TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of the osteocalcin gene cluster on mouse Chromosome 3. AU - Desbois, C.. AU - Seldin, Michael F. AU - Karsenty, G.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00389550. DO - 10.1007/BF00389550. M3 - Article. C2 - 7915557. AN - SCOPUS:0028427906. VL - 5. SP - 321. EP - 322. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 5. ER - ...
Full Text - The B7-CD28 gene family plays a key role in regulating cellular immunity and is closely related to tumorigenesis and immune evasion. Here, we explored associations between clinical and immune features and B7-CD28 gene family expression in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets representing 1812 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. This included 414 in the GSE10846 training cohort and 470 and 928 patients in the GSE31312 and GSE117556 validation cohorts, respectively. Four survival-associated genes identified in the GSE10846 cohort by univariate Cox analysis were incorporated into a multivariate analysis, ultimately establishing a three-gene risk signature. Risk scores assigned based on expression of these genes were validated by Kaplan–Meier and multivariable Cox analyses in the remaining datasets and in important clinical subsets. High-risk patients had shorter overall survival and, in some cases, progression-free survival than low-risk patients. Additionally, expression
The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families. These genes were first shown to be arranged into a physically-linked chromosomal cluster in amphioxus, an invertebrate with a single member of each of the three gene families. All the ParaHox genes in the amphioxus genome are therefore in the ParaHox gene cluster. In contrast, the human genome has six ParaHox genes (GSX1, GSX2, PDX1, CDX1, CDX2, CDX4), of which three genes (GSX1, PDX1 (=IPF1), CDX2) are physically linked to form a human ParaHox gene cluster on chromosome 13. Mouse has a homologous ParaHox gene cluster on chromosome 5. The other three human ParaHox genes are remnants from duplicated ParaHox gene clusters that were generated in the 2R genome duplications at the base of vertebrate evolution. Some vertebrates, notably chondrichthyan fish and coelacanths, have retained an additional ParaHox gene ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) in many ways is an inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays an important role in the formation of atheroma which ultimately graduates to atheromatous injury, plaque rupture and...
J:29934 Williams R, Lendahl U, Lardelli M, Complementary and combinatorial patterns of Notch gene family expression during early mouse development. Mech Dev. 1995 Nov;53(3):357-68 ...
Differences in gene family size when comparing the initial chimpanzee assembly (Pan_troglodytes-1.0) to an updated version (Pan_troglodytes-2.1).Positive number
This gene is part of a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23. The encoded protein contains a zinc finger motif often found in transcriptional regulators, however, its exact
Prokaryotic genes associated with a specific function are often grouped together in contiguous regions of the genome known as gene clusters [1]. Many of the functions encoded in these clusters are of interest to biotechnology [2]. Unfortunately, gene clusters are frequently subject to complex and highly redundant host regulation. However, through a process known as "refactoring," gene clusters can be recoded to systematically eliminate native regulation [2]. This process of refactoring aims to reduce the overall complexity of genetic systems and allows them to be tailored for a particular purpose. The term "refactoring" is borrowed from computer science and refers to the alteration of a programs underlying code without changing its functionality [2]. This term was first applied in biology to describe the top-down approach of simplifying the phage T7 genome [3], but it is used here to refer to the bottom-up approach of eliminating native regulation of gene clusters and replacing it with ...
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3
The following table provides a functional overview of the MSigDB gene sets by categorizing their genes into a small number of carefully chosen "gene families". To categorize the genes in a gene set, use the gene set page or the Investigate Gene Sets page.. Click on a gene family or gene family intersection to retrieve annotations for those genes.. ...
The following table provides a functional overview of the MSigDB gene sets by categorizing their genes into a small number of carefully chosen "gene families". To categorize the genes in a gene set, use the gene set page or the Investigate Gene Sets page.. Click on a gene family or gene family intersection to retrieve annotations for those genes.. ...
mouse Cnih protein: Cnih - cornichon-like; member of the cornichon multigene family; C; involved in EGF signaling; RefSeq NM_009919
This is the same as my fic on FF.net, though, to follow forum rules, I decided to combine some of the shorter chapters. Rating: G(may go up later, I dunno) Short Summary: The Elite Four opens a challenge to those who want to join their ranks. Ash is included, of course, but if he loses just once to a single member, everything that he stands for as a trainer will be taken away from him! DISCLAIMER:I dont own Pokemon or its related characters. -Might as well put in a Table of Contents.
The Bonfiglioli Group maintains a high level of commitment to its workforce and colleagues, because every single member of our team represents an important resource for us.
