hindlimb was slowly stretched for 1 min on alternate days for 12 days; the other leg served as a control. The mouse was lightly anaesthetized during the stretching protocol (isofluorane). Both legs were tested in situ by measuring maximum isometric force and maximum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle homeostasis: effects of V1a AVP receptor overexpression. AU - Scicchitano, Bianca Maria. AU - Adamo, S.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The maintenance of a working skeletal musculature is conferred by its capacity to regenerate after mechanical or pathological injury. Most muscle pathologies are characterized by the progressive loss of muscle tissue due to chronic degeneration combined with the inability of the regeneration machinery to replace damaged myofibers. Cachexia or muscle wasting is characterized by a loss of adipose and muscle mass associated with a compromised muscle regenerative ability. Arg-vasopressin (AVP) is a potent myogenesis promoting factor and activates both the calcineurin and CaMK pathways, whose combined activation leads to the formation of transcription factor complexes in vitro. The local over-expression of V1a AVP receptor (V1aR) in injured muscle results in enhanced regeneration. V1aR over-expressing muscle ...
Breaking up prolonged sitting has been beneficially associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in both observational and intervention studies. We aimed to define the acute transcriptional events induced in skeletal muscle by breaks in sedentary time. Overweight/obese adults participated in a randomized three-period, three-treatment crossover trial in an acute setting. The three 5-h interventions were performed in the postprandial state after a standardized test drink and included seated position with no activity and seated with 2-min bouts of light- or moderate-intensity treadmill walking every 20 min. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained in eight participants after each treatment, and gene expression was examined using microarrays validated with real-time quantitative PCR. There were 75 differentially expressed genes between the three conditions. Pathway analysis indicated the main biological functions affected were related to small-molecule biochemistry, cellular development, growth and ...
Definition of skeletal muscle cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is skeletal muscle cell? Meaning of skeletal muscle cell as a legal term. What does skeletal muscle cell mean in law?
Schrauwen, P., Xia, J., Walder, K., Snitker, S. and Ravussin, E. 1999, A novel polymorphism in the proximal UCP3 promoter region: effect on skeletal muscle UCP3 mRNA expression and obesity in male non-diabetic Pima Indians, International journal of obesity, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1242-1245, doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801057. ...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is thought to result from hyperactivation of intracellular protein degradation pathways including autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. actin (HSA) MLN2238 promoter (KO mice) and subjected them to denervation. The plantaris muscles a fast-twitch glycolytic skeletal muscle from both KO and control (KO mice showed resistance to denervation at 7 d after denervation (Fig.?1B-D; Fig. S2A). However the soleus muscles from KO mice and control mice exhibited comparable muscle mass and myofiber size at 14 d after denervation. Notably dead myofibers were frequently observed in the KO soleus muscles at 14 d (Fig.?1C). The enhanced cell death at 14 d most likely contributes to the shrinking of the soleus muscle of KO mice. The phenotypes of soleus muscles of KO mice at 14 d after denervation are coincident with the previous study.4 However the phenotypes at a period earlier than 14 d after denervation were not investigated in that study. Thus our finding seemed to reflect ...
OBJECTIVE Fat metabolism is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Endurance training has been shown to prevent hepatic steatosis and to alter skeletal muscle fat metabolism, and regional free fatty acid (FFA) uptake adaptations were suggested as a mechanism. Thus, we tested whether endurance training modifies the uptake of plasma FFAs occurring in the liver and in skeletal muscle during anabolic, i.e., hyperinsulinemic, conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Trained and untrained healthy male subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning of the liver and thigh regions, with the FFA analog 14(R,S)-[(18)F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Tracer influx rate constants in skeletal muscle (MK(i)) and liver (LK(i)) were multiplied by plasma FFA levels to obtain FFA uptake for skeletal muscle (MFU) and liver (LFU), respectively. RESULTS Athletes showed increased Vo(2max) (P | 0.0001), insulin-mediated glucose disposal (M value, 61 +/
Results. Coffee appears to induce autophagy, meaning that it upregulates the activity. This can prevent the accumulation of damaged protein and cellular components, optimizing function.. Two components of coffee, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid appear to increase skeletal muscle glucose transport into the cell. It also increases sensitivity to insulin.. Finally, coffee intake attenuates the loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with age. It also appears to increase the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in the aging adult.. Conclusions. Coffee appears to have multiple beneficial effects on skeletal muscle.. Regarding autophagy, coffee appears to help the body sweep up the damaged cellular products which can improve overall cellular activity.. It improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, important not only for physical activity but for disease prevention.. Finally, it blunts the age-related skeletal muscle loss effects that occur naturally, known as sarcopenia, and may ...
