TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistent infection with mouse hepatitis virus, JHM strain in DBT cell culture.. AU - Hirano, N.. AU - Goto, N.. AU - Makino, Shinji. AU - Fujiwara, K.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - After inoculation with JHM strain into DBT cell monolayers, a persistently infected DBT cell culture was established without producing typical cytopathic changes after about 15th passages. By immunofluorescence virus specific antigen was demonstrated in 10 to 15% DBT cells. This persistently infected culture (JHM-CC) was resistant to superinfection with parental JHM, but such resistance was not shown against vesicular stomatitis virus. JHM-CC virus produced small plaques on DBT cell monolayers. Temperature sensitive (TS) mutant, defective interfering (DI) particle or interferon was not detected in the JHM-CC. To intracerebral inoculation with JHM-CC virus, cortisone treated ICR mice survived without showing clinical signs, however, demyelinating lesions were produced in the brain and spinal cord of ...
The SJL mouse strain is resistant to infection by some strains of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), such as JHM and A59. The block to virus infection has been variously attributed to defects in virus receptors or virus spread. Since the cellular receptors for MHV, mmCGM1 and mmCGM2, have recently been identified as members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family, we reexamined the possible defectiveness of the MHV receptors in SJL mouse strain. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNAs of both mmCGMs RNAs from SJL mice revealed that they were identical in size to those of the susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) mouse. There was some sequence divergence in the N terminus of the mmCGM molecules between the two mouse strains, resulting in a different number of potential glycosylation sites. This was confirmed by in vitro translation of the mmCGM RNAs, which showed that the glycosylated mmCGM2 of SJL was smaller than that of B6 mice. However, transfection of either mmCGM1 or mmCGM2 from SJL mice ...
The coronavirus spike protein S is responsible for important biological activities including virus neutralization by antibody, cell attachment, and cell fusion. Recently, we have elucidated the amino acid sequence of an S determinant common in murine coronaviruses (W. Luytjes, D. Geerts, W. Posthumus, R. Meloen, and W. Spaan, J. Virol. 63:1408-1412, 1989). A monoclonal antibody directed to this determinant (MAb 5B19.2) protected mice against acute fatal infection. In this study, BALB/c mice were immunized with a synthetic peptide of 13 amino acids corresponding to the binding site of MAb 5B19.2, which was either extended with an amino acid sequence of influenza virus hemagglutinin or conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Both immunogens induced S-specific antibodies in mice, but only the hemagglutinin-peptide construct protected them against lethal challenge. In contrast to mouse hepatitis virus type 4 (MHV-4), MHV-A59 was not neutralized in vitro by MAb 5B19.2. Neither MHV-A59 nor MHV-4 was ...
Murine hepatitis virus ATCC ® VR-246™ Designation: Original (Friend) Application: Stored material should by passed 1-2 times before being used for large-scale experiments.
Shif, I and Bang, F B., "In vitro interaction of mouse hepatitis virus and macrophages from genetically resistant mice. II. Biological characterization of a variant virus mhv(c3h) isolated from stocks of mhv(pri)." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 1511 ...
Mouse hepatitis virus 3 (MHV3) infection in mice displays various types of sensitivity according to mouse strains: resistance, full susceptibility and semisusceptibility. MHV3infections were carried...
Low-virulent mouse hepatitis viruses exhibiting various tropisms in macrophages, T and B cell subpopulations, and thymic stromal cells
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of the positive-strand RNA secondary structure of a murine coronavirus defective interfering RNA internal replication signal in positive-strand RNA synthesis. AU - Repass, John F.. AU - Makino, Shinji. PY - 1998/10. Y1 - 1998/10. N2 - The RNA elements that are required for replication of defective interfering (DI) RNA of the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) consist of three discontinuous genomic regions: about 0.46 to 0.47 kb from both terminal sequences and an internal 58-nucleotide (nt)-long sequence (58-nt region) present at about 0.9 kb from the 5 end of the DI genome. The internal region is important for positive-strand DI RNA synthesis (Y. N. Kim and S. Makino, J. Virol. 69:4963-4971, 1995). We further characterized the 58-nt region in the present study and obtained the following results. (i) The positive-strand RNA structure in solution was comparable with that predicted by computer modeling. (ii) Positive-strand RNA secondary structure, but not ...