You and your family can take steps right now and become Least Vulnerable People. Here are 15 things you can stop doing and start doing that will make
BackgroundSystemic inflammation is accepted as one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF). The role of inflammation has been shown previously. Interleukin (IL) system is the main modulator of the inflammatory responses and genetic polymorphisms of IL-1 cluster genes are associated with increased risk for inflammatory diseases. ObjectivesTo investigate the association between polymorphisms of IL-1 cluster genes and lone AF. Subjects and MethodsDNA samples were collected from 70 proven lone AF patients and 70 healthy subjects. Genomic DNA was typed for the variable number of the tandem repeat (VNTR) IL-1 receptor antagonist (RN) gene polymorphism, IL-1B -511 C , T(rs16944) promoter polymorphism, and +3953 C , T(rs1143634) polymorphism in exon 5 by polymerase chain reaction. ResultsIn lone AF group the frequency of IL-1RN2/2 and IL-1RN1/2 genotypes were higher than in the control group (7.2% vs 4.3% and 48.5% vs 22.8%, respectively; (2) = 14.1; P = 0.028). The frequency of ...
The posterior genes of the HoxD cluster play a crucial role in the patterning of the tetrapod limb. This region is under the control of a global, long-range enhancer that is present in all vertebrates. Variation in limb types, as is the case in amphibians, can probably not only be attributed to variation in Hox genes, but is likely to be the product of differences in gene regulation. With a collection of vertebrate genome sequences available today, we used a comparative genomics approach to study the posterior HoxD cluster of amphibians. A frog and a caecilian were included in the study to compare coding sequences as well as to determine the gain and loss of putative regulatory sequences. We sequenced the posterior end of the HoxD cluster of a caecilian and performed comparative analyses of this region using HoxD clusters of other vertebrates. We determined the presence of conserved non-coding sequences and traced gains and losses of these footprints during vertebrate evolution, with particular focus on
Interleukin-1 family member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1F10 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. This cytokine is thought to participate in a network of interleukin 1 family members to regulate adapted and innate immune responses. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136697 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046845 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Bensen JT, Dawson PA, Mychaleckyj JC, Bowden DW (Dec 2001). "Identification of a novel human cytokine gene in the interleukin gene cluster on chromosome 2q12-14". J Interferon Cytokine Res. 21 (11): 899-904. doi:10.1089/107999001753289505. PMID 11747621. Taylor SL, Renshaw BR, Garka KE, Smith DE, Sims JE (May 2002). "Genomic ...
Histones are the major protein component of nucleosomes, and de novo histone synthesis is essential for packaging newly replicated DNA into chromatin. As a result, histone gene expression is exquisitely and functionally coupled with DNA replication. Vastly divergent organisms such as yeast, fly and human all demonstrate the phylogenetically conserved propensity to maintain clustering of histone genes at one or more genomic loci. Although specific mechanisms are unclear, clustering is presumed to be important for common stringent transcriptional control of these genes at the G1/S phase transition. In this study, we describe a genomic duplication of the human histone gene cluster located at chromosome 1q21, which effectively doubles the previously known size and gene number of that cluster. The duplication persists in all examined tissues and cell lines, and the duplicated genes are transcriptionally active. Levels of messenger RNAs for duplicated histone H4 genes are high relative to those for non
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death among men in the U.S. No accurate biomarkers exist and therapeutic options are limited for advanced PCa. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, act as negative regulators of gene expression. MiRNAs have recently emerged as promising therapeutic tools for cancers. It is poorly understood how they function to promote cancer progression. We found miR-888 was involved with PCa progression. miR-888 belongs to a genomic cluster on human chromosome Xq27.3, linked to hereditary PCa. I hypothesized additional members of this cluster (miR-892c, -890, -892a, -892b, -891b, -891a) function to promote PCa progression. Our lab profiled miR-888 cluster expression in paired syngenic human PCa cell lines (RWPE1 & WPE1-NB26, LNCaP & C4-2, PC3-N & PC3-ML) differing in metastatic status and androgen response. We noted that the miR-888 cluster was preferentially elevated in metastatic PC3-ML and under-expressed in non-aggressive PC3-N cells. I ...
Gene-order-based comparison of multiple genomes provides signals for functional analysis of genes and the evolutionary process of genome organization. Gene clusters are regions of co-localized genes on genomes of different species. The rapid increase in sequenced genomes necessitates bioinformatics tools for finding gene clusters in hundreds of genomes. Existing tools are often restricted to few (in many cases, only two) genomes, and often make restrictive assumptions such as short perfect conservation, conserved gene order or monophyletic gene clusters. We present Gecko 3, an open-source software for finding gene clusters in hundreds of bacterial genomes, that comes with an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The underlying gene cluster model is intuitive, can cope with low degrees of conservation as well as misannotations and is complemented by a sound statistical evaluation. To evaluate the biological benefit of Gecko 3 and to exemplify our method, we search for gene clusters in a dataset ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation. AU - Zha, Yunhong. AU - Ding, Emily. AU - Yang, Liqun. AU - Mao, Ling. AU - Wang, Xiangwei. AU - McCarthy, Brian A.. AU - Huang, Shuang. AU - Ding, Hanfei. PY - 2012/8/7. Y1 - 2012/8/7. N2 - Retinoic acid (RA) can induce growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and has been used in clinic for treatment of neuroblastoma. It has been reported that RA induces the expression of several HOXD genes in human neuroblastoma cell lines, but their roles in RA action are largely unknown. The HOXD cluster contains nine genes (HOXD1, HOXD3, HOXD4, and HOXD8-13) that are positioned sequentially from 3′ to 5′, with HOXD1 at the 3′ end and HOXD13 the 5′ end. Here we show that all HOXD genes are induced by RA in the human neuroblastoma BE(2)-C cells, with the genes located at the 3′ end being activated generally earlier than those positioned more ...