The reduced capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose transport into skeletal muscle, termed insulin resistance, is a primary defect leading to the development of prediabetes and overt type 2 diabetes. Although the etiology of this skeletal muscle insulin resistance is multifactorial, there is accumulating evidence that one contributor is overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin II (ANG II) produced from this system can act on ANG II type 1 receptors both in the vascular endothelium and in myocytes, with an enhancement of the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence from animal model and cultured skeletal muscle cell line studies indicates ANG II can induce insulin resistance. Chronic ANG II infusion into an insulin-sensitive rat produces a markedly insulin-resistant state that is associated with a negative impact of ROS on the skeletal muscle glucose transport system. ANG II treatment of L6 myocytes causes impaired insulin receptor substrate ...
A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. But it is confusing whether cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase or decrease. Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. In this research, six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=3) and exercise-induced fatigue group (n=3). The former group were allowed to freely move and the latter were forced to loaded swimming to exhaustive. Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to ...
Mitochondria play a key role in the energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. A new concept has emerged suggesting that impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle may be the underlying defect that causes insulin resistance. According to current knowledge, the causes and the underlying molecular mechanisms at the origin of decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle still remain to be elucidated. The present review focuses on recent data investigating these issues in the area of metabolic disorders and describes the potential causes, mechanisms and consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle.
It is concluded that: Plasma leucine decreased and plasma and muscle ammonia increased following sprint exercise and more so in in males than females. Such changes might counteract a possible sprint exercise-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. There was some activation of mTOR signalling in skeletal muscle following sprint exercise and more so in females than males. The larger increase in serum insulin and lower decrease in plasma leucine in females might have contributed to the enhanced signalling response in females. Oral ingestion of essential amino acids and carbohydrates, as compared to placebo, resulted in a markedly higher activation of Akt/mTOR signalling in skeletal muscle following sprint exercise. In contrast to the hypothesis, an oral ingestion of essential amino acids and carbohydrates did not result in an increased activation of hVps34 in skeletal muscle. However, this does not exclude the permissive role of hVps34 in mediating the amino acidinduced activation of ...
The endurance exercise-training program induced substantial improvements in peak exercise capacity and work capacity in the study population at 3 and 12 months of training compared with control patients. The hypothesis that older patients condition predominantly by noncardiac adaptations is supported by the fact that the increases in peak aerobic exercise capacity were mediated primarily by an increase in peak exercise AVo2 Diff with no measurable increase in peak exercise cardiac output. The increase in peak AVo2 Diff was associated with adaptations of skeletal muscle fiber size, capillarity, and SDH activity with only subtle alterations in cardiac performance and no discernible alterations of peripheral arterial blood flow. The skeletal muscle adaptations consisted of an increased oxidative enzyme activity and an increased capillary density after 3 months of conditioning and an increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area after 12 months of conditioning. However, although directional changes of ...
Muscles are a specialized body part that produces movement or locomotion in animals. The muscle is comprised (largely) of muscle tissues. A muscle tissue is made up of muscle cells, which in turn, consist of several myofibrils. The myofibril is the contractile thread of a muscle. Each myofibril is comprised of repeating sections of sarcomere. The sarcomere is composed of long fibrous proteins that slide past each other resulting in the appearance of dark and light bands under the microscope. The sarcomere is regarded as the basic structural unit of a muscle. Animal muscles are of three different types: (1) skeletal muscles, (2) smooth muscles, and (3) cardiac muscles. The skeletal muscles may be classified into fast twitch fibers and slow twitch fibers. The human body has approximately 650 skeletal muscles.1 The smooth muscles in turn may be subdivided into single-unit (unitary) smooth muscles and multiunit smooth muscles. The cardiac muscles are the muscles of the heart. These three types of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Skeletal muscle insulin resistance. T2 - the interplay of local lipid excess and mitochondrial dysfunction. AU - Chow, Lisa S. AU - From, Arthur H. AU - Seaquist, Elizabeth R. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - This review explores the complex relationship between excess lipid exposure, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance at the level of human skeletal muscle. Lipotoxicity, that is, the elevation of lipids and/or associated lipid metabolites within blood and tissues with subsequent metabolic derangement, has been proposed as a possible mechanism of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Intravenous lipid infusion is a well-documented method of inducing insulin resistance. Although IMCL content has been correlated with insulin resistance, there is increasing evidence that lipid metabolites such as 4-HNE, DAG, ceramide, and LC-CoA may play a more significant role than TGs in producing skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The association between mitochondrial dysfunction and ...
