A video recording/reproducing apparatus having an encoder for encoding a video signal, and a recording unit for recording encoded information from the encoder on a digital recording medium, the encoder comprising a memory for storing at least first and second reference pictures, a prediction circuit for forming a prediction signal for an input signal, using a first reference signal from the first reference picture designated by a first motion vector, and a second reference signal from the second reference picture designated by a second motion vector, a first motion vector detector for determining a third motion vector from a point of intersection of the first motion vector and the second motion vector to a point in the second reference picture where the first motion vector intersects the second reference picture, a second motion vector detector for determining a differential motion vector by subtracting the third motion vector from the second motion vector, and an encoding circuit for encoding the first
Many pairs of spatial and temporal frequencies in a motion display that result in the same stimulus speed for a moving object can produce different speed percepts (Priebe NJ et al., J Neurosci. 2003, 23(13): 5650-61). We previously reported that judgments of the speed of an object depend on the spatiotemporal frequency of the moving pattern in an inverted-U function, peaking at a specific spatial and temporal frequency combination [http://www.journalofvision.org/4/8/84/]. The location of this peak is largely independent of the size and shape of the object. In the present series of experiments, with the use of high coherence dot motion stimuli, we investigated the dependence of perceived speed on both spatial and temporal frequencies. The perceived speed of the stimulus was estimated using a 2AFC paradigm with interleaved QUEST staircases; subjects were asked to pick the faster of the two spatially separated [6 deg eccentricity] patches of dots moving in opposite directions. We systematically ...
Transient auditory stimuli have been shown to influence the perception of ambiguous 2D visual motion displays (the bouncing-disks effect; e.g. Sekuler et al. in Nature 385:308, 1997). The question addressed here was whether continuous moving auditory stimuli can also influence visual motion perception under the same experimental conditions. In Experiment 1, we used a modification of Sanabria et al.s (Exp Brain Res 157:537-541, 2004) paradigm (involving an indirect behavioural measure of the bouncing-disks effect), in which the 2D visual display was presented together with either a brief tone, a continuous moving sound, or in the absence of any form of auditory stimulation. Crucially, the results showed that, together with the effect of the brief tone on bouncing trials, the presence of the continuous moving sound speeded-up participants responses on streaming trials as compared to the brief tone or no sound conditions. The results of a second experiment revealed that the effect of the continuous
Geisler (Nature, 1999) proposed that streaks left in the wake of a moving object may be detected by orientationally selective mechanisms (with appropriate temporal integration) and used to help disambiguate motion direction. We have measured thresholds for discriminating the direction of motion of a field of moving dots superimposed on orientationally-filtered noise, oriented either parallel or orthogonal to the dot motion. Orthogonal noise had little effect on direction discrimination thresholds, while parallel noise raised them by a factor of about 8. The detrimental effect decreased with increasing orientation-bandwidth for the parallel noise, and increased with bandwidth for the orthogonal noise. Parallel noise specifically impeded motion direction discrimination, having virtually no effect on either contrast thresholds or speed discrimination. We also measured direction discrimination thresholds for random fields of dot pairs, that were oriented either coherently to form Glass patterns, or ...
Motion perception is fundamental to survival. Until recently, research on motion perception emphasized such basic aspects of motion as sampling and filtering. In the past decade, however, the emphasis has gradually shifted to higher-level motion processing-i.e., processing that takes place not only in the primary visual cortex but also in the higher or more complicated parts of the brain. The contributors to this book focus on such key aspects of motion processing as interaction and integration between locally measured motion units, structure from motion, heading in an optical flow, and second-order motion. They also discuss the interaction of motion processing with other high-level visual functions such as surface representation and attention.The book is divided into three sections: (1) interactive aspects of motion, (2) motion coherence and grouping, and (3) heading and structure from motion. Each section begins with computational aspects, proceeds to the neuropsychological/neurophysiological, and
Dr. JIANG Yi, Dr. WANG Ying and their colleagues from the State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have conducted a behavioral genetic study to find out the sources underlying the individual differences in biological motion perception.
Schizophrenia impairs cognitive functions as much as perception. For example, patients perceive global motion in random dot kinematograms less strongly, because, as it is argued, the integration of the dots into a single Gestalt is complex and therefore deteriorated. Similarly, the perception of apparent motion is impaired, because filling-in of the illusory trajectory requires complex processing. Here, we investigated very complex motion processing using the Ternus-Pikler display. First, we tested whether the perception of global apparent motion is impaired in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. The task requires both the grouping of multiple elements into a coherent Gestalt and the filling-in of its illusory motion trajectory. Second, we tested the perception of rotation in the same stimulus, which in addition requires the computation of non-retinotopic motion. Contrary to earlier studies, patients were not impaired in either task and even tended to perform better than ...