18940666] Characterization of the alnumycin gene cluster reveals unusual gene products for pyran ring formation and dioxan biosynthesis. (Chem Biol. , 2008 ...
The fitness and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are affected by the organization of their genomes. In particular, the physical clustering of genes can coordinate gene expression and can prevent the breakup of co-adapted alleles. Although clustering may thus result from selection for phenotype optimization and persistence, the impact of environmental selection pressures on eukaryotic genome organization has rarely been systematically explored. Here, we investigated the organization of fungal genes involved in the degradation of phenylpropanoids, a class of plant-produced secondary metabolites that mediate many ecological interactions between plants and fungi. Using a novel gene cluster detection method, we identified 1110 gene clusters and many conserved combinations of clusters in a diverse set of fungi. We demonstrate that congruence in genome organization over small spatial scales is often associated with similarities in ecological lifestyle. Additionally, we find that while clusters ...
Prokaryotic genes associated with a specific function are often grouped together in contiguous regions of the genome known as gene clusters [1]. Many of the functions encoded in these clusters are of potential interest to synthetic biology. Unfortunately, gene clusters are frequently subject to complex and highly redundant host regulation [1]. Furthermore, there may be no laboratory conditions known that allow for expression of these clusters. However, through a process known as "refactoring," gene clusters can be recoded to systematically eliminate native regulation [2]. This process of refactoring aims to reduce the overall complexity of genetic systems and allows them to be tailored for a particular purpose. The term "refactoring" is borrowed from computer science and refers to the alteration of a programs underlying code without changing its functionality [2]. This term was first applied in biology to describe the top-down approach of simplifying the phage T7 genome [3], but it is used here ...
Complete information for [email protected] gene (Gene Cluster), Protocadherin Alpha Cluster, Complex Locus, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
17158935] Cloning and characterization of the pyrrolomycin biosynthetic gene clusters from Actinosporangium vitaminophilum ATCC 31673 and Streptomyces sp. strain UC 11065. (Antimicrob Agents Chemother. , 2007 ...
The following is a list of institutions and organizations represented by Individual Members as. To Search the ISSFAL Database of Members, you must be an ISSFAL Member and be granted access to the Members Only Section.. ...
Evidence for Cu(I) clusters and Zn(II) clusters in neuronal growth-inhibitory factor isolated from bovine brain.: Neuronal growth-inhibitory factor (GIF), a cen
The Cluster Analysis is an explorative analysis that tries to identify structures within the data. Cluster analysis is also called segmentation analysis.
In the Cluster Portfolio Allocation post, I have outlined the 3 steps to construct Cluster Risk Parity portfolio. At each rebalancing period: Create Clusters
Clustering is a powerful new feature in Tableau 10 that allows you to easily group similar dimension members. This post shows how to do a cluster analysis.
Page contains details about high-nuclearity Ln26 clusters . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
We analyse chromosome location of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) in 35 species of Acrididae grasshoppers belonging to seven subfamilies. As in other organ
Li, Y., Tan, W., Neo, T.W.L., Tan, T.M.C., Aung, M.O., Wasser, S., Lim, S.G. (2009). Role of the miR-106b-25 microRNA cluster in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Science 100 (7) : 1234-1242. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01164. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H4 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6 ...
This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3 exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Fusarielins are polyketides with a decalin core produced by various species of Aspergillus and Fusarium. Although the responsible gene cluster has been identified, the biosynthetic pathway remains to be elucidated. In the present study, members of the gene cluster were deleted individually in a Fusarium graminearum strain overexpressing the local transcription factor. The results suggest that a trans-acting enoyl reductase (FSL5) assists the polyketide synthase FSL1 in biosynthesis of a polyketide product, which is released by hydrolysis by a trans-acting thioesterase (FSL2). Deletion of the epimerase (FSL3) resulted in accumulation of an unstable compound, which could be the released product. A novel compound, named prefusarielin, accumulated in the deletion mutant of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase FSL4. Unlike the known fusarielins from Fusarium, this compound does not contain oxygenized decalin rings, suggesting that FSL4 is responsible for the oxygenation.
beta-Globins: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.
