This gene encodes a member of the muscle segment homeobox gene family. The encoded protein is a transcriptional repressor whose normal activity may establish a balance between survival and apoptosis of neural crest-derived cells required for proper craniofacial morphogenesis. The encoded protein may also have a role in promoting cell growth under certain conditions and may be an important target for the RAS signaling pathways. Mutations in this gene are associated with parietal foramina 1 and craniosynostosis type 2.[3] ...
Most importantly, Atoh1 transcripts and protein were not detected throughout the entire anteroposterior axis of the double-mutant developing spine (compare Fig. 2Aa,Ba with 2Ab,Bb and 2Ae). In addition, Atoh1 expression was reduced by more than half in Msx1 single mutants (Fig. 2Ae). Msx2 inactivation alone appeared to alter Atoh1 expression to a lesser extent (Fig. 2Ad,Bd) and the number of Atoh1+ cells is significantly different between either single mutant (P=7×10−4; Fig. 2Ae). Thus, Msx1 and Msx2 are both required for Atoh1 expression in the dp1 domain, but Msx1 plays a predominant role in this process.. We next analyzed the expression profiles of Neurog1 (dp2 marker), Neurog2 (dp2 and dp3 marker), Olig3 (dp1 to dp3 marker) and Ascl1 (dp3 to dp5 marker) in the absence of Msx1 and Msx2. In Msx1/Msx2 mutants, the Neurog1+ domain is included in the Olig3 territory, as in wild-type embryos (Fig. 2Ca,b,d,e,D). However, the position of the shared dorsal boundary of the Neurog1+ and Neurog2+ ...
The importance of Msx genes in regulating development of ocular, neuronal, cardiac, ectodermal and oro-craniofacial structures has been well established. Previous studies have shown that Msx proteins regulate gene transcription predominantly through repression by forming transcriptionally inactive heteromeric complexes. In contrast to their known suppressor activities, gene expression studies using either the gain-of-function or the loss-of-function mutants revealed many gene targets whose expression requires functional Msx proteins. Here we present data demonstrating for the first time that Msx proteins function as activators of transcription by controlling the intracellular distribution and by modulating the transcriptional activity of partnering molecules. Msx proteins activate the Hsp70 promoter through a mechanism in which Msx protein physically interacts with and modify Heat shock transcriptional factors (Hsfs) to facilitate their nuclear translocation, accumulation and subsequent ...
SOX2 is a key transcription factor that plays critical roles in maintaining stem cell property and conferring drug resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which SOX2 level is precisely regulated remain elusive. Here we report that MLN4924, also known as pevonedistat, a small-molecule inhibitor of neddylation currently in phase II clinical trials, down-regulates SOX2 expression via causing accumulation of MSX2, a known transcription repressor of SOX2 expression. Mechanistic characterization revealed that MSX2 is a substrate of FBXW2 E3 ligase. FBXW2 binds to MSX2 and promotes MSX2 ubiquitylation and degradation. Likewise, FBXW2 overexpression shortens the protein half-life of MSX2, whereas FBXW2 knockdown extends it. We further identified hypoxia as a stress condition that induces VRK2 kinase to facilitate MSX2-FBXW2 binding and FBXW2-mediated MSX2 ubiquitylation and degradation, leading to SOX2 induction via derepression. Biologically, expression of FBXW2 or SOX2 promotes tumor sphere ...
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Complete information for MSX2 gene (Protein Coding), Msh Homeobox 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for MSX2 gene (Protein Coding), Msh Homeobox 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Msx2/Hox8 protein (ab114704). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
TY - JOUR. T1 - MSX1 inhibits MyoD expression in fibroblast × 10T 1 2 cell hybrids. AU - Woloshin, Paul. AU - Song, Kening. AU - Degnin, Catherine. AU - Killary, Ann McNeill. AU - Goldhamer, David J.. AU - Sassoon, David. AU - Thayer, Mathew (Matt). PY - 1995/8/25. Y1 - 1995/8/25. N2 - Transfer of human chromosome 11, which contains the myoD locus, from primary fibroblasts into 10T 1 2 cells results in activation of myoD. In contrast, hybrids that retain human chromosome 11 and additional human chromosomes fail to activate myoD. We show that human chromosome 4 inhibits myoD activation. myoD enhancer/promoter reporter constructs show that repression is at the transcriptional level. Chromosome fragment-containing hybrids localize the repressing activity to the region of 4p that contains the homeobox gene MSX1. MSX1 is expressed in primary human fibroblasts and in 10T 1 2 cells containing human chromosome 4, while parental 10T 1 2 cells do not express Msx1. Forced expression of Msx1 represses myoD ...
Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, ...
The amino acid sequence of the Muscle segment homeobox (MSH) homeodomain is highly homologous to the homeodomains of the Drosophila s59/NK1 and empty spiracles genes and the Hox 7 and Hox 8 family of vertebrate homeobox genes. In addition, the 5 end of MSH has 52% sequence identity to the 5 end of the Empty spiracles protein, encoding several stretches of amino acids rich in serine, alanine, proline, glutamine, and acidic amino acids, and thus indicating potential domains of regulatory activity (Lord, 1995). The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes has suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals, in particular, in Hydra. Phylogenetic analyses show that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. See Phylogenetic relationships among 200 Antp-class genes. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 reported here have diploblastic homologs: Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, ...
One such protein is Msx1, a critical factor involved in dorsal neural patterning (3, 84). Msx1 along with Msx2 and Msx3 form a family of homeodomain transcriptional repressors (18, 96, 111). The earliest expression of Msx1 is observed at the neural fold stage, along the boundary of the neural plate (17, 38). Upon closure of the neural tube, Msx1 is prominently expressed along the entire length of the dorsal midline of the neural tube. Msx1 is also expressed in the SCO, choroid plexus (CP), and the habenula in the third ventricle (84). Bach et al. clearly demonstrated that homozygous mutants for Msx1 were unable to sustain Wnt1 and Bmp6 expression in the dorsal midline of P1, and histological analysis demonstrated the absence of a SCO and a poorly organized posterior commissure (3, 84). Loss of morphogen induction in P1 consequently downregulated cell fate markers such as Pax6, Pax7, and Lim1, whereas the P2 marker Gbx2 remained unaffected. The Msx1 mutant mice developed hydrocephaly, and the ...
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Cover art for Xenon (MSX) database containing game description & game shots, credits, groups, press, forums, reviews, release dates and more.
perl -wMstrict -le my $s = xxxx yy zzzzz xxxx qqq xxxx yy zzzzz xxxx qqq; ;; for my $ar ([2, 4, 3], [5, 3]) { my $rx = rxg(@$ar); print $rx; my @groups = $s =~ m{ $rx }xmsg; print qq{$_} for @groups; } ;; sub rxg { my ($rx) = map qr{ \b $_ \b }xms, join \b .+? \b , map qq{\\w{$_}}, @_ ; ;; return $rx; } (?^msx: \b \w{2} \b .+? \b \w{4} \b .+? \b \w{3} \b ) yy zzzzz xxxx qqq yy zzzzz xxxx qqq (?^msx: \b \w{5} \b .+? \b \w{3} \b ) zzzzz xxxx qqq zzzzz xxxx qqq ...
MSX2 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 400 µL purified antibody (Lot-specific) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide.
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Looking for online definition of MSX or what MSX stands for? MSX is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO) are common congenital anomalies with significant medical, psychological, social, and economic ramifications. Both CL/P and CPO are examples of complex genetic traits. There exists sufficient evidence to hypothesize that disease loci for CL/P and CPO can be identified by a candidate-gene linkage-disequilibrium (LD) strategy. Candidate genes for clefting, including TGFA, BCL3, DLX2, MSX1, and TGFB3, were screened for LD with either CL/P or CPO in a predominantly Caucasian population, with both case-control- and nuclear-family-based approaches. Previously reported LD for TGFA with both CL/P and CPO could not be confirmed, except in CL/P patients with a positive family history. Also, in contrast to previous studies, no LD was found between BCL3 and either CL/P or CPO. Significant LD was found between CL/P and both MSX1 and TGFB3 and between CPO and MSX1, suggesting that these genes are involved in the
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Phantasie III: The Wrath of Nikademus is the third chapter of the Phantasie trilogy. This time, the Dark Lord Nikademus has set his evil sights on conquering - not only an island - but the entire world. He must be stopped, and youve chosen to undertake this difficult and dangerous quest.The basic g...