Short presentation of a large moving pattern elicits an ocular following response that exhibits many of the properties attributed to low-level motion processing such as spatial and temporal integration, contrast gain control and divisive interaction between competing motions. Similar mechanisms have been demonstrated in V1 cortical activity in response to center-surround gratings patterns measured with real-time optical imaging in awake monkeys (see poster of Reynaud et al., VSS09). Based on a previously developed Bayesian framework, we have developed an optimal statistical decoder of such an observed cortical population activity as recorded by optical imaging. This model aims at characterizing the statistical dependence between early neuronal activity and ocular responses and its performance was analyzed by comparing this neuronal read-out and the actual motor responses on a trial-by-trial basis. First, we show that relative performance of the behavioral contrast response function is similar to the
When a block (MB|highlight||bold|22|/bold||/highlight|) of which motion vector is referred to in the direct mode contains a plurality of motion vectors, 2 motion vectors MV|highlight||bold|23 |/bold||
Color and motion information are thought to be channeled through separate neural pathways, but it remains unclear whether and how these pathways interact to improve motion perception. In insects, such as Drosophila, it has long been believed that motion information is fed exclusively by one spectral class of photoreceptor, so-called R1 to R6 cells; whereas R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which exist in multiple spectral classes, subserve color vision. Here, we report that R7 and R8 also contribute to the motion pathway. By using electrophysiological, optical, and behavioral assays, we found that R7/R8 information converge with and shape the motion pathway output, explaining flies broadly tuned optomotor behavior by its composite responses. Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. ...
The distribution of local preferred directions and motion sensitivities within the receptive fields of so-called tangential neurons in the fly visual system was previously found to match optic flow fields as induced by certain self-motions. The complex receptive-field organization of the tangential neurons and the recent evidence showing that the orderly development of the flys peripheral visual system depends on visual experience led us to investigate whether or not early visual input is required to establish the functional receptive field properties of such tangential neurons. In electrophysiological investigations of two identified tangential neurons, it turned out that dark-hatched flies which were kept in complete darkness for 2 days develop basically the same receptive-field organization as flies which were raised under seasonal light/dark conditions and were free to move in their cages. We did not find any evidence that the development of the sophisticated receptive-field organization of ...
The visual system is able to recognize body motion from impoverished stimuli. This requires combining stimulus information with visual priors. We present a new visual illusion showing that one of these priors is the assumption that bodies are typically illuminated from above. A change of illumination direction from above to below flips the perceived locomotion direction of a biological motion stimulus. Control experiments show that the underlying mechanism is different from shape-from-shading and directly combines information about body motion with a lighting-from-above prior. We further show that the illusion is critically dependent on the intrinsic luminance gradients of the most mobile parts of the moving body. We present a neural model with physiologically plausible mechanisms that accounts for the illusion and shows how the illumination prior might be encoded within the visual pathway. Our experiments demonstrate, for the first time, a direct influence of illumination priors in high-level ...
Our ability to perceive visual motion is critically dependent on the human motion complex (hMT+) in the dorsal visual stream. Extensive electrophysiological research in the monkey equivalent of this region has demonstrated how neuronal populations code for properties such as speed and direction, and that neurometric functions relate to psychometric functions within the individual monkey. In humans, the physiological correlates of inter-individual perceptual differences are still largely unknown. To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants viewed translational motion in different directions, and we measured thresholds for direction discrimination of moving stimuli in a separate psychophysics experiment. After determining hMT+ in each participant with a functional localizer, we were able to decode the different directions of visual motion from it using pattern classification (PC). We also characterized the variability of fMRI signal in hMT+ during
View Notes - Motion from PSYC 225 at UNC. predators motion information • Sex and emotional state • 3d shape from 2d motion o Events thats elicit motion perception Real motion Illusory motion
During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Motion Perception by people in this website by year, and whether Motion Perception was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Synaptic transmission between a graded potential neuron and a spiking neuron was investigated in vivo using sensory stimulation instead of artificial excitation of the presynaptic neuron. During visual motion stimulation, individual presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons in the brain of the fly were electrophysiologically recorded together with concentration changes of presynaptic calcium (Delta[Ca(2+)](pre)). Preferred-direction motion leads to depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. It also produces pronounced increases in [Ca(2+)](pre) and the postsynaptic spike rate. Motion in the opposite direction was associated with hyperpolarization of the presynaptic cell but only a weak reduction in [Ca(2+)](pre) and the postsynaptic spike rate. Apart from this rectification, the relationships between presynaptic depolarizations, Delta[Ca(2+)](pre), and postsynaptic spike rates are, on average, linear over the entire range of activity levels that can be elicited by sensory stimulation. Thus, the ...