The exploration of the ancestral history, the phylogeny, of different species can raise valuable information about their evolution. One approach for the reconstruction of phylogenetic scenarios or for the comparison of genomes is the examination of the genetic material on the level of the DNA, RNA or protein sequences. Another possibility is to study the genomic structure. On this higher level, one commonly considers the order of the genes within the genome. Evolutionary processes can modify a genome structurally and rearrange its gene order. The gene composition of some regions, however, is preserved and can be found in several related genomes. These segments and the contained genes are denoted as gene clusters. Studies revealed that such conserved regions often comprise functionally or phylogenetically related genes. The identification and comparison of gene clusters can therefore give valuable hints on their function or the evolution of genes. Various formal definitions of gene clusters based ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Gianpiero Di Leva, Pierluigi Gasparini, Claudia Piovan, Apollinaire Ngankeu, Michela Garofalo, Cristian Taccioli, Marilena V. Iorio, Meng Li, Stefano Volinia, Hansjuerg Alder, Tatsuya Nakamura, Gerard Nuovo, Yunlong Liu, Kenneth P. Nephew, Carlo M. Croce ...
P.2205 left column: Gene Duplications: Much of the genomes of flies and worms consists of duplicated genes [investigators] next asked how these paralogs are arranged. The frequency of local gene duplications and the number of their constituent genes differ widely between fly and worm, although in both genomes most paralogs are dispersed. The fly genome contains half the number of local gene duplications relative to C. elegans (ref 4), and these gene clusters are distributed randomly along the chromosome arms in C. elegans there is a concentration of gene duplications in the recombinogenic segments of the autosomal arms (ref 1). In both organisms, approximately 70% of duplicated gene pairs are on the same strand (306 out of 417 for D. melanogaster and 581 out of 826 for C. elegans ...
Homeobox (HOX) genes are contributed in the genetic control of development of the body plan, pattern formation, and cell fate determination and the other several key developmental processes. HOX genes are also known as selector genes because expression within a given section of the embryo will cause its cells to choose ...
A rock song about DNA Duplication before Cell Division, binary fission & mitosis. Lyrics, free mp3 download & chapter summary notes.
Complete information for [email protected] gene (Gene Cluster), Immunoglobulin Lambda Variable Cluster, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
specifies that, when two clusters are joined, each must have at least n members in order for either cluster to be designated a modal cluster. If you specify MODE=1, each cluster must also have a maximum density greater than the fusion density in order for either cluster to be designated a modal cluster. Use the MODE= option only with METHOD=DENSITY or METHOD=TWOSTAGE. With METHOD=TWOSTAGE, the MODE= option affects the number of modal clusters formed. With METHOD=DENSITY, the MODE= option does not affect the clustering process but does determine the number of modal clusters reported on the output and identified by the _MODE_ variable in the output data set. If you specify the K= option, the default value of MODE= is the same as the value of K= because the use of kth-nearest-neighbor density estimation limits the resolution that can be obtained for clusters with fewer than k members. If you do not specify the K= option, the default is MODE=2. If you specify MODE=0, the default value is used ...
After performing small experiments on a patient with electrodes temporarily implanted in his brain, Stanford researchers have pinpointed two nerve clusters that play a crucial role in the brains ability to distinguish one face from another
Get information about the Sprint Family Share Pack 4GB plan with the Motorola Moto X (2014). The Motorola Moto X (2014) is compatible with the Sprint Family Share Pack 4GB Plan on the Sprint network.
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Lets say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30). ...
Sherson S, Gy I, Medd J, Schmidt R, Dean C, Kreis M, Lecharny A, Cobbett C: The arabinose kinase, ARA1, gene of Arabidopsis is a novel member of the galactose kinase gene family. ...
The PCDHGC3 gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene…
... | 146MB Duration: 1h 10m | Video: AVC (.mp4) 1280x720 15fps | Audio: AAC 44.1KHz 1ch Genre: eLearning | Level: Advanced | Language: English Up and
The clustering methods have to assume some cluster relationship among the data objects that they are applies on. Similarity between a pai...
Excel Projects for ₹100 - ₹400. 1. Open the HEART dataset and create some visualizations to get familiar with the data. (Note: You do not need to submit these visualizations to Moodle for this problem.) 2. Create clusters over patie...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the Escherichia coli O59 and O155 O-antigen gene clusters. T2 - The atypical wzx genes are evolutionary related. AU - Guo, Hongjie. AU - Kong, Qingke. AU - Cheng, Jiansong. AU - Wang, Lei. AU - Feng, Lu. PY - 2005/7/15. Y1 - 2005/7/15. N2 - O-antigens are highly polymorphic. The genes specifically involved in O-antigen synthesis are generally grouped together on the chromosome as a gene cluster. In Escherichia coli, the O-antigen gene clusters are characteristically located between the housekeeping genes galF and gnd. In this study, the O-antigen gene clusters of E. coli O59 and E. coli O155 were sequenced. The former was found to contain genes for GDP-mannose synthesis, glycosyltransferase genes and the O-antigen polymerase gene (wzy), while the latter contained only glycosyltransferase genes and wzy. O unit flippase genes (wzx) were found immediately downstream of the gnd gene, in the region between the gnd and hisI genes in these two strains. This atypical ...
Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic thiolation-thioesterase structure of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. AU - Frueh, Dominique P.. AU - Arthanari, Haribabu. AU - Koglin, Alexander. AU - Vosburg, David A.. AU - Bennett, Andrew E.. AU - Walsh, Christopher T.. AU - Wagner, Gerhard. PY - 2008/8/14. Y1 - 2008/8/14. N2 - Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) produce numerous secondary metabolites with various therapeutic/antibiotic properties. Like fatty acid synthases (FAS), these enzymes are organized in modular assembly lines in which each module, made of conserved domains, incorporates a given monomer unit into the growing chain. Knowledge about domain or module interactions may enable reengineering of this assembly line enzymatic organization and open avenues for the design of new bioactive compounds with improved therapeutic properties. So far, little structural information has been available on how the domains interact and communicate. This may be because of inherent ...
From NCBI Gene:. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a replication-dependent histone that is a member of the histone H4 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015]. From UniProt: ...
From NCBI Gene:. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a replication-dependent histone that is a member of the histone H4 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the small histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015]. From UniProt: ...
This gene is a member of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five that demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The alpha gene cluster is composed of 15 cadherin superfamily genes related to the mouse CNR genes and consists of 13 highly similar and 2 more distantly related coding sequences. The tandem array of 15 N-terminal exons, or variable exons, are followed by downstream C-terminal exons, or constant exons, which are shared by all genes in the cluster. The large, uninterrupted N-terminal exons each encode six cadherin ectodomains while the C-terminal exons encode the cytoplasmic domain. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been observed and additional variants have been ...
The regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis by Streptomyces species is complex, especially for biosynthetic gene clusters with multiple regulatory genes. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyene antibiotic candicidin contains four consecutive regulatory genes, which encode regulatory proteins from different families and which form a subcluster within the larger biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces sp. FR-008.... ...
This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3 exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections ...
1. He, X. et al. Evidence for oxazepam as an in vivo probe of UGT2B15: Oxazepam clearance is reduced by UGT2B15 D85Y polymorphism but unaffected by UGT2B17 deletion. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 68, 721-730 (2009).. 2. Court, M. H. et al. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B15 pharmacogenetics: UGT2B15 D85Y genotype and gender are major determinants of oxazepam glucuronidation by human liver. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 310, 656-665 (2004).. 3. Uchaipichat, V., Suthisisang, C. & Miners, J. O. The glucuronidation of R- and S-lorazepam: Human liver microsomal kinetics, UDPglucuronosyltransferase enzyme selectivity, and inhibition by drugs. Drug Metab. Dispos. 41, 1273-1284 (2013).. 4. Levesque, E., Beaulieu, M., Green, M.D., Tephly, T.R., Belanger, A., Hum, D. W. Isolation and characterization of UGT2B15(Y85): a UDPglucuronosyltransferase encoded by a polymorphic gene. Pharmacogenetics 7, 317-325 (1997).. 5. Riedy, M. et al. Genomic organization of the UGT2b gene cluster on human chromosome 4q13. ...
Although the evolution of multigene families involves multiple mechanisms, comprehensive analysis of phylogenetic tree and exon/intron gene structures, to a certain extent, allow us to make some generalizations and predictions about the possible origin of and relationships between different isoforms of Sus, as well as their possible function. Plant Sus proteins have been historically divided into at least three major groups (Sus1, SusA and New Group/NG) on the basis of phylogenetic tree and molecular structures analysis of their sequences [24, 29]. Phylogenetic analysis of cotton GaSus genes and other plant homologues in our work corroborated this classification (for unification and simplification, in this study, we renamed them as Sus I, II and III, respectively), and further support the idea that higher plant species may have at least one gene for each of the three groups [24]. The presence of five cotton Sus genes, GaSus1 to 5, in the Sus I group that cluster together with other dicot genes ...
Citation: Kabotyanski, E., Kemp, L., Rosen, J.M., Rijnkels, M. 2005. Understanding the regulation of a mammalian-specific genomic domain encoding secreted proteins [abstract]. Systems Biology: Genomic Approaches to Transcription Regulation. Cold Spring Harbor Meeting. p. 61. Interpretive Summary: Interpretive Summary not needed for this 115. Technical Abstract: We are studying the mechanisms regulating the expression of the genes in the casein gene cluster region. Multi-species comparative sequence analysis showed conserved linkage in this genomic domain, which contains the casein gene cluster, consisting of three (or four depending on the species) evolutionarily related genes and one physically and functionally linked gene, the three-member HTN/STATH gene-family, the proline-rich protein gene family PROL-1, -3 &-5, MUC-7, NYD-SP26, and four other genes. This region appears to be mammalian specific. All genes in this region encode, or are predicted to encode, secreted proteins and are expressed ...