Unusual comQXPA-like loci.(A) Non-canonical unusual com system is present in B. cereus VD102, B. cereus BAG4X12 1, B. cereus MSX A1 and L. fusiformis ZC1. Note
This study analyzes the expression and the function of Xenopus msx-1 (Xmsx-1) in embryos, in relation to the ventralizing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4). Expression of Xmsx-1 was increased in UV-treated ventralized embryos and decreased in LiCl-treated dorsalized embryos at the neurula stage (stage 14). Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that Xmsx-1 is expressed in marginal zone and animal pole areas, laterally and ventrally, but not dorsally, at mid-gastrula (stage 11) and late-gastrula (stage 13) stages. Injection of BMP-4 RNA, but not activin RNA, induced Xmsx-1 expression in the dorsal marginal zone at the early gastrula stage (stage 10+), and introduction of a dominant negative form of BMP-4 receptor RNA suppressed Xmsx-1 expression in animal cap and ventral marginal zone explants at stage 14. Thus, Xmsx-1 is a target gene specifically regulated by BMP-4 signaling. Embryos injected with Xmsx-1 RNA in dorsal blastomeres at the 4-cell stage exhibited a ...
Early tooth decay is damage on the tooths enamel, and can happen anywhere on the tooth, and at any age. The good news is that its very treatable.
The congenital absence of teeth, commonly referred to as hypodontia or tooth agenesis, is a common developmental anomaly of human dentition that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although new genetic and molecular approaches in humans and mice have increased our understanding of the molecules that control tooth patterning (number, position, shape and size), the precise nature of the genes involved in hypodontia in humans is poorly understood. Hence, understanding the molecular basis for missing teeth is an issue of paramount importance that is both timely and significant to the practice of dentistry. So far, only two genes have been associated with non-syndromic familial tooth agenesis: MSX1 and PAX9. Substitution mutations in the homeodomain region of MSX1 were linked to premolar agenesis while an insertion mutation in the paired box domain of PAX9 was shown to be responsible for molar oligodontia.. The long-term goals of this research are to elucidate the molecular pathology of ...
It was shown in both mouse and human tooth development that PAX9 and MSX1 are the most important genes regulating progression through early stages of tooth development. These genes are encoding transcription factors involved in epithelial/mesenchymal interactions. Their key function seems to be maintenance and regulation of Bmp4 expression in dental mesenchyme. If the functions of PAX9 and MSX1 are disturbed, the tooth will not develop.
The T420 and T440 infrared cameras arm users, with superior infrared imaging resolution, works harder to reveal trouble spots. In addition to sharp thermal resolution at 76,800 pixels (320x240) for accurate diagnostics even from a distance, the new T440 features MSX Multi-Spectral Dynamic Imaging, a FLIR exclusive. MSX adds the detail of real-time visible spectrum images captured by the built-in digital camera to thermal spectrum images, providing extraordinary sharpness, contrast and clarity previously unavailable in thermal imaging. MSX instantly highlights where the problem area is for easier orientation to help customers and co-workers see what needs repairing ...
Tooth agenesis can involve one or more congenitally missing teeth (CMT) and is the most common congenital dental anomalies in humans. Tooth agenesis and reduction of mesiodistal tooth width are reportedly associated, suggesting that the pathogenesis of the two conditions is related. The current study analyzed the frequency of tooth agenesis and mesiodistal tooth width in cases of hypodontia (1-5 CMT) and oligodontia (≥ 6 CMT) in Japanese patients based on the hypothesis that reductions in mesiodistal tooth width are more frequently associated with oligodontia than hypodontia. Japanese patients with tooth agenesis were divided into hypodontia cases (60 female and 25 male, mean age 19.6 years, mean CMT number 1.31 ± 1.65) and oligodontia cases (26 female and 25 male, mean age 14.6 years, mean CMT number 8.07 ± 2.39). Controls included patients with a skeletal class I relationship and no CMT (female and 60 male, mean age 20.8 years). Dental casts and orthopantomograms were used to analyze the CMT
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify mutations in the muscle segment homeo box homologue 2 (MSX2) gene, located at chromosome 5q34-q35, which encodes for a transcription factor protein presumed to be critical for skull development. Mutations at this locus have been identified in patients with parietal foramina type 1 and craniosyostosis type 2.. Entry Terms : "Familial Craniosynostosis Type 2 Gene Mutation Reagents" , "Cranium Bifidum Syndrome Gene Mutation Reagents" , "Enlarged Parietal Foramina Type 1 Gene Mutation Reagents" , "MSX2 Gene Mutation Detection Reagents" , "IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Molecular Assay, Tumor Marker, Gene Mutation, hML1/hMSH2" , "Reagents, Molecular Assay, Gene Anomaly, Mutation, MSX2". UMDC code : 24614 ...
Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1 ...
Looking for online definition of bud stage of tooth in the Medical Dictionary? bud stage of tooth explanation free. What is bud stage of tooth? Meaning of bud stage of tooth medical term. What does bud stage of tooth mean?
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Abnova Anti-MSX1 Monoclonal (1D2), Catalog # H00004487-M05. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP) and ELISA (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (See Label).
J:112545 Wang XP, Aberg T, James MJ, Levanon D, Groner Y, Thesleff I, Runx2 (Cbfa1) inhibits Shh signaling in the lower but not upper molars of mouse embryos and prevents the budding of putative successional teeth. J Dent Res. 2005 Feb;84(2):138-43 ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tooth agenesis, microdontia, and tooth malformation among non-syndromic oral cleft patients and their potential association with cleft type and gender. Intraoral records and radiographs of 154 patients (97 males and 57 females) were examined. The variables assessed were tooth agenesis, microdontia, dental malformations, and cleft types. The statistics included chi-square and Fishers exact tests as well as logistic regression to assess any mutual effects of gender and cleft type on the dental variables. Tooth agenesis occurred in 50% of the sample and microdontia in 18%. Non-statistically significant odds ratios for the association of gender and cleft type with tooth agenesis were obtained. Tooth agenesis was substantially higher at the unilateral right CL + P and the bilateral CL + P in quadrant 1 and at the unilateral left CL + P and bilateral CL + P in quadrant 2. It was also higher, at the isolated cleft palate (CP) in quadrants 3 and 4.
PubMed journal article: Patterns of tooth agenesis in patients with orofacial clefts. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
mNanog and ventx1/2 overexpression cause similar effects in Xenopus embryos.(A) Four-cell stage embryos (NF3) were injected in both dorsal blastomeres, with a 1
Au début des années 1980, la compagnie développe exclusivement sur MSX. Ce nest quà partir de 1986 que HAL commence à développer sur Famicom (plus particulièrement sur Famicom Disk System), et devient un développeur affilié à Nintendo. Durant la première moitié des années 1990, la compagnie utilise le nom HALKEN, dérivé du japonais HAL Kenkyūjo (Kenkyūjo signifiant en japonais laboratoire). La compagnie possède également une filiale américaine nommée HAL America. Satoru Iwata, président de Nintendo de 2002 jusquà sa mort en 2015[4], était auparavant président de HAL Laboratory. ...
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play an essential role in development and patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Despite extensive literature documenting the diverse roles of FGF signalling during craniofacial development, comparatively little is known about the specific downstream effectors through which FGFs influence gene expression. A previous study in our laboratory reported exogenous FGF elicited differential chondrogenic responses in frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme (Bobick et al., 2007). Pea3 transcription factors are crucial components of the downstream effector pathway through which FGFs influence gene expression (Raible and Brand, 2001). Therefore, the purpose of my research was to examine whether differences in pea3, erm, and er81 gene expression profiles underlie the distinct responses of the frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme cells to FGF. The present study demonstrates that FGF2 treatment differentially affects chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of frontonasal and ...
The initial information for patterning of early tooth development resides in the epithelium. Later, this is shifted to the mesenchyme. The process is governed by multiple epithelial- mesenchymal interactions, Integrins are cell surface receptors for extracellular matrix components. Expression of the beta(5) integrin subunit alternates between epithelium and mesenchyme during early tooth development (Yamada et al, [1994] Int, J. Dev. Biol, 38: 553-556), By immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization we show here a remarkably similar oscillating expression pattern of the alpha(v) integrin subunit. This subunit is known to associate with beta(5), and we therefore suggest that integrin alpha(v) beta(5) is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth development, We also demonstrate that the developing tooth epithelium expresses the alpha(6), beta(1) and beta(4) subunits. The laminin receptors alpha(6) beta(1) and alpha(6) beta(4) may thus in part mediate the effect of basement ...