Perception is often described as a predictive process based on an optimal inference with respect to a generative model. We study here the principled construction of a generative model specifically crafted to probe motion perception. In that context, we first provide an axiomatic, biologically-driven derivation of the model. This model synthesizes random dynamic textures which are defined by stationary Gaussian distributions obtained by the random aggregation of warped patterns. Importantly, we show that this model can equivalently be described as a stochastic partial differential equation. Using this characterization of motion in images, it allows us to recast motion-energy models into a principled Bayesian inference framework. Finally, we apply these textures in order to psychophysically probe speed perception in humans. In this framework, while the likelihood is derived from the generative model, the prior is estimated from the observed results and accounts for the perceptual bias in a ...
Problem statement: This study derives the optimal motion vector with arbitrary pixel precisions in a single step. Approach: A non-linear block matched motion model was proposed. Based on the proposed non-linear block matched motion model, the optimal motion vector which minimizes the mean square error was solved analytically in a single step via a gradient approach. Results: The mean square error based on the proposed method was guaranteed to be lower than or equal to that based on conventional methods. The computational efforts for the proposed method were lower than that of conventional methods particularly when the required pixel precision is higher than or equal to the quarter pixel precisions. Conclusion: As integer pixel locations, half pixel locations and quarter pixel locations are particular locations represented by the proposed model, the mean square error based on the proposed method is guaranteed to be lower than or equal to that based on these conventional methods. Also, as the ...
These experiments reveal interactions between center and surround motions and their dependency on relative direction, contrast, and timing. Same-direction surround motion reduced the discriminability of high-contrast center motion and improved the discriminability of low-contrast center motion, regardless of surround contrast. The timing of the observed center-surround interactions depended on surround contrast; as the contrast of the surround decreased, surround motion needed to occur earlier relative to the center motion to have an effect on the observers performance.. These results were revealed using the temporal reverse correlation method, which allowed us to estimate the time course of center-surround interactions with relatively high precision, especially for very brief high-contrast center motion. It is worth reiterating that these results were obtained from surround motions that were perceived simply as a very fast up-down jitter. When queried, observers admitted that it was impossible ...
Visual motion perception is critical to many animal behaviors, and flies have emerged as a powerful model system for exploring this fundamental neural computation. Although numerous studies have suggested that fly motion vision is governed by a simple neural circuit [1-3], the implementation of this circuit has remained mysterious for decades. Connectomics and neurogenetics have produced a surge in recent progress, and several studies have shown selectivity for light increments (ON) or decrements (OFF) in key elements associated with this circuit [4-7]. However, related studies have reached disparate conclusions about where this selectivity emerges and whether it plays a major role in motion vision [8-13]. To address these questions, we examined activity in the neuropil thought to be responsible for visual motion detection, the medulla, of Drosophila melanogaster in response to a range of visual stimuli using two-photon calcium imaging. We confirmed that the input neurons of the medulla, the ...
Fast flying insects such as flies need to integrate motion signals from their compound eyes for various tasks which include course control [1], collision avoidance and the detection of small objects. These tasks require that signals from individual ommatidia be combined into local motion signals, a process which is thought to take place in the medulla [2]. Local motion signals are then pooled and integrated on the dendrite of cells, which receive input from thousands of ommatidia. In the blowfly, this integration of retinotopic information occurs in the lobula plate, with a class of about 60 individually identifiable neurons showing direction selective responses to visual stimuli, the lobula-plate tangential cells (LPTCs). Among the best characterized of these cells are the neurons of the so called horizontal system (HS), named after their strong response to progressive (front-to-back) motion, and those of the vertical system (VS), which respond mainly to downward motion. However, similar to ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Causal inference accounts for heading perception in the presence of object motion. AU - Dokka, Kalpana. AU - Park, Hyeshin. AU - Jansen, Michael. AU - DeAngelis, Gregory C.. AU - Angelaki, Dora E.. N1 - Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants R03 DC013987 (to K.D.), NEI EY016178 (to G.C.D.), R01 EY022538 (to D.E.A.), and Simons Foundation for Autism Research Award 396921 (to D.E.A.).. PY - 2019/4/30. Y1 - 2019/4/30. N2 - The brain infers our spatial orientation and properties of the world from ambiguous and noisy sensory cues. Judging self-motion (heading) in the presence of independently moving objects poses a challenging inference problem because the image motion of an object could be attributed to movement of the object, self-motion, or some combination of the two. We test whether perception of heading and object motion follows predictions of a normative causal inference framework. In a dual-report task, subjects ...