IFNA2 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_000596), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene is a member of the alpha interferon gene cluster on chromosome 9. The encoded protein is a cytokine produced in response to viral infection. Use of the recombinant form of this protein has been shown to be effective in reducing the symptoms and duration of the common cold.
The work reported in this article illustrates the features and the advantages of the real-time RT-PCR technique. First, it allowed us to estimate the absolute level of transcripts of any type of genes studied, with either a very high or an extremely low level of expression. It is worth noting that no report about quantitative analysis of the SUP or MEA steady-state transcript levels had previously been published, and that genes such asAtMAP3Kε and AtMAP4Kα could not be analyzed quantitatively by another method so far. Second, this technique guaranties the specific detection of the gene studied, even when it belongs to a very conserved gene family. The microarray technology could be a powerful tool, especially when expression profiling is concerned. However, hybridization of chips loaded with full-sized cDNAs or even partial EST would not be suitable for the study of a gene family because of the lack of specificity of the targets. Conversely, due to its high cost, real-time RT-PCR has to remain ...
Fu et al. reported the discovery of novel anticancer inducamides A-C from a marine derived Streptomyces sp. strain SNC109-M3 that was obtained through a selective mutation on the β subunit of RNA polymerase that stimulated inducamide production. Inducamide C exhibits the strongest anticancer properties. The goal of the current project is to characterize the genes required for inducamide production by Streptomyces. We determined the complete 9.8 million base-pair genome of SNC109-M3 in order to locate the hypothesized inducamide gene cluster. This revealed an approximately 18 kilobase-pair gene cluster encoding several proteins with hypothesized roles in inducamide biosynthesis. After construction of a clone library containing colonies of E. coli with 50 kilobase-pairs of randomly fragmented SNC109-M3 DNA ligated into a cosmid, PCR screening will be performed to locate the library member that contains the putative biosynthetic gene cluster. The gene cluster will be expressed in a heterologous ...
Identification of a Gene Cluster for Telomestatin Biosynthesis and Heterologous Expression Using a Specific Promotor in a Clean HostIdentification of a Gene Cluster for Telomestatin Biosynthesis and Heterologous Expression Using a Specific Promotor in a Clean Host ...
Cyclodipeptides (CDP) represent a diverse family of small, highly stable, cyclic peptides that are produced as secondary functional metabolites or side products of protein metabolism by bacteria, fungi, and animals. They are widespread in nature, and exhibit a broad variety of biological and pharmacological activities. CDP synthases (CDPSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of the CDP core structure, which is further modified by tailoring enzymes often associated with CDP biosynthetic gene clusters. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of CDP biosynthetic pathways and modifying enzymes. We also discuss the biological properties of some known CDPs and their possible applications in metabolic engineering.
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Disclosed is substantially pure DNA encoding mammalian IAP polypeptides; substantially pure polypeptides; and methods of using such DNA to express the IAP polypeptides in cells and animals to inhibit apoptosis. Also disclosed are conserved regions characteristic of the IAP family and primers and probes for the identification and isolation of additional IAP genes. In addition, methods for treating diseases and disorders involving apoptosis are provided.
Abstract: The study of young massive clusters can provide key information for the formation of globular clusters, as they are often considered analogues. A currently unanswered question in this field is how long these massive clusters remain embedded in their natal gas, with important implications for the formation of multiple populations that have been used to explain phenomena observed in globular clusters. We present an analysis of ages and masses of the young massive cluster population of M83. Through visual inspection of the clusters, and comparison of their SEDs and position in colour-colour space, the clusters are all exposed (no longer embedded) by , 4 Myr, most likely less, indicating that current proposed age spreads within older clusters are unlikely. We also present several methods of constraining the ages of very young massive clusters. This can often be difficult using SED fitting due to a lack of information to disentangle age-extinction degeneracies and possible inaccurate ...
Evidence is accumulating that suggests that cancer cell clusters are more likely to lead to metastatic lesions than are single cells. This mini-review explores this issue by examining evidence that indicates that cell clusters possess altered genes and metabolism that promote metastasis. When clusters are disaggregated, the resulting single cells often lose the altered properties characteristic of when they were in clusters. When cluster disrupting agents were injected into mice, metastasis was reduced. Cluster disaggregating agents are described and mechanisms of action of these compounds are explored. Using these agents to target cell clusters might offer a useful therapeutic approach in the treatment of cancer. Cell clusters are also involved in thrombocytosis and biofilm infectivity as well as cancer spread and cluster disrupting agents might be very useful in treating some human conditions in addition to cancer spread. Assays that examine the effectiveness of cluster disrupting agents are also
Ive often found this warning to be a nuisance, because its correct and well-defined to omit some braces from the initializer. There are many cases where the warning is useful, e.g. with aggregates that have several members (which may be aggregates themselves), but when the type contains a single member (possibly of array type) then the extra braces are often just clutter. Pff the top of my head, I would like a way to disable the warning iff the aggregate has a single member and iff the initializer contains exactly the right number of elements to initialize that single member. e.g. struct S { int s[3]; }; S s1 = { 1, 1, 1 }; // OK - missing braces but correct number S s2 = { 1, 1 }; // WARN - no initializer for s2.s[2] S s3 = { { 1, 1 } }; // OK - braces correct but missing init I dont think this would be useful only for tr1::array, but for lots of similar code. Obvious and closely-related examples are the block and carray templates in Austern and Josuttiss books ...