Purpose: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a renal cytokine that is primarily involved in hematopoiesis while also playing a role in non-hematopoietic tissues expressing the EPO-receptor (EPOR). The EPOR is present in human skeletal muscle. In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway.Methods: Ten young (24.2 ± 0.9 years) and 10 older (66.6 ± 1.1 years) healthy subjects received a primed, constant infusion of [ring-13C6] L-phenylalanine and a single injection of 10,000 IU epoetin-beta or placebo in a double-blind randomized, cross-over design. 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis
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Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P , 0.01) and exhibited a group difference from Ecc (P , 0.05), which did not increase. Myonuclei content in type I fibers increased in all groups (P , 0.01), while a specific accretion of ...
View more ,Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by stenosis and occlusion of the lower limb arteries. Although leg blood flow is limited in PAD, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion is affected. We compared whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion after cuff occlusion and submaximal leg exercise between patients with PAD (n = 12, 69 ± 9 yr) and healthy age-matched control participants (n = 12, 68 ± 7 yr). Microvascular blood flow (microvascular volume × flow velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured before and immediately after the following: 1) 5 min of thigh-cuff occlusion, and 2) a 5-min bout of intermittent isometric plantar-flexion exercise (400 N) using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Whole leg blood flow was measured after thigh-cuff occlusion and during submaximal plantar-flexion exercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. Postocclusion whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion ...
Title:Adult Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Domiziana Costamagna, Emanuele Berardi, Gabriele Ceccarelli and Maurilio Sampaolesi. Affiliation:Translational Cardiomyology Laboratory, Stem Cell Institute Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium.. Keywords:Adult stem cells, Muscular dystrophy, Skeletal muscle regeneration.. Abstract:Satellite cells are unipotent stem cells involved in muscle regeneration. However, the skeletal muscle microenvironment exerts a dominant influence over stem cell function. The cell intrinsic complexity of the skeletal muscle niche located within the connective tissue between fibers includes motor neurons, tendons, blood vessels, immune response mediators and interstitial cells. All these cell types modulate the trafficking of stimuli responsible of muscle fiber regeneration. In addition, several stem cell types have been discovered in skeletal muscle tissue, mainly located in the interstitium. The majority of these stem cells appears to ...
Baak, M.A. van; Haan, A. de; Saris, W.H.M.; Kordelaar, E. van; Kuipers, H.; Vusse, G.J. van der, 1995: Beta -Adrenoceptor blockage and skeletal muscle energy metabolism during endurance exercise
The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells improved when more fibers were included. Second, we report that small differences in counting satellite cells using CD56 and Pax7 antibodies can be attributed to the different staining profiles. Third, we provide support for the use of Ki67 in evaluating the proportion of active satellite cells. We observed very few (up to 1.3%) active satellite cells in healthy adult skeletal muscle at rest, but they increased significantly (up to 7-fold) following muscle activity. This study provides valuable tools to assess the behavior of satellite cells, both in pathological conditions and in response to physiological stimuli.. ...
Acute muscle soreness is the pain felt in muscles during and immediately after strenuous physical exercise. The pain appears within a minute of contracting the muscle and disappears within two or three minutes or up to several hours after relaxing it. The following causes have been proposed for acute muscle soreness: Accumulation of chemical end products of exercise in muscle cells, such as H+ Tissue edema caused by the shifting of blood plasma into the muscle tissue during contraction Muscle fatigue (the muscle tires and cannot contract any more) Acute muscle soreness reflects one form of exercise-induced muscle damage, the other being delayed onset muscle soreness, which appears between 24 and 72 hours after exercise. Michael Kjaer; Michael Krogsgaard; Peter Magnusson; Lars Engebretsen; Harald Roos; Timo Takala; Savio Woo (2008). Textbook of Sports Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Aspects of Sports Injury and Physical Activity. John Wiley and Sons. p. 722. ISBN 978-1-4051-4057-7. Jack H. ...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is caused by a variety of diseases and conditions. In particular, skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly contributes to a loss of independence with advanced age and increases the risk of falling. However, the effect of food consumed on a daily basis on skeletal muscle atrophy has been the focus of little research. In this study, the effects of dietary supplementation with shiikuwasha extract or grape extract on dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy were evaluated in aged rats. Aged male rats (15-month-old) were fed a diet supplemented with either 1 % shiikuwasha extract or 1 % grape extract for 19 days. During the last 5 days of the feeding period, rats were injected with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Body weight and hind-limb muscle weight were significantly decreased by dexamethasone treatment. The supplementation of shiikuwasha extract showed no effect on body weight loss, but markedly attenuated tibialis anterior muscle weight loss induced by dexamethasone.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms for fiber-type specificity of skeletal muscle atrophy. AU - Wang, Yichen. AU - Pessin, Jeffrey E.. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a variety of pathophysiologic conditions that are known to induce skeletal muscle atrophy. However, muscle wasting can occur through multiple distinct signaling pathways with differential sensitivity between selective skeletal muscle fiber subtypes. This review summarizes some of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for fiber-specific muscle mass regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protects slow-twitch oxidative fibers from denervation/immobilization (disuse)-induced muscle atrophies. Nutrient-related muscle atrophies, such as those induced by cancer cachexia, sepsis, chronic heart failure, or diabetes, are largely restricted to fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, of which the underlying mechanism is usually related to abnormality of protein ...
1Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada. Introduction: In reconstructive surgery, skeletal muscle may endure protracted ischemia before reperfusion which may lead to significant ischemia/reperfusion injury. Other investigators reported that low local hypothermia (local cooling at 4-10°C) significantly reduced ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle of different species of laboratory animals. However, this range of severe low local hypothermia is known to induce capillary damage. More recently, other investigators reported that low local mild hypothermia at 32-34°C significantly reduced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbit rectus femoris muscle in vivo. However, this infarct protective effect of low local hypothermia has not been tested in human skeletal muscle. The objective of this study was to use our established ex vivo human skeletal muscle culture model to study the efficacy of low local mild hypothermia (30-32°C) in ...
Skeletal muscle cells are terminally differentiated and require the activation of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells for their regeneration. There is a clinical need for faster and more efficient treatment methods for acute muscle injuries, and the stimulation of satellite cell proliferation is promising in this context. In this study, we designed and synthesized a laminin-mimetic bioactive peptide (LM/E-PA) system that is capable of accelerating satellite cell activation by emulating the structure and function of laminin, a major protein of the basal membrane of the skeletal muscle. The LM/E-PA nanofibers enhance myogenic differentiation in vitro and the clinical relevance of the laminin-mimetic bioactive scaffold system was demonstrated further by assessing its effect on the regeneration of acute muscle injury in a rat model. Laminin mimetic peptide nanofibers significantly promoted satellite cell activation in skeletal muscle and accelerated myofibrillar regeneration following acute muscle ...
Lab Exercise 10: Muscle Tissue and Physiology. 10A Overview of Muscle Tissue. Procedure: Identifying the Three Types of Muscle Tissue. 10B Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle Fibers. Procedure: Identifying the Structures of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber. 10C Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation. Procedure 1: Understanding Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation. Procedure 2: Observing Skeletal Muscle Contraction Using Glycerinated Muscle. 10D Isotonic and Isometric Contractions. Procedure: Demonstrating Isotonic and Isometric Contractions. 10E Muscle Fatigue. Procedure: Demonstrating Muscle Fatigue. 10F PhysioEx™ Activities. PEx Activity 1: The Muscle Twitch and the Latent Period. PEx Activity 2: The Effect of Stimulus Voltage on Skeletal Muscle Contraction. PEx Activity 3: The Effect of Stimulus Frequency on Skeletal Muscle Contraction. PEx Activity 4: Tetanus in Isolated Skeletal Muscle. PEx Activity 5: Fatigue in Isolated Skeletal Muscle. PEx Activity 6: Skeletal Muscle ...
Skeletal muscle is a major insulin-target tissue and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Impaired insulin action in muscles leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5′ AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor, its activation increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and AMPK activators have been viewed as a targeted approach in combating insulin resistance. We previously reported AMPK activation and increased muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract (RE). In the present study, we examined the effects and the mechanism of action of rosmarinic acid (RA), a major RE constituent, in L6 rat muscle cells. RA (5.0 μM) increased glucose uptake (186 ± 4.17% of control, p , 0.001) to levels comparable to maximum insulin (204 ± 10.73% of control, p , 0.001) and metformin (202 ± 14.37% of control, p , 0.001). Akt phosphorylation was not affected by RA, while AMPK phosphorylation was increased. The RAstimulated glucose uptake was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor ...