A new directionally sensitive motion detection system is proposed that is capable of detecting local motion without any significant preprocessing. It has a delay-and-compare structure like that of the Reichardt detector but uses as its basic building block the shunting inhibition neural model. It is therefore called the local inhibitory motion detector. Furthermore, an array of such detectors exhibits adaptive responses akin to those observed in motion-sensitive biological neurons.. © 1999 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Recent studies have shown that interindividual variability can be a rich source of information regarding the mechanism of human visual perception. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying interindividual variability in the perception of visual motion, one of the fundamental components of visual scene analysis, by measuring neurotransmitter concentrations using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. First, by psychophysically examining two types of motion phenomena-motion assimilation and contrast-we found that, following the presentation of the same stimulus, some participants perceived motion assimilation, while others perceived motion contrast. Furthermore, we found that the concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate-glutamine (Glx) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 46) was positively correlated with the participants tendency to motion assimilation over motion contrast; however, this effect was not observed in the visual areas. The concentration of the ...
A specified area and a motion area are extracted from an input image and encoded by allocating a relatively increased amount of codes to the specified area and a relatively reduced amount of codes to the motion area to improve the quality of the specified area of the image. The image sequence encoding device according to the present invention is provided with a specified area extracting portion (33) connected to a frame memory (21) to extract a specified area from an input image; a motion area extracting portion (34) connected to a motion detecting portion (31) to extract a motion area according to a magnitude of motion vectors and a specified area of a preceding frame; an encoding control portion (35) connected to a buffer memory (26), a specified area extracting portion (33) and the motion extracting portion (34) to control quantizing and encoding process.
Motion perception is fundamental to survival. Until recently, research on motion perception emphasized such basic aspects of motion as sampling and filtering. In the past decade, however, the emphasis has gradually shifted to higher-level motion processing--i.e., processing that takes place not only in the primary visual cortex but also in the higher or more complicated parts of the brain. The contributors to this book focus on such key aspects of motion processing as interaction and integration between locally measured motion units, structure from motion, heading in an optical flow, and second-order motion. They also discuss the interaction of motion processing with other high-level visual functions such as surface representation and attention. The book is divided into three sections: (1) interactive aspects of motion, (2) motion coherence and grouping, and (3) heading and structure from motion. Each section begins with computational aspects, proceeds to the ...
This circuit, which enables us to track moving objects, serves as an example of other brain circuits, some of which perform thousands of computations every second. The findings could aid the design of bionic eyes that track motion and process visual information like our own eyes. This work reveals a very sophisticated neural computation, the first non-linear computation performed by the nervous system for which a circuit is close to being solved, said Frank Werblin, professor of molecular and cell biology at UC Berkeley. It is a preliminary step in understanding how more sophisticated computations are performed by the brain. Werblin notes, for example, that we use motion detection every time we cross the street, anticipating when traffic will reach our intersection and deciding when to cross. Barry Bonds probably has superior motion-detecting neurons, he added, referring to the home-run hitter with the San Francisco Giants. He takes a simple movement detector and, in the context of a ...
Cardiac diffusion MRI based on stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) techniques is hampered by its inherent low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. Diffusion imaging using standard spin-echo (SE) techniques, on the other hand, offers higher SNRs but has been considered impractical for the beating heart due to excessive signal attenuation from cardiac bulk motion. In this work the effect of systolic cardiac motion on different diffusion-encoding schemes was studied in detail. Numerical simulations based on in vivo motion data (acquired by MRI tagging techniques) demonstrate an up to 10-fold decrease in bulk motion sensitivity of the diffusion encoding if the first-order moment of the diffusion-encoding gradients is nullified. It is shown that the remaining systolic phase pattern on the myocardium does not influence the magnitude images if the spatial resolution is chosen to be higher than 4 mm. Given these relatively low resolution requirements, we obtained in vivo diffusion-weighted (DW) ...
A large extent of the posterior cortex of the primate brain is devoted to vision, and it contains two general streams that process visual information. The one stream is situated more ventrally in the cortex and is important for object recognition, pattern recognition, color perception, and shape perception. These attributes of visual analysis we associate with visual awareness or seeing, and thus this stream has been referred to as the what system because it recognizes objects (Ungerleider and Mishkin 1982). A second, more dorsal stream is associated with visual-motor transformations-that is, the routing of sensory information into motor areas for the purpose of action. This dorsal stream plays an important role in attention, decisions, and movement planning. It also plays an important role in spatial awareness, which is crucial for planning movements to locations in space and for transforming visually defined locations into movement coordinates to accomplish accurate motor behaviors. This ...