The present study confirmed that radiation is associated with increased incidence of HCC among atomic bomb survivors. Additionally, the nested case-control study indicates that radiation and HBV and HCV infection are associated with increased risk for HCC, and that radiation remains an independent risk factor for HCC after taking into account hepatitis virus infection, alcohol consumption, BMI 10 years before HCC diagnosis, and smoking habit. Furthermore, significant association was observed between non-B, non-C HCC and radiation dose, alcohol consumption, and smoking, whereas obesity 10 years before diagnosis was marginally significantly associated with increased risk for non-B, non-C HCC.. In the analysis (Table 2) in which radiation dose and hepatitis virus infection were fitted separately, radiation was significantly associated with increased risk for HCC with or without adjustment for alcohol consumption, BMI, and smoking habit. Although this finding is in agreement with our previous ...
Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as jaundice, fevers, abdominal pain, fatigue or vomiting. An acute hepatitis infection can last days to months, but can also cause fulminant liver failure. Some hepatitis virus infections become chronic, leading to cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The difficulty in finding and treating these patients is that chronic infection is often asymptomatic until these endpoints develop. Co-infection with different hepatitis viruses or with HIV tends to worsen the prognosis. Treatment decisions and regimes are complex and are beyond the scope of this summary. National hepatitis guidelines are currently in development.. World Hepatitis Day took place on ...
Both IL-12 and IFN-gamma have been implicated as principal inducers of type 1 immune responses required for the elimination of intracellular pathogens, such as viruses. We examined the in vivo antiviral role of both cytokines during coronavirus-induced hepatitis in a mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) model. The absence of IFN-gamma function ... read more in mice with a targeted disruption of the IFN-gamma R alpha-chain gene (IFN- gamma R -/-) resulted in increased susceptibility to coronaviral hepatitis associated with augmented viral replication and increased hepatocellular injury. The mutant mice showed a type 1 lymphokine response characterized by the normal high IFN-gamma and low IL-4 production. Unlike MHV-infected wild-type mice, however, the mutant IFN- gamma R -/- mice showed no increase in IL-12 p4O gene expression, similar to that in naive animals. IL-12 treatment failed to restore host resistance in IFN-gamma R -/- mice, but significantly protected MHV-susceptible C57BL/6 mice against ...
Recent findings have highlighted the role of microglia in orchestrating normal development and refining neural network connectivity in the healthy CNS. Microglia are not only vital cells in maintaining CNS homeostasis, but also respond to injury, infection, and disease by undergoing proliferation and changes in transcription and morphology. A better understanding of the specific role of microglia in responding to viral infection is complicated by the presence of nonmicroglial myeloid cells with potentially overlapping function in the healthy brain and by the rapid infiltration of hematopoietic myeloid cells into the brain in diseased states. Here, we used an inhibitor of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) that depletes microglia to examine the specific roles of microglia in response to infection with the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a neurotropic coronavirus. Our results show that microglia were required during the early days after infection to limit MHV replication and subsequent ...
Recent findings have highlighted the role of microglia in orchestrating normal development and refining neural network connectivity in the healthy CNS. Microglia are not only vital cells in maintaining CNS homeostasis, but also respond to injury, infection, and disease by undergoing proliferation and changes in transcription and morphology. A better understanding of the specific role of microglia in responding to viral infection is complicated by the presence of nonmicroglial myeloid cells with potentially overlapping function in the healthy brain and by the rapid infiltration of hematopoietic myeloid cells into the brain in diseased states. Here, we used an inhibitor of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) that depletes microglia to examine the specific roles of microglia in response to infection with the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a neurotropic coronavirus. Our results show that microglia were required during the early days after infection to limit MHV replication and subsequent ...
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is single-stranded RNA virus of the family Coronaviridae. MHV is not a single virus but consists of a group of serologically and genetically related but distinct strains. About 25 strains have been reported. Strains are characterized by cross-neutralization tests with known strains, but these serologic relationships do not correlate with pathogenicity. The best studied strains are the prototype strains MHV-1, MHV-2, MHV-3, JHM, A59 and S, of which MHV-3 is regarded as the most virulent. Field isolates often differ more or less from these. MHV mutates rapidly and there may be a large possible number of strains. Strains differ in tropisms, tendency to disseminate, and virulence. Although infection generally causes no significant clinical symptoms, especially in adult mice, it can dramatically affect the immune system of the animal, complicating interpretation of many experimental results. ...
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IL-27 is a pleiotropic member of the IL-6 and IL-12 cytokine family composed of the IL-27p28 and the EBV-induced gene 3. IL-27 and its receptor mRNA are both upregulated in the CNS during acute encephalomyelitis induced by the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) and sustained during viral persistence. Contributions of IL-27 to viral pathogenesis were evaluated by infection of IL-27Rα-chain-deficient (IL-27Rα−/−) mice. The absence of IL-27 signaling accelerated virus control within the CNS associated with increased IFN-γ secreting virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Abrogation of IL-27 signaling did not affect virus-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated IL-10 production or cytolytic activity or Foxp3+ regulatory T cell populations. However, IL-10 production by virus-specific CD4+ T cells was reduced significantly. Despite increased T cell-mediated antiviral function in IL-27Rα−/− mice, the virus persisted in the CNS at similar levels as in wild-type mice. Nevertheless, ...
Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that can cause illness in humans, other mammals, and birds. They use cell surface receptors to attach themselves to host cells. While most of them are not dangerous, causing minor illnesses such as colds, the group includes such deadly diseases as SARS and MERS. One coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), causes a disease in mice that has a high mortality rate.. MHV attaches to mouse cells via a receptor called mCEACAM1a. It appears that mice may have evolved an alternate receptor, mCEACAM1b, that is a much poorer receptor for MHV. MSI PI Fang Li, an associate professor in the Department of Pharmacology (Medical School), and colleagues recently published research that showed a molecular mechanism of how selective pressure could have changed the receptor to make it less hospitable to MHV. The researchers determined the crystal structure of mCEACAM1b and showed the differences between it and mCEACAM1a. This study provides insight into how evolutionary ...
Chinese scientists have adapted one hepatitis virus to interrupt the replication of another, and say this could lead to new treatment for hepatitis B.
Online Doctor Chat - Ways of spreading of hepatitis virus, Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hepatitis, Online doctor patient chat conversation by Dr. Chakravarthy Mazumdar
2M0A: Solution Structure of Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) nsp3a and Determinants of the Interaction with MHV Nucleocapsid (N) Protein.
Sounds like an acute increase. Likely causes include hepatitis viruses, medications including over the counter meds (like tylenol)and supplements, alcohol, and recreational drugs. It doesnt sound...
Lane TE, Hosking MP. The pathogenesis of murine coronavirus infection of the central nervous system. Crit Rev Immunol. 2010;30(2):119-30. PMID: 20370625...
Mutations were introduced in the transmembrane region of the spike protein of the murine coronavirus A59. The maturation of these mutant S proteins was not affected, they were all expressed at the...
Rao, P.V.; Gallagher, T.M., 1998: Intracellular complexes of viral spike and cellular receptor accumulate during dytopathic murine coronavirus infections
A method for diagnosing hepatitis virus infection or a hepatitis disease condition in a subject based on hepatitis virus-associated biomarkers present on exosomes in a bodily fluid sample from the sub
Author Summary Quasispecies diversity is critical to virus fitness, adaptation, and pathogenesis. However, the relationship of fidelity to population diversity is less studied because viral systems with engineered differences in fidelity and bioinformatic methods that robustly measure and compare fidelity and diversity during replication and passage have not been available. Coronaviruses contain the largest and most complex RNA genomes, and encode multiple novel replicase nonstructural proteins (nsps). We previously demonstrated that murine hepatitis virus nsp14-exonuclease (ExoN) activity is required for replication fidelity. In the present report we have generated nsp14-ExoN inactivation mutants of SARS-coronavirus (S-ExoN) that have stable growth defects and dramatically decreased replication fidelity during replication in culture. We used the S-ExoN mutant viruses to define the diversity and stability of the genome during replication and passage, and to test the capacity of deep sequencing to track
TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell epitope specificity and pathogenesis of mouse hepatitis virus-1 - Induced disease in susceptible and resistant hosts. AU - Khanolkar, Aaruni. AU - Fulton, Ross B.. AU - Epping, Lecia L.. AU - Pham, Nhat Long. AU - Tifrea, Dilea. AU - Varga, Steven M.. AU - Harty, John T.. PY - 2010/7/15. Y1 - 2010/7/15. N2 - Intranasal mouse hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1) infection of susceptible mouse strains mimics some important pathologic features observed in the lungs of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus - infected humans. The pathogenesis of SARS remains poorly understood, although increasing evidence suggests that immunopathology could play an important role. We previously reported that the adaptive immune response plays an important protective role in MHV-1 - infected resistant B6 mice and that both CD4 and CD8 T cells play a significant role in the development of morbidity and lung pathology following intranasal MHV-1 infection of susceptible C3H/HeJ and A/J mice. In ...
We previously identified an HLA-B8+donor, NW, whose lymphoblestoid cells failed to present a B8-restricted epitope from the influenza A nucleoprotein following viral infection, although added peptide could still be presented. The failure to present through HLA-B8 following viral infection appears to be specific for the NP epitope. Here, we report that donor NW makes an HLA-132702-restricted influenza-specific CTL response to an epitops in the nucleoprotein that overlaps the 138-restricted epitope by 8 aa. Two mechanisms for the failure of this cell line to present the 138-restricted epitope following viral infection are investigated. One is that there is an antigen processing polymorphism specific to the NW cell line, so that there is either preferential generation or preferential transport of the B27702 epitope. The other is that 138 and 132702 compete for a common peptide fragment in the ER and this leads to suboptimal loading of HLA-138. © 1995.
Sorensen, O; Dugre, R; Percy, D; and Dales, S, "In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease: endogen- ous factors influencing demyelinating disease caused by mouse hepatitis virus in rats and mice." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4405 ...
Yes dried blood can have live virus for some time; however, it would still require that this virus get into someones bloodstream to infect them. That would be highly unlikely from environmental...
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Supply-chain disruptions in China and non-China regions due to the coronavirus-induced global lockdown expected to have hurt Ambarellas (AMBA) fiscal first-quarter performance.
Benners solution was to tag the HIV or HBV with nucleic acids in a modified branched‐DNA assay by using the expanded genetic code, which could be more easily separated from the patients DNA and RNA. "Here, we would tag the HIV or hepatitis virus with a sequence today built not from GACT, the standard bases, but rather from GACTSBPZ, a sequence that contains some of our extra bases," Benner explained. "A virus particle, one of 10 in a millilitre, having a tag DNA with the sequence GACTSBPZ, would bind to a complementary sequence attached to a spot on the glass slide having the sequence CTGABSZP, since in our expanded DNA alphabet, Z binds to P and B binds to S.". XNA‐based therapeutic applications could also circumvent the crucial problem of delivery that plagues RNA‐based therapies. In particular, short interfering RNA holds great therapeutic potential as it can interfere with gene expression and block undesirable pathways implicated in disease. But to reach targets inside a cell, RNA ...
US authorities have approved a test developed by Swiss pharmaceutical firm Roche that can detect both HIV and hepatitis viruses, the Basel-based company said on Friday.
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The data presented in this thesis is incorporated into the model of early events of coronavirus infection and focuses on the innate responses by glia and their potential interactions with the mounting adaptive immune response. By utilizing transgenic mice to purify distinct populations of glia at different times during coronavirus infection of the central nervous system, the unique cell-specific responses can be evaluated in vivo to provide a fuller picture of the events leading to persistent viral infection. These new findings emphasize the protective role of microglia in providing early IFNalphabeta expression and the indirect modulation of this response by T cell activity. Microglia express a broad repertoire of pathogen associated pattern receptors (i.e. TLRs and RIG-I family helicases) and thereby trigger IFNalphabeta expression in direct response to viral infection. IFNalphabeta expression declines in correlation with effective clearance of virus from microglia by T cell activity. ...
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human hepatitis virus C (HCV) non-structural protein NS-3, Clone 1-5Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human hepatitis virus C (HCV) non-structural protein NS-3, Clone 5Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen:
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1, also called SRA)is a pattern recognition receptor primarily expressed on myeloid cells, playing an important role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Since MSR1 expression was up-regulated in the livers of patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH), we investigated the functional mechanism of Msr1 as related to FH pathogenesis. METHODS: Msr1-deficient (Msr1(-/-)) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were infected with mouse hepatitis virus strain-A59 (MHV-A59) to induce FH, and the levels of tissue damage, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), inflammatory cytokines and complement C5a were measured and compared ...
Lim, C., C.J. Hammond, S.T. Hingley and B.J. Balin. 2014. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of monocytes in vitro stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses relevant to those in Alzheimers disease. J. Neuroinflam. 11:217. DOI 10.1186/s12974-014-0217-0 Kenyon, L.C., Biswas K., Shindler K., Nabar M., Stout M., Hingley S.T., Grinspan J.B., Das Sarma J. 2015. Gliopathy of Demyelinating And Non-Demyelinating Strains Of Mouse Hepatitis Virus. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 9:488, ISSN:1662-5102. Balin, B.J., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S., Appelt, D.M., Hingley, S.T.: Evidence for an Infectious Etiology in Alzheimers disease. In: Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-529-7, Intech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2011 ...
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Cheng, Stark and colleagues prepared virus-like particles based on Hepatitis E proteins. The particles do not contain any virus DNA, so they cant multiply and spread and cause infections.. Such particles could be used as vaccines that are delivered through food or drink. The idea is that you would drink the vaccine, and after passing through the stomach the virus-like particles would get absorbed in the intestine and deliver vaccines to the body.. But the particles could also be used to attack cancer. Stark and Cheng did some tinkering with the proteins, so that they carry sticky cysteine amino acids on the outside. They could then chemically link other molecules to these cysteine groups.. They worked with a molecule called LXY-30, developed by researchers at the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Centre, which is known to stick to breast cancer cells.. The technique was tested in rodents as a way to target breast cancer.. By using a fluorescent marker, they could show that virus-like particles ...
Principal Investigator:SHIMOTOHNO Kunitada, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas.
Depending on the receptors on the surface of the macrophage, a T cell can distinguish the hepatitis virus from that of flu, without ever having seen before. T cells that belong to this category are called "naive T cells." Naive T cells are the fresh troops, the virgin field of battle, called to intervene when we get sick we contract a new disease or a new infection. There are even T cells can recognize antigens produced in artificial laboratory that the human body has never encountered in millions of years of evolution. The type of T cell that recognizes the antigen is called the CD4 cell (also called CD4 helper T-cell or lymphocyte), one of the same name situated on its surface called receptors, in fact, CD4 receptor. Although not usually the cells that kill the invader, CD4 cells are the most important of the entire immune system. This is because their main function is to send signals that direct and mobilize other "troops" into battle. We should think of T-helper cells as troop commanders or ...
Hepatitis Virus (HBV, HCV, HAV, and HEV), epidemiology, disease control and prevention, theoretical epidemiology (Bayes and Markov), immune analysis of virus, effectiveness evaluation of cancer screening, blood programme and blood donation promotion, big data analysis and data health, medical statistics, global ...
Fujitsu MHV2060AT (60,0 GB) Data Recovery. Datacent offers full range of Data Recovery services for your failed MHV2060AT (60,0 GB) Fujitsu hard disk drive. We offer free diagnostics, no data-no fee policy, final upfront quote and competitive prices. If your hard drive doesnt spin up, doesnt show up in your system, reports wrong model name or makes noises visit our large database of hard drive sounds to troubleshoot your problem.
This article describes how the Viral ToxGlo™ Assay can be used to expedite the discovery of new chemical compounds directed against cytolytic viruses, while also providing insight into potential off-target toxicities.
The pathogenesis of murine hepatitis virus, strain JHM, was studied in 6- and 12-week-old C57iBL mice. There was 100% mortality in the 6-week-old mice after intracerebral inoculation. The lesions were characterized by necrotizing encephalomyelitis, without demyelination. Intracerebral inoculation of 12-week-old animals, however, resulted in no morbidity or mortality. The 12-week-old animals showed transient virus replication in the brain, spinal cord, and liver, which was cleared by day 14. Histologic examination showed evidence of ongoing demyelination, concomitant remyelination, and hydrocephalus ex vacuo. Although viral antigen was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in the central nervous system of these animals, no infectious virus was recovered, and immunosuppression regimens did not potentiate the disease.. ...