Objective: This review aims at evaluating studies investigating the effects of anaesthesia on skeletal muscle blood flow and associated cardiovascular function in anaesthetized horses and discusses how the results of these studies contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis and prevention of post-anaesthetic myopathy. Database used: Pubmed & personal files. Conclusion: There is little published information on the effects of anaesthesia on skeletal muscle blood flow in horses. Available reports predominantly refer to halothane and isoflurane. The effects of vasoactive drugs have mainly been studied in halothane-anaesthetized horses. The results of these studies support the importance of cardiac output in the maintenance of adequate arterial blood pressure, perfusion pressure and muscle blood flow. Adequate perfusion pressure appears to be important for overcoming the detrimental effects of high intra-compartmental pressure in dependent muscles and hydrostatic pressure in nondependent ...
BOULDER, Colo. - Edgewise Therapeutics, Inc., (NASDAQ: EWTX), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing orally bioavailable, small molecule therapies for rare muscle disorders, today announced the publication of the first cross-sectional, retrospective study to describe selective elevation of fast but not slow skeletal muscle fiber injury biomarkers in the blood of patients with Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (BMD, DMD) in the journal, Muscle & Nerve.. Human skeletal muscle is composed of fast and slow fibers in roughly equal proportion. Previous studies have demonstrated that DMD patient muscle is more prone to fast fiber injury compared to slow fiber injury. This study extends these findings to examine fiber-type specific biomarkers of muscle injury in patient blood. The results build on previous reports and suggest that slow skeletal muscle fibers do not appear to leak muscle proteins associated with muscle injury and damage in BMD and DMD. Furthermore, the ...
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Skeletal muscle metabolism is highly dependent on mitochondrial function, with impaired mitochondrial biogenesis associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Mitochondria display substantial plasticity in skeletal muscle, and are highly sensitive to levels of physical activity. It is thought that physical activity promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle through increased expression of genes encoded in both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome; however, how this process is co-ordinated at the cellular level is poorly understood. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key signalling proteins capable of integrating environmental factors and mitochondrial function, thereby providing a potential link between exercise and mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the function of NRs in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and discuss the therapeutic potential of NRs for the management and treatment of chronic ...
Skeletal muscle satellite cells located between the plasma membrane and the basal lamina of muscle fibres, could for many years, only be studied in situ by electron microscopy. The introduction of immunohistochemistry and the discovery of molecular markers of satellite cells then made them accessible for light microscopic studies and a wealth of information is today available. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be activated from a quiescent state to proliferate for self-renewal or differentiate into myogenic cells. The satellite cells are involved in muscle growth during fetal and postnatal development and play a key role in repair and regeneration of damaged muscle fibres. The satellite cells are also essential for muscle fibre hypertrophy and maintenance of muscle mass in the adult. When the present thesis was initiated, studies on satellite cells in human skeletal muscle relied on the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as a marker for satellite cell identification. The ...
1. The functional properties of tibialis anterior muscles of normal adult (C57BL/10) and age-matched dystrophin-deficient (C57BL/10 mdx) mice have been investigated in situ. Comparisons were made between tibialis anterior muscle strength, rates of force development and relaxation, force-frequency responses and fatiguability. Subjecting mdx and C57 muscles to a regimen of eccentric exercise allowed the hypothesis to be tested that dystrophin-deficient muscles are more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage.. 2. mdx muscles were, on average, 30% stronger than C57 muscles and almost 80% heavier, but both had similar muscle lengths. Thus, although mdx muscles were stronger in absolute terms, their estimated force per unit cross-sectional area was significantly less than that of C57 muscles.. 3. The force-frequency relationships of C57 and mdx muscles differed in that whilst, at 40 Hz, the former developed 70% of the force developed at 100 Hz, the latter developed only 55% of the maximal ...
Coordinating the balance between progenitor self-renewal and myogenic differentiation is required for a regulated expansion of the developing muscles. Previous observation that neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate throughout the somite regions, where trunk skeletal muscles first emerge, suggests a potential role for these cells in influencing early muscle formation. However, specific signaling interactions between NCCs and skeletal muscle cells remain unknown. Here we show that mice with specific NCC and peripheral nervous system defects display impaired survival of skeletal muscle and show skeletal muscle progenitor cell (MPC) depletion due to precocious commitment to differentiation. We show that reduced NCC-derived Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) in the somite region perturbs ErbB3 signaling in uncommitted MPCs. Using a combination of explant culture experiments and genetic ablation in the mouse, we demonstrate that Nrg1 signals provided by the NCC lineage play a critical role in sustainable myogenesis, by ...