Dorsoventral patterning of body axis in vertebrate embryo is tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network of transcription factors. Ventx1.1 is known as a transcriptional repressor to inhibit dorsal mesoderm formation and neural differentiation in Xenopus. In an attempt to identify, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-Seq, genome-wide binding pattern of Ventx1.1 in Xenopus gastrulae, we observed that Ventx1.1 associates with its own 5-flanking sequence. In this study, we present evidence that Ventx1.1 binds a cis-acting Ventx1.1 response element (VRE) in its own promoter, leading to repression of its own transcription. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VRE in the Ventx1.1 promoter significantly abrogated this inhibitory autoregulation of Ventx1.1 transcription. Notably, Ventx1.1 and Xcad2, an activator of Ventx1.1 transcription, competitively co-occupied the VRE in the Ventx1.1 promoter. In support of this, mutation of the VRE down-regulated basal and Xcad2-induced levels of ...
Flir E4-NIST - Compact Thermal Imaging Infrared Camera with Wi-Fi & MSX Enhancement & NIST Calibration, 80x60 Resolution Includes: Power supply/charger with four plugs Rechargeable battery
Zoological Science publishes articles, reviews and editorials that cover the broad and increasingly interdisciplinary field of zoology.
This table contains the main catalog from Version 2.3 of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Point Source Catalog (PSC), which supersedes the previous version (1.2) that was released in 1999, and contains 100,000 more sources than the latter. The MSX PSC main catalog used to create this Browse table contains all the sources found in the Galactic Plane survey, and the primary high-latitude regions (the IRAS gaps regions, and the Large Magellanic Cloud). Note that this HEASARC table does not contain the MSX PSC supplementary catalogs, viz. the singleton catalog, the low-reliability catalog, or the minicatalogs for 19 selected regions. The principal objective of the astronomy experiments onboard the MSX satellite was to complete the census of the mid-infrared (4.2-25 micron or um) sky: namely, the areas missed by the IRAS mission (about 4% of the sky was not surveyed by IRAS), and the Galactic Plane (where the sensitivity of IRAS was degraded by confusion noise in regions of high source densities ...
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 2LXP C; 4TU4 A; 5CUB A; 4BW4 A; 2YQL A; 4QYL A; 4FIP A; 5FE4 A; 2E7O A; 2RFJ A; 4QSS A; 5LVR A; 2C2V S; 5E74 A; 5HLS A; 5C85 A; 2I8N A; 5FE9 A; 5KU3 A; 4O71 A; 5FH7 A; 1WEQ A; 5B79 A; 2IDA A; 1VD4 A; 4PPE A; 2YT5 A; 5ENJ A; 5HEN A; 4UIY A; 4QNS A; 5IGM A; 4O7A A; 5CQ4 A; 2LV9 A; 5CUC A; 5ENC A; 2MIQ A; 2PNX A; 3U5J A; 5FB1 A; 5HQ5 A; 5HM0 A; 5I7X A; 3ZYQ A; 2EGP A; 5EWD A; 4X2I A; 2YQD A; 3GV4 A; 5HQ6 A; 5LUU A; 2E6R A; 4A9F A; 5HEM A; 1T1H A; 4MSX A; 4N3W A; 3N9P A; 4TT6 A; 5C8G A; 5A82 A; 2KR4 A; 3N9M A; 1E4U A; 3S92 A; 1WEE A; 5IGN A; 5FE8 A; 5J0D A; 5K29 A; 4NR6 A; 4L7X A; 4LLB A; 4A9H A; 3D7C A; 5I83 A; 2YUR A; 4A4B A; 5ETB A; 2VJF A; 2WP1 A; 4A9N A; 3I2D A; 5TAB A; 4IOQ A; 5H1V A; 5G4R A; 4YYK A; 5KTU A; 4MEP A; 5E73 A; 4CLB A; 5A5P A; 4TKP B; 2LN0 A; 3FKM X; 2FSA A; 2CT2 A; 4QSQ A; 2YW8 A; 2VPB A; 5IBN A; 2L0B A; 5DKH A; 3U5M A; 2CKL A; 4HBW A; 1F68 A; 5CFW A; 2YW5 A; 4UYF B; 4YY6 A; 3ZYU A; 4UYF A; 4CUU A; 3MUK A; 4NR5 A; 1WEW A; ...