In this paper, we introduce Vision Tape (VT), a novel class of flexible compound-eye-like linear vision sensor dedicated to motion extraction and proximity estimation. This novel sensor possesses intrinsic mechanical flexibility that provides wide-range adaptive shape, allowing adjustable field of view as well as integration with numerous substrates and curvatures. VT extracts Optic Flow (OF) of the visual scene to calculate the motion vector, which allows proximity estimation based on the motion parallax principle. In order to validate the functionality of VT, we have designed and fabricated an exemplary prototype consisting of an array of eight photodiodes attached to a flexible PCB that acts as mechanical and electrical support. This prototype performs image acquisition and processing with an integrated microcontroller at a frequency of 1000 fps, even during bending of the sensor. With this, the effect of VT shape on motion perception and proximity estimation is studied and, in particular, ...
For motion compensated interpolation (MCI) with sub-pixel accuracy, the missing pixels need to be interpolated prior to the motion compensation. The required pixel values are stored using line and pixel delays. A switch matrix selects, in response to a motion vector, such stored pixels which are currently needed for the processing. In order to avoid sub-pixel MCI, the interpolation is carried out prior to the motion compensation. In order to avoid an increased input data rate of the motion compensation circuitry, only a standard switch matrix is used. A special arrangement of delays storing pixel values needed for the processing is used to extend the standard delay array. Because an increased number of pixels is involved, an improved sub-pixel MCI can be achieved. This is because such a delay extension does not significantly affect the decoded picture quality even if adjacent motion vectors do not exactly match the current motion vector.
Direction of motion was counterbalanced across participants, that is, half of the participants were presented with upward and the other half with downward motion stimuli. A central fixation cross (width = 0.3 degrees) was presented throughout the trial, except when a word was presented. Each trial started with a centrally presented word (duration = 100 msec), which could either be a motion word or a neutral word, and which was followed by a 200-msec ISI (see Figure 1). Presentation of the words was fully randomized within each block of the experiment. We instructed participants to ignore the word and maintain fixation. Next, a visual RDM stimulus was presented (duration = 200 msec) in either the LVF or in the RVF. Participants had to indicate, as quickly and accurately as possible, whether the RDM contained coherent motion, while fixating at the central fixation cross. The brief presentation time of the RDM stimulus (200 msec) served to minimize the chance of eye movements to the stimulus, as ...
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Experiments in the field of motion perception had indicated that there were good reasons for assuming a correlation between an analytical or isolating attitude in perception and a tendency to social isolation. The hypothesis advanced was: Those Ss who obtain extremely high scores in the velocity synthesis test, will be characterized, in the description of their personality, by traits like autism, or a low degree of social contact.. This hypothesis has been tested and the result may be taken as confirming the validity of the hypothesis.. ...
Attentional selectivity tends to follow events considered as interesting stimuli. Indeed, the motion of visual stimuli present in the environment attract our attention and allow us to react and interact with our surroundings. Extracting relevant motion information from the environment presents a challenge with regards to the high information content of the visual input. In this work we propose a novel integration between an eccentric down-sampling of the visual field, taking inspiration from the varying size of receptive fields (RFs) in the mammalian retina, and the Spiking Elementary Motion Detector (sEMD) model. We characterize the system functionality with simulated data and real world data collected with bio-inspired event driven cameras, successfully implementing motion detection along the four cardinal directions and diagonally.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motion perception and aging at scotopic light levels.. AU - Vidinova, Margarita. AU - Reinhardt-Rutland, Anthony. AU - Pierscionek, Barbara. AU - Lauritzen, Jan. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. M3 - Article. VL - 40. SP - 92. EP - 92. ER - ...
We recorded the responses of single neurons in extrastriate area MST while rhesus monkeys discriminated the direction of motion in a set of stochastic visual displays. By varying systematically the strength of a coherent motion signal within the visual display, we were able to measure simultaneously the monkeys psychophysical thresholds for direction discrimination and the responses of single neurons to the same motion signals. Neuronal thresholds for reliably signaling the direction of motion in the visual display were calculated from the measured responses using a method based in signal detection theory. Neurons in MST were exquisitely sensitive to motion signals in the display, having thresholds for discriminating the direction of coherent motion that were, on average, equal to the psychophysical thresholds of the monkeys. For many MST neurons, the intensity of the response was correlated with the monkeys psychophysical judgements for repeated presentations of a given near-threshold ...
Are motion paths available in Animator? On the product page the Bee is flying and its movement seem to made with the aid of motion paths.
We spend so much time doing that-seeing who they are, what they are doing, what they intend to do, says psychology professor Nikolaus