Several other research groups have studied PCr kinetics as a noninvasive and in vivo proxy for mitochondrial function in chronic HF patients using 31P MRS. Observational studies on skeletal muscle energetics from the past century showed that symptomatic HF patients had impaired oxidative mitochondrial capacity of the forearm flexor muscle compared to healthy controls.11 More recently, Weiss et al12 studied calf muscle energetics using 31P MRS in both heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients. Compared to healthy controls and HFrEF patients, HFpEF patients showed the most impaired oxidative skeletal muscle metabolism, already at low exercise intensity. Moreover, the PCr recovery rate in both HFrEF and HFpEF patients was markedly longer, with most delay in HFpEF patients.12 Another study confirmed these findings in a cohort of chronic HF patients who underwent 31P MRS of the calf muscle. HF patients had lower PCr at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exercise training impacts skeletal muscle gene expression related to the kynurenine pathway. AU - Allison, David J.. AU - Nederveen, Joshua P.. AU - Snijders, Tim. AU - Bell, Kirsten E.. AU - Kumbhare, Dinesh. AU - Phillips, Stuart M.. AU - Parise, Gianni. AU - Heisz, Jennifer J.. PY - 2019/3. Y1 - 2019/3. KW - aging. KW - kynurenine. KW - PGC-1 alpha. KW - physical activity. KW - skeletal muscle. KW - DEPRESSION. KW - ACID. U2 - 10.1152/ajpcell.00448.2018. DO - 10.1152/ajpcell.00448.2018. M3 - Article. VL - 316. SP - C444-C448. JO - American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. JF - American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. SN - 0363-6143. IS - 3. ER - ...
Few nutritional markers reflect the hypermetabolic state of athletes with high levels of skeletal muscle. Although branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) play crucial roles in protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and amino acid imbalances caused by the metabolism of BCAA and aromatic amino acids remains unclear. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that athletes with high levels of skeletal muscle mass have plasma amino acid imbalances, assessed by serum BCAA to tyrosine ratio (BTR) which can be measured conveniently. The study enrolled 111 young Japanese men: 70 wrestling athletes and 41 controls. None of them were under any medications, extreme dietary restrictions or intense exercise regimens. Each participants body composition, serum concentrations of albumin and rapid turnover proteins including transthyretin and transferrin, BTR, and thyroid function were assessed. Compared to the controls, the athletes had significantly higher skeletal muscle
We have previously shown that non-specific blockade of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in skeletal muscle eliminates the normal increase in muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. The current study tested the hypothesis that this COX-mediated increase in postexercise muscle protein synthesis is specifically regulated by the COX-2 isoform. Sixteen males (23 ± 1 yr, 177 ± 2 cm, 81.5 ± 3.4 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two groups that received three doses of either a specific COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib; 200 mg per dose, 600 mg total) or a placebo during the 24 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise with the knee extensors. Skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured at rest and 24 hours postexercise using a primed constant infusion of [2H5]phenylalanine coupled with muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis. Mixed muscle FSR was increased following exercise to a greater extent (206%, P,0.05) in the COX-2 group (0.052 ± 0.014 %Ih) as compared ...
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity and circadian rhythms are well-established determinants of human health and disease, but the relationship between muscle activity and the circadian regulation of muscle genes is a relatively new area of research. It is unknown whether muscle activity and muscle clock rhythms are coupled together, nor whether activity rhythms can drive circadian gene expression in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We compared the circadian transcriptomes of two mouse hindlimb muscles with vastly different circadian activity patterns, the continuously active slow soleus and the sporadically active fast tibialis anterior, in the presence or absence of a functional skeletal muscle clock (skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 KO). In addition, we compared the effect of denervation on muscle circadian gene expression. RESULTS:We found that different skeletal muscles exhibit major differences in their circadian transcriptomes, yet core clock gene oscillations were essentially identical in fast and slow ...
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of using combined glucose and fructose (GF) ingestion as a means to stimulate short-term (4 h) postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis compared to glucose only (G). Methods: On two separate occasions, six endurance-trained men performed an exhaustive glycogen-depleting exercise bout followed by a 4-h recovery period. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at 0, 1, and 4 h after exercise. Subjects ingested carbohydrate solutions containing G (90 gIhj1) or GF (G = 60 gIhj1; F = 30 gIhj1) commencing immediately after exercise and every 30 min thereafter. Results: Immediate postexercise muscle glycogen concentrations were similar in both trials (G = 128 T 25 mmolIkgj1 dry muscle (dm) vs GF = 112 T 16 mmolIkgj1 dm; P 9 0.05). Total glycogen storage during the 4-h recovery period was 176 T 33 and 155 T 31 mmolIkgj1 dm for G and GF, respectively (G vs GF, P 9 0.05). Hence, mean muscle glycogen synthesis rates during the 4-h recovery period ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of muscle glycogen availability on ERK1/2 and Akt signaling after resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. AU - Creer, Andrew. AU - Gallagher, Philip. AU - Slivka, Dustin. AU - Jemiolo, Bozena. AU - Fink, William. AU - Trappe, Scott. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Two pathways that have been implicated for cellular growth and development in response to muscle contraction are the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways. Although these pathways are readily stimulated after exercise, little is known about how nutritional status may affect stimulation of these pathways in response to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. To investigate this, experienced cyclists performed 30 repetitions of knee extension exercise at 70% of one repetition maximum after a low (2%) or high (77%) carbohydrate (LCHO or HCHO) diet, which resulted in low or high (∼174 or ∼591 mmol/kg dry wt) preexercise muscle glycogen content. Muscle biopsies ...