Next click on "Cluster Analysis", set your threshold and click "Start". You will now see a cluster analysis processing job in your work list and can monitor its progress. The time it takes to complete the analysis will depend on the number of items in your case. Typically this goes pretty quick. To give you a benchmark I have a demo case with approximately 6,000 items in it and clustering takes about 5 minutes to complete.. Analyzing Results So what does this thing do??? Cluster analysis will identify groups, or "clusters", of documents with similar content. For every cluster there will be a "Pivot" document which is like the root of the cluster and each similar item in the cluster will be given a Percent Similarity score. This "Similarity to Pivot" score tells you how similar the item is in relation to the pivot document. Another key feature of cluster analysis is that it will also identify email threads or conversations. After cluster analysis is performed the results can be viewed in the ...
Molecular phylogenetic tree of MAIR gene family. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAIR family genes was performed by using the UPGMA method of GENETYX-MAC software
A distributed system provides for separate management of dynamic cluster membership and distributed data. Nodes of the distributed system may include a state manager and a topology manager. A state manager handles data access from the cluster. A topology manager handles changes to the dynamic cluster topology. The topology manager enables operation of the state manager by handling topology changes, such as new nodes to join the cluster and node members to exit the cluster. A topology manager may follow a static topology description when handling cluster topology changes. Data replication and recovery functions may be implemented, for example to provide high availability.
a) Primers are very cheap. Why dont you just design ten primers with rare restriction sites in the tails, amplify your five fragments with them, then digest with the appropriate restriciton enzymes? Any vector your lab already has could be acceptable then ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Melinda L Micallef, Deepti Sharma, Brittney M Bunn, Lena Gerwick, Rajesh Viswanathan, Michelle C Moffitt].
Important Information about Clavam 625 - an Antibiotic medicine. Why it is prescribed, dosage and possible side-effects of Clavam 625
We have determined chemical abundances and radial velocities for stars in the field of the zeta Sculptoris cluster. We find that the cluster metal deficiency previously found from UBV photometry is not supported; the cluster overall metallicity, [Fe/H] =. ...
Vanhalst K، Kools P، Vanden Eynde E، van Roy F (2001). "The human and murine protocadherin-beta one-exon gene families show high evolutionary conservation, despite the difference in gene number". FEBS Lett. 495 (1-2): 120-5. PMID 11322959. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02372-9. ...
Appointment of temporary additional members of boards and committees for administration and grading of examinations: RCW 43.24.065 ...
The residents of the municipality, which in this case is Eindhoven, are divided into nine clusters based on various characteristics.
This document describes the steps to verify and attempt to address the issue for cluster renegotiation failure at the last step in Cisco Unity Connection (CUC).
Sometimes, animals can be completely unpredictable. A family on safari found that out the moment a lion approached their car door…and then opened it.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A complete view of the genetic diversity of the Escherichia coli O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster. AU - Iguchi, Atsushi. AU - Iyoda, Sunao. AU - Kikuchi, Taisei. AU - Ogura, Yoshitoshi. AU - Katsura, Keisuke. AU - Ohnishi, Makoto. AU - Hayashi, Tetsuya. AU - Thomson, Nicholas R.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - The O antigen constitutes the outermost part of the lipopolysaccharide layer in Gram-negative bacteria. The chemical composition and structure of the O antigen show high levels of variation even within a single species revealing itself as serological diversity. Here, we present a complete sequence set for the O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters (O-AGCs) from all 184 recognized Escherichia coli O serogroups. By comparing these sequences, we identified 161 well-defined O-AGCs. Based on the wzx/wzy or wzm/wzt gene sequences, in addition to 145 singletons, 37 serogroups were placed into 16 groups. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of all the E. coli O-serogroup ...
Shared traits between prokaryotes and eukaryotes are helpful in the understanding of the tree of life evolution. tRNA gene cluster, a particular feature in RNA gene organisation, has been demonstrated to be prevalent in bacteria and eukaryotes, but there is a gap concerning its occurrence in archaea. Despite the significant presence in the Bacteria and Eukarya domains, the role of the tRNA gene cluster is under debate. In Bacteria, it has been implicated with a faster cell growing and in the modulation of the tRNA transcription and translation process.(20) In contrast, some studies have not observed any improvement in the fitness of the organism by tRNA gene clusters. In addition, some of the genes from these clusters would be inactivated.(21) In eukaryotes, there is a negative correlation between clusters of tRNA genes and chromosomal stability, since they can act as barriers to DNA replication and the consequent formation of genomic fragile sites.(5) Besides that, the tRNA-derived fragments ...
Serratia plymuthica WS3236 was selected for whole genome sequencing based on preliminary genetic and chemical screening indicating the presence of multiple natural product pathways. This led to the identification of a putative sodorifen biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC). The natural product sodorifen is a volatile organic compound (VOC) with an unusual polymethylated hydrocarbon bicyclic structure (C16H26) produced by selected strains of S. plymuthica. The BGC encoding sodorifen consists of four genes, two of which (sodA, sodB) are homologs of genes encoding enzymes of the non-mevalonate pathway and are thought to enhance the amounts of available farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), the precursor of sodorifen. Proceeding from FPP, only two enzymes are necessary to produce sodorifen: an S-adenosyl methionine dependent methyltransferase (SodC) with additional cyclisation activity and a terpene-cyclase (SodD). Previous analysis of S. plymuthica found sodorifen production titers are generally low and vary
HOXC6 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_004494), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene belongs to the homeobox family, members of which encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, which are located on different chromosomes and consist of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene, HOXC6, is one of several HOXC genes located in a cluster on chromosome 12. Three genes, HOXC5, HOXC4 and HOXC6, share a 5 non-coding exon. Transcripts may include the shared exon spliced to the gene-specific exons, or they may include only the gene-specific exons. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for HOXC6.
Anthropogenetical Analysis of Abnormal Human -globin Gene Cluster Arrangement on Chromosome 16*. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Since both orthologous and paralogous genes can be included in the same gene cluster, positive selection detected in a cluster can be a result of various processes: adaptation of a species to optimise the process of infection, escape host immune response, adaptation to a different environmental niches (e.g., milk in S. thermophilus, or dental flora in S. mutans), and functional diversification of members of multi-gene families. Indeed, the 136 clusters identified as having evolved under positive selection were connected to a wide variety of functions (see Additional file 1), with only 10% having no ascribable function. Interestingly, 7% of the clusters were comprised of genes known to be essential to S. pneumoniae (see Additional file 1), i.e. those where experimental disruption was shown to be lethal [23], indicating that even essential genes can be subject to rapid evolution by natural selection. A substantial fraction of the clusters, (29%) had either a known, or hypothesised, connection to ...
Skalleberg, Natalie Sharim; Xianbin, Yang; Babaie, Eshrat; Crystal, John Michael; Geronimo, Benedicto Abrigos; Reseland, Janne Elin; Osmundsen, Harald & Landin, Maria Augusta Dos S Silva (2018). Effects of miR-214 knockout on 214/199 cluster expression levels during mineralization of the first murine molar. PLoS biology. ISSN 1544-9173. Vis sammendrag The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects induced on the 214/199 cluster and consequently murine miRNome while miR-214 was temporarily knocked out on the first murine molar. Endogenous expression of individual microRNAs (miRNAs) of 214/199 cluster during mineralization stages was also mapped. Nucleotide alignment of miR-214 mature sequence and comparative genomics was used to find target genes for this miR during mineralization of the first murine molar. The effects of temporary knockdown of miR-214 were induced by in vivo transfection with antagomir-214 in situ at the first murine molar. The expression levels of microRNAs (miRs) ...
Kartha VK*, Stawski L*, Han R, Haines P, Gallagher G, Noonan V, Kukuruzinska M, Monti S, Trojanowska M. (2016). PDGFRβ is a novel marker of stromal activation in oral squamous cell carcinomas. PloS One.. Hiemer SE, Zhang L*, Kartha VK*, Almershed M, Kukuruzinska M, Monti S, Varelas X. (2015). A YAP/TAZ-regulated transcriptional signature associated with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Mol Cancer Res. (Featured on cover of June 2015 edition). Hoss AG, Labadorf A, Latourelle JC, Kartha VK, Hadzi TC, Gusella JF, MacDonald ME, Chen JF, Akbarian S, Weng Z, Vonsattel J, Myers RH. (2015). miR-10b-5p expression in Huntingtons disease brain relates to age of onset and the extent of striatal involvement. BMC Med Genomics.. Hoss AG*, Kartha VK*, Dong X, Latourelle JC, Dumitriu A, Hadzi TC, Macdonald ME, Gusella JF, Akbarian S, Chen JF, Weng Z, Myers RH. (2014). MicroRNAs located in the Hox gene clusters are implicated in huntingtons disease pathogenesis. PLoS Genet.;10(2):e1004188. doi: ...