In a previous study, a bilingual advantage for preschool children in solving the dimensional change card sort task was attributed to superiority in inhibition of attention (Bialystok, 1999). However, the task includes difficult representational demands to encode and interpret the task stimuli, and bilinguals may also have profited from superior representational abilities. This possibility is examined in three studies. In Study 1, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on versions of the problem containing moderate representational demands but not on a more demanding condition. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that bilingual children were more skilled than monolinguals when the target dimensions were perceptual features of the stimulus and that the two groups were equivalent when the target dimensions were semantic features. The conclusions are that bilinguals have better inhibitory control for ignoring perceptual information than monolinguals do but are not more skilled in representation, confirming ...
Over the last couple of decades, several studies have found a link between bilingualism and improved performance on tasks measuring the core executive functions inhibition, shifting, and updating. However, results are inconsistent, and the existence of this proposed bilingual advantage is highly debated. This thesis investigates the hypothesis that bilingualism could be one of the contributors to the enhancement of executive functions (EF). The primary focus is the exploration of bilingualism as a continuum over two axes: use and proficiency, and further, to test whether L2 use is a better predictor of EF abilities than L2 proficiency. The data for this study comes from 82 Norwegian academics of similar age and socio-economic status, but who are differing in degree of bilingualism. Correlation and linear regression models were used to compare their performance on tasks measuring shifting (the trail-making task and the plus-minus task) and inhibition (two Stroop tasks and a Flanker task), as well ...
This study investigated the effect of cultural background on comprehension of English texts by second language learners. The study specifically aimed at determining whether cultural background had any effect on comprehension of English texts by second language learners and whether the second language learners cultural background could help them comprehend unfamiliar texts. The background of the study in this mini dissertation was followed by the discussion on the literature available on this topic. This study followed a case study design which utilized 89 respondents from the Further Education and Training band of a rural secondary school in the north of Limpopo province. Data was obtained through the completion of questionnaires and answering of questions from a comprehension test based on English culture. The findings showed that there was no total comprehension of the text by learners who use English as a second language. Learners of English as a second language need to possess specific ...
MA Bilingualism and Multilingualism is a unique postgraduate qualification offered through distance learning provision, being the first degree of its kind offered in Europe., MA Bilingualism and Multilingualism
How does a child become bilingual? The answer to this intriguing question remains largely a mystery, not least because it has been far less extensively researched than the process of mastering a first language. Drawing on new studies of children exposed to two languages from birth (English and Cantonese), this book demonstrates how childhood bilingualism develops naturally in response to the two languages in the childrens environment. While each bilingual childs profile is unique, the children studied are shown to develop quite differently from monolingual children. The authors demonstrate significant interactions between the childrens developing grammars, as well as the important role played by language dominance in their bilingual development. Based on original research and using findings from the largest available multimedia bilingual corpus, the book will be welcomed by students and scholars working in child language acquisition, bilingualism and language contact. ...
Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n = 178) between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.
India is the classic land of multilingualism. India is so multilingual and that for such a long time that multilingualism is hardly an "issue". Alongside Indo-Germanic Sanskrit there is the group of Dravidic languages in the south of the subcontinent, whose users point out with pride that their language is much older even than Sanskrit. It is known from the Mogul courts that they employed dubash - the name du bash = two languages indicates the activity. They played a very important role in understanding and communication and thus had considerable power over the relationship between people. One person who we know used this power and influenced the course of history is the Aztec princess La Malinche.. A lover of Cortéz, she continues to live in what is today Mexico, where "malinchismo" is used to describe an exaggerated affection for things foreign. Where people speak, stories will emerge, and the "Dubash" project was intended to inspire writers to write short stories on multilingualism ...
How to better suppress the interference from the non-target language when switching from one language to the other in bilingual production? The current study applied transcranial direct current...
Bilingual education in the United States focuses on English language learners. The term "limited English proficiency" remains in use by the federal government, but has fallen out of favor elsewhere for its negative connotations, so the term "English language learner" (or ELL) is now preferred in schools and educational research. An English language learner is a student who comes from a home where a language other than English is spoken, and who needs language support services in order to succeed in school. Because such students are learning English, they may be denied the opportunity to successfully achieve in classrooms where the language of instruction is English. They may also be unable to participate fully in society.. In the 50 states of the United States, proponents of the practice argue that it will not only help to keep non-English-speaking children from falling behind their peers in mathematics, science, and social studies while they master English, but such programs teach English ...
Background: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive, late-life neurodegenerative disorder. Given the aging population, AD is a significant health concern. According to the Alzheimer Society of Canada (Smetanin et al., 2009), in 25 years 2.8% of the Canadian population will have AD or a related dementia. Presently, there is no cure for AD; therefore, efforts to either delay AD onset or prevent AD altogether are a primary focus. The ability to proficiently speak many languages has been associated with certain cognitive advantages. Based on these findings, multilinguals are hypothesized to be more resistant to cognitive decline than monolinguals. More research is warranted in order to further this theory and to contribute to strategies to prevent or delay AD. Objectives: The first study objective was to evaluate whether multilingualism was associated with the development of AD. The second study objective was to assess whether multilingualism was associated with later dementia onset. Methods: ...
August, D., and Shanahan, T. (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.. Bialystok, E. (2011). Coordination of executive functions in monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110, 461-468.. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., Klein, R., & Viswanathan, M. (2004). Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon task. Psychology and Aging, 19, 290-303.. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.. De Houwer, A. (2009). Bilingual first language acquisition: Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.. Espinosa, L. (2006). Second language acquisition in early childhood. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265075052 (downloaded Nov. 19, 2012). Genesee, F. (2007). French immersion and at-risk students: A review of research findings. Canadian Modern Language ...
The Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism at Stockholm University offers a wide range of courses: Swedish, Swedish for second language teaching, Scandinavian languages (such as Norwegian, Danish, Viking-age and medieval texts), Swedish as a foreign language, translation studies with Swedish as the target language, education programmes for interpreters in certain languages, conference interpreter training, sign language and interpreting courses, courses in bilingualism and Swedish as a second language at the undergraduate level. ...
It has been found that a bilinguals two languages are simultaneously active, both phonologically and semantically, during language use.[42][43] This activation is indicated by electrophysiological measures of performance. Not only is a persons dominant language (L1) active when using the less dominant language (L2), but their L2 is also activated when using L1. This happens once the individual is adequately proficient in the L2.[44] They are both active when listening to speech, reading words in either language or even planning speech in either language.[42][45][46][47] Also, both languages are activated even when only one language is needed by the user.[47][48] Bilingualism studies have mostly looked at Spanish-English or Dutch-English bilinguals. These languages share the Roman alphabet, and there are many cognates (words which have the same linguistic derivation e.g. piano is the same in all 3 languages). Cross-language activation therefore seems less surprising. However, cross-language ...
Some studies have linked bilingualism with a later onset of dementia, Alzheimers disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Not all studies have observed such relationships, however. Differences in study outcomes may be due to methodological limitations and the presence of confounding factors within studies such as immigration status and level of education. We conducted the first systematic review with meta-analysis combining cross-sectional studies to explore if bilingualism might delay symptom onset and diagnosis of dementia, AD, and MCI. Primary outcomes included the age of symptom onset, the age at diagnosis of MCI or dementia, and the risk of developing MCI or dementia. A secondary outcome included the degree of disease severity at dementia diagnosis. There was no difference in the age of MCI diagnosis between monolinguals and bilinguals [mean difference: 3.2; 95% confidence intervals (CI): -3.4, 9.7]. Bilinguals vs. monolinguals reported experiencing AD symptoms 4.7 years (95% CI: ...
ACCESS for ELLs is administered, annually, to all English language learners in Georgia. ACCESS for ELLs is a standards-based, criterion referenced English language proficiency test designed to measure English language learners social and academic proficiency in English. It assesses social and instructional English as well as the language associated with language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies within the school context across the four language domains. ACCESS for ELLs meets the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandate requiring states to evaluate ELL students (K -12) on their progress in learning to speak English. ACCESS for ELLs is used to determine the English language proficiency levels and progress of ELLs in the domains of speaking, listening, reading, and writing. ACCESS for ELLs five main purposes are to ...
Buy The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism (ISBN) 1118941276 at best cost range online in India. Get lowest price deal, free home delivery & cash on delivery.
Delia: Cynthia, these children are learning to read in two languages. What role does their native language play in comprehension with their second language?. Ms. Lundgren: We have significant research that talks about the importance of a strong first language literacy background. And how that transfers to second language reading, writing, and academic skills. So the stronger the students are in their first language, both reading and writing, the better theyre going to be in English.. Delia: Kristina, what kind of skills transfer from the first language to the second language? Do they?. Ms. Robertson: They definitely do. Its said that you only need to learn to read once. And thats because the process of decoding and making sense of symbols is easier in your first language, for example, once you have that, and you go into English, you know what you need to do and where youre trying to go with it. So you definitely benefit from having a strong background in your first language.. Delia: It would ...
Limited research has been accomplished within the past few years regarding issues and concerns of assessment for English Language Learners (ELL) with Learning Disabilities (LD). The increasing number of this unique population throughout schools has raised many concerns for professionals in education. English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities is a major topic that brings many issues and concerns of assessment for this particular population. How and by whom the students are being assessed is an immense concentration in the concerns of the topic. Assessment reliability and test fairness implies the issues educators have. Teacher readiness and student instructional history are two fundamental matters impacting special education outcomes of English Language Learners with LD.. ...
Multilingualism is neither odd nor worrying: what is odd, and very worrying, are the views that persist about it. The topics in this Multilingualism &
The Jean Monnet Network European Identity, Culture, Exchanges and Multilingualism (EUROMEC) aims to build knowledge and become a reference point for researchers in the themes of European identity, culture, European citizenship, exchanges and multilingualism.. The network is coordinated by the Faculty of Philosophy, Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski ", with the support of the " Jean Monnet" initiative of Erasmus+ programme on the European Commission. More information About the project.. ...
Abstract Earlier work indicates that bilingualism may positively affect statistical learning, but leaves open whether a bilingual benefit is (1) found during learning rather than in a post-hoc test following a learning phase and (2) explained by enhanced verbal short-term memory skill in the bilinguals. Forty-one bilingual and 56 monolingual preschoolers completed a serial reaction time task and a nonword repetition task (NWR). Linear mixed-effect regressions indicated that the bilinguals showed a stronger decrease in reaction times over the regular blocks of the task than the monolinguals. No group differences in accuracy-based measures were found. NWR performance, which did not differ between the groups, did not account for the attested effect of bilingualism. These results provide partial support for effects of bilingualism on statistical learning, which appear during learning and are not due to enhanced verbal short-term memory. Taken together, these findings add to a growing body of research on
Participants apply understanding of language and linguistics, reinforce knowledge of language acquisition and literacy: theories/practices to develop reading skills/comprehension in English as a first language at different educational levels; linguistic differences between first/second language for English reading instruction; differences in initial instruction for students not literate in their first language; first language literacy effects on second language literacy; formal/informal measures for assessing skill development with ESL learners; developing listening/speaking/reading/writing vocabulary; approaches for developing writing skills and use of writing tools; writing process and formal writing elements; English oral/aural fluency; social/academic English and content language; metalinguistic skills and vocabulary appropriate to cognitive, academic, and language proficiency levels ...
Probably the most fruitful field in which to investigate the constraining effects of monolinguality, as predicted by the containment model of the Whorf hypothesis, is second-language learning. According to this model, some expression of the Whorfian phenomenon takes place whenever anybody learns a second-language. This is because of the predictable widening of grammatical constraints that must, if Whorf is right, take place during any instance of second-language learning. No two languages have identical structural constraints under a Whorfian analysis. Therefore the logical sum of grammatical/ontological/semanticaI possibilities in the mind of a person who has learned any second language will always be larger than the set of those same kinds of structurally determined permissibilties when da. was monolingual. The effect will be large and noticeable when, other things being equal, the second language has a domain of grammatical, or lexical, or designational possibilities that is far larger than, ...
Description: Dual-immersion is a bilingual education method offered that places English as a first language (EFL) and English language learner (ELL) students in the same classroom to learn two languages at the same time. This study examines whether second language acquisition through dual-immersion supports literacy for both ELL and EFLS children over time. Students scores on standardized tests (ITBS, TAKS, Logramos, Stanford 9, and Aprenda) were studied to assess the impact, if any, of dual-immersion instruction vs. regular/bilingual education on reading development. Scores from 2000 through 2004 were gathered and analyzed for students enrolled in a dual-immersion class which started in kindergarten in 2000. These scores were compared to scores of students enrolled in regular and bilingual education classrooms for the same amount of time at the same school to examine whether there was an effect for students in the dual-immersion class. It was found that no significant difference existed ...
Friday 17 April, 14:25 - 14:45 , LUMC J1-128 / ROUTE 554. Geminate attrition in Italian-English bilinguals residing in Glasgow: an acoustic study. BA / summer project. What happens to ones first language after migrating to a foreign country and getting lost in the sounds of a new language? The present study aims to answer this question by investigating first language attrition, namely the idea that extensive L2 exposure can affect ones L1 proficiency negatively (Schmid 2011). This topic is addressed in the context of a phonological category available in Italian but not English: consonant gemination. The demographic that might be undergoing attrition is Italian-English sequential bilinguals in Glasgow, Scotland.This study predicted that the bilinguals geminate productions would differ from those of Italian monolinguals owing to exposure to an L2 that lacks consonant gemination (i.e. English). Italian monolinguals were predicted to differentiate their geminate and singleton productions clearly: ...
The overwhelming bias for investigations of bilingualism is to focus on the increase of knowledge and crosslinguistic traffic from the L1 to the L2. Developments which concern loss, deterioration or reduced accessibility of knowledge and traffic from the L2 to the L1 are much less well-studied and understood, and are usually treated as a somewhat marginal issue. The present contribution provides an overview of research in first language attrition and argues that changes to the first language system are part and parcel of the development of bilingual knowledge and processing. As such, they can help provide additional insight into controversial issues, such as questions about the existence of maturational constraints in L2 learning, and potentially help resolve these matters.
Different studies show that the brain works differently in a bilingual person: more efficient memory skills and a better mental health
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Read The Usage-based Study of Language Learning and Multilingualism by with Rakuten Kobo. When humans learn languages, are they also learning how to create shared meaning? In The Usage-based Study of Language L...
The paper "Auditory Word Recognition Across the Lifespan: Links Between Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Inhibitory Control in Bilinguals and Monolinguals" by Henrike Blumenfeld, Scott R. Schroeder, Susan Bobb, Max Freeman, and Viorica Marian was accepted to the journal Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism ...
It may not be obvious, but hearing two languages regularly during pregnancy puts infants on the road to bilingualism by birth. According to new findings in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, infants born to bilingual mothers (who spoke both languages regularly during pregnancy) exhibit different language preferences than infants born to mothers speaking only one language. Psychological scientists Krista Byers-Heinlein and Janet F. Werker from the University of British Columbia along with Tracey Burns of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development in France wanted to investigate language preference and discrimination in newborns. Two groups of newborns were tested in these experiments: English monolinguals (whose mothers spoke only English during pregnancy) and Tagalog-English bilinguals (whose mothers spoke both Tagalog, a language spoken in the Philippines, and English regularly during pregnancy). The researchers employed a method known ...
The aim of this paper is to examine the role of language dominance in loanword phonology. It is investigated how onset clusters in loanwords are integrated into Turkish by two groups: English-Turkish bilinguals in Turkey and Swedish-Turkish bilinguals in Sweden. It is hypothesised that the bilinguals in Sweden will display significantly higher rates of cluster adoption because Turkish is not the dominant language there.. The data were collected through an oral loanword elicitation task, a text recitation task in the second languages and a questionnaire on language proficiency and use.. The study had 53 participants (24 in Turkey and 29 in Sweden). The material consisted of 29 loanwords from English and French, and of 50 structurally comparable words in the bilinguals second languages. The data were analysed auditively by the author and subjected to an interrater reliability test.. The results confirmed the hypothesis as the bilinguals in Sweden displayed significantly higher cluster adoption ...
This volume provides a unique cross-disciplinary perspective on the external ecological and internal psycholinguistic factors that determine sign bilingualism, its development and maintenance at the individual and societal levels. Multiple aspects concerning the dynamics of contact situations involving a signed and a spoken or a written language are covered in detail, i.e. the development of the languages in bilingual deaf children, cross-modal contact phenomena in the productions of child and adult signers, sign bilingual education concepts and practices in diverse social contexts, deaf educational discourse, sign language planning and interpretation. This state-of-the-art collection is enhanced by a final chapter providing a critical appraisal of the major issues emerging from the individual studies in the light of current assumptions in the broader field of contact linguistics. Given the interdependence of research, policy and practice, the insights gathered in the studies presented are not only of
A law banning most bilingual education in California schools may be overturned by a new bill, restoring efforts to address language barriers in a state w...
2013 (English)In: Languages of Exile: Migration and Multilingualism in Twentieth-Century Literature / [ed] Axel Englund, Anders Olsson, Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Wien,: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2013, 261-280 p.Chapter in book (Other academic) ...
Read this full essay on Discussion of the Importance of Multilingualism Among Yout South Africans. Language is a system of representation that enables us to ...
The initiatives of UNESCO on the promotion of multilingualism in cyberspace are undertaken by the Knowledge Societies Division, which is responsible for the realization of the concept of knowledge societies that are built on the key principles of inclusion, openness, diversity and pluralism.
The initiatives of UNESCO on the promotion of multilingualism in cyberspace are undertaken by the Knowledge Societies Division, which is responsible for the realization of the concept of knowledge societies that are built on the key principles of inclusion, openness, diversity and pluralism.
Event: New Challenges for Multilingualism in Europe by Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb - LINEE Network of Excellence, Venue: Dubrovnik, Croatia, 11-15 April, 2010, Dubrovnik
Eventbrite - Fumiko Hoeft (UCSF), Roeland Hancock (UCSF), and Jason Zevin (USC) presents Biological & Environmental Factors that Impact Multilingualism - Wednesday, March 29, 2017 at Genentech Hall, Byers Auditorium, UCSF Mission Bay, San Francisco, CA. Find event and ticket information.
Buy Emotions and Multilingualism by Aneta Pavlenko (9780521843614) from Boomerang Books, Australias Online Independent Bookstore
Although newborn infants are born without the ability to speak, they are sensitive to social cues that foster language learning and communication. Using brain measures known as Event Related Potentials, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences discovered how the infant brain responds to others facial expressions and eye contact. Adult social cues help young infants direct attention to the world. These findings will be useful in providing interventions for communicative disorders such as autism. Knowledge about typical infant social cognition in the first year is important in fostering communication and language. The research paper, by authors Hoehl & Striano, Infants Neural Processing of Positive Emotion and Eye Gaze, was published in the February 2010 edition of Social Neuroscience. For additional information about the practical application of this research, click here. ...
What Kind Of Learner Am I Essays and Research Papers. What kind of bilingual education learner am I ? The learning style of for women people is logically characterised by . Education Cons! their past experiences of learning, for research paper railroad example, when a person is pros exposed to a learning situation, he gains knowledge. Railroad! While obtaining and thinking about the gained information the person develops a learning preference or learning style over time. Throughout this essay I will prove that I am an education assimilator because I recognised that I obtain my knowledge through theory rather than practice. Research Paper Railroad! Firstly I will explain. Education , Experiential learning , Knowledge 836 Words , 3 Pages. Who am I as a Learner ? I am passionate to learn new things in education essay an interesting way. . I am a quick learner of theories andconcepts if it is delivered through visuals and buy bulk paper, demonstrations.. I would prefer to learn in a practical way ...
In the first language, children do not respond to systematic correction. Furthermore, children who have limited input still acquire the first language, which is a significant difference between input and output. Children are exposed to a language environment of errors and lack of correction but they end up having the capacity to figure out the grammatical rules. Error correction does not seem to have a direct influence on learning a second language. Instruction may affect the rate of learning, but the stages remain the same. Adolescents and adults who know the rule are faster than those who do not. In the learning of a second language the correction of errors remains a controversial topic with many differing schools of thought. Throughout the last century much advancement has been made in research on the correction of students errors. In the 1950s and 60s the viewpoint of the day was that all errors must be corrected at all costs. Little thought went to students feelings or self-esteem in ...
Psycholinguistic and neurocognitive approaches to bilingualism/multilingualism and language acquisition continue to gain momentum and uncover valuable findings explaining how multiple languages are represented in and processed by the human mind. With these intensified scholarly efforts come thought-provoking inquiries, pioneering findings, and new research directions. The Bilingual Processing and Acquisition book series seeks to provide a unified home, unlike any other, for this enterprise by providing a single forum and home for the highest-quality monographs and collective volumes related to language processing issues among multilinguals and learners of non-native languages. These volumes are authoritative works in their areas and should not only interest researchers and scholars investigating psycholinguistic and neurocognitive approaches to bilingualism/multilingualism and language acquisition but also appeal to professional practitioners and advanced undergraduate and graduate students. In ...
Contact: Uyghur Human Rights Project +1 (202) 478 1920. The Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) announces the publication of Uyghur Voices on Education: Chinas Assimilative Bilingual Education Policy in East Turkestan. Since UHRPs first report on bilingual education in 2007, the Chinese government has accelerated and expanded an education policy that has effectively marginalized the Uyghur language from the education system in East Turkestan.. The bilingual education policy is designed to transition Uyghur students at all levels from education in their mother tongue to education in Chinese resulting in the removal of Uyghur in the classroom and presenting a fundamental challenge to a distinct Uyghur identity.. Since the 2014 Work Forum, Chinese officials have placed bilingual education at the center of its efforts to achieve "ethnic mingling," an initiative that aims to blur the cultural distinctiveness of the Uyghur people and assimilate Uyghurs into the Chinese nation dominated by the ...
Apology Strategies in the Target Language (English) of Israeli-Arab EFL College Students Towards Their Lecturers of English Who are also Native Speakers of Arabic
This document provides a questionnaire to be used to determine the attitudes and influence of parents who have children in bilingual education programs. Thirty seven questions are listed, covering such factors as family background, language usage at home, and aspirations for the education of the children. Techniques for administering the questionnaire are suggested along with possible uses of the resulting information. (VM)
In 1978, George Ojemann and Harry Whitaker7 applied weak electrical currents to the brain of people who were undergoing brain surgery and, at the same time, asked them to name pictures of objects. This approach is called "awake surgery" and the idea behind it is to be able to stop the responses of patients during stimulation of specific brain sites. When this happens in at least two of three trials, it is thought that the area (or brain network) where electrical stimulation was delivered is responsible for language processing. Hence, the area or areas where this phenomenon happens are left untouched during the removal of a tumour or epileptic foci, as removing those areas may increase the risk for language deficits after surgery.. The beauty of the work by Ojemann and Whitaker was that they went a step further from what had been done up until then, and asked patients not only to name pictures but to do so in the two languages they were able to use. The findings of these authors were quite ...
Improving communications with the fast-growing Hispanic Millennials segment requires a thorough understanding of the impact of language. Nielsen Consumer Neuroscience partnered with Univision to understand how best to engage this audience.