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Fatigue of intact skeletal muscle is the failure of a muscle to generate maximal force resulting from sustained exercise. Many theories regarding the etiology of muscle fatigue have been described, and they most likely all play a role in reducing the force-generating capacity of muscle following exercise. This paper describes the evidence behind fatigue stemming from the reduction of motor cortical drive to skeletal muscle in response to communication from type III/IV sensory afferent neurons. Studies demonstrate that these nerves are activated in response to increased concentrations of metabolic byproducts in skeletal muscle, mechanical stimulation from muscle contraction, and thermal energy. Their downstream effects impact the activity of the motor cortex and ability of the corticospinal tract to conduct electrical signals to lower motor neurons.
Rudnick, J.; Püttmann, B.; Tesch, P.A.; Alkner, Börn.; Schoser, B.G.H.; Salanova, M.; Kirsch, K.; Gunga, H-christian.; Schiffl, G.; Lück, G.; Blottner, D., 2004: Differential expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOS 1-3) in human skeletal muscle following exercise countermeasure during 12 weeks of bed rest
Tarantula has been used as a model system for studying skeletal muscle structure and function, yet data on the genes expressed in tarantula muscle are lacking. We constructed a cDNA library from Aphonopelma sp. (Tarantula) skeletal muscle and got 2507 high-quality 5ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from randomly picked clones. EST analysis showed 305 unigenes, among which 81 had more than 2 ESTs. Twenty abundant unigenes had matches to skeletal muscle-related genes including actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin-I, T and C, paramyosin, muscle LIM protein, muscle protein 20, a-actinin and tandem Ig/Fn motifs (found in giant sarcomere-related proteins). Matches to myosin light chain kinase and calponin were also identified. These results support the existence of both actin-linked and myosin-linked regulation in tarantula skeletal muscle. We have predicted full-length as well as partial cDNA sequences both experimentally and computationally for myosin heavy and light chains, actin, tropomyosin, and troponin-I
After excitation of skeletal muscle, the disturbed ion homeostasis is restored by Na+, K+ ATPase of the sarcolemma and Ca2+ ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Contrary to Na+, K+ ATPase, the concentration and isoenzyme distribution of SR Ca2+ ATPase in human skeletal muscle depend on fibre type and age. In cultured human muscle cells the concentration and activity of Na+, K+ ATPase and SR Ca2+ ATPase increase with maturation. In skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells of patients suffering from myotonic dystrophy (MyD), the activity and the concentration of both Na+, K+ ATPase and SR Ca2+ ATPase are decreased by about 40%. In addition, we measured in cultured MyD muscle cells at rest an increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) caused by active voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, which are inactive in resting control cells. However, the restoration of a stimulus-induced Ca2+ transient is unaffected. A differentiation-related disturbance of membranes or a modulation defect of membrane
The skeletal muscles together with the heart muscle are composed of striated muscle tissue that forms parallel muscle fibers. Striated muscle tissue consists of myocytes arranged in long and thin multinucleated fibers that are crossed with a regular pattern of fine red and white lines, giving the muscle its distinctive appearance and its name. There are two types (fast and slow) of muscle fibers depending on the type of myosin present. These fiber types can not be distinguished in an ordinary hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining.. Development and normal activity of skeletal muscle are dependent and closely integrated with the nervous system. Skeletal muscles are attached to the bone and contract voluntarily (via nerve stimulation) as opposed to the other common types of muscle, i.e. cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.. The major cell type in skeletal muscle is the myocyte. Myocytes are fused together during development to form large multinucleated cells called syncytia. The cells are rich in ...
The excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle is modulated by nitric oxide via redox status modification of ryanodine receptor on sarcoplasmic reticulum during events that lead to muscle contraction. We have synthesized a derivative of antilipidemic drug gemfibrozil, in which a NO-donor furoxan mojety is joined to the fibrate by an ester linkage. Aim of the present study is to determine if the NO released from the above compound is capable to influence the NO-sensible EC coupling steps in skeletal muscle and if this effect could be potentially utilised for physiopathological studies and pharmaceutical applications. To obtain this goal we decided to study some of the excitation-contraction mechanisms in the presence of NO-releasing derivative of gemfibrozil in skeletal muscle C2C12 cell line.. ...
The serial sarcomere number of skeletal muscle changes in response to chronic length perturbation. The role of the intermediate filament desmin in regulating these changes was investigated by comparing the architectural adaptations of the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus from wild-type mice with those of homozygous desmin knockout mice after hindlimb immobilization. After 28 days, serial sarcomere number increased significantly in the lengthened wild-type tibialis anterior (by approximately 9 %) and EDL (by approximately 17 %). Surprisingly, muscles from desmin knockout mice also experienced significant serial remodeling, with the serial sarcomere number of the tibialis anterior increasing by approximately 10 % and that of the EDL by approximately 27 %. A consistent result was observed in the shortened soleus: a significant decrease in sarcomere number was observed in the muscles from both wild-type (approximately 26 %) and knockout (approximately 12 %) mice. Thus, ...
In this report we demonstrate for the first time that activation of the dopamine 1/5 receptors results in increased skeletal muscle cAMP, increased non-atrophying muscle mass and reduced atrophy-induced loss of muscle mass and force production. By using knockout mice to differentiate the effects of activation of the dopamine 1 receptor from that of the dopamine 5 receptor, we demonstrate that both the dopamine 1 and dopamine 5 receptors mediate the anti-atrophy effects of the dopamine 1/5 receptor selective agonist SKF 81297. Genetic removal of the dopamine 1 receptor (with maintenance of the dopamine 5 receptor) results in a complete loss of the SKF 81297 mediated EDL mass/force preservation, data consistent with the idea that the dopamine 1 receptor mediates the effects of SKF 81297. In contrast, genetic removal of the dopamine 5 receptor (with maintenance of the dopamine 1 receptor) resulted in a partial loss of SKF 81297 mediated EDL mass/force preservation, data that is inconsistent with ...
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Here, the protein-coding genes expressed in the skeletal muscle are described and characterized, together with examples of immunohistochemically stained tissue sections that visualize protein expression patterns of proteins that correspond to genes with elevated expression in the skeletal muscle. Transcript profiling and RNA-data analyses based on normal human tissues have been described previously (Fagerberg et al., 2013). Analyses of mRNA expression including over 99% of all human protein-coding genes was performed using deep RNA sequencing of 124 individual samples corresponding to 32 different human normal tissue types. RNA sequencing results of 5 fresh frozen tissues representing normal skeletal muscle was compared to 119 other tissue samples corresponding to 31 tissue types, in order to determine genes with elevated expression in skeletal muscle. A tissue-specific score, defined as the ratio between mRNA levels in skeletal muscle compared to the mRNA levels in all other tissues, was used ...
BACKGROUND. Systemic inflammation and muscle wasting are highly prevalent and coexist in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We aimed to determine the effects of systemic inflammation on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in MHD patients. METHODS. Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover were assessed by stable isotope kinetic studies. We incorporated expressions of E1, E214K, E3αI, E3αII, MuRF-1, and atrogin-1 in skeletal muscle tissue from integrin β1 gene KO CKD mice models. RESULTS. Among 129 patients with mean (± SD) age 47 ± 12 years, 74% were African American, 73% were male, and 22% had diabetes mellitus. Median high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration was 13 (interquartile range 0.8, 33) mg/l. There were statistically significant associations between hs-CRP and forearm skeletal muscle protein synthesis, degradation, and net forearm skeletal muscle protein balance (P , 0.001 for all). The associations remained statistically significant after ...
1. The incorporation into protein, and the accumulation into the free amino acid pools, of radioactive l-leucine and glycine was studied in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. 2. The tissue was incubated first with 14C-labelled and then with 3H-labelled amino acid. 3. The experimental results were consistent with a model based on the premise that the amino acids in protein were incorporated directly from the extracellular pool.. ...
Equery UAE get a lot of questions about the system and the big one is... Q - Is electrical muscle stimulation the same as magnetic or/ magnetic electrotherapy? A - BIG NO! So what is the difference? MAGNETIC OR MAGNETIC ELECTROTHERAPY The main difference is that the electrical muscle stimulation is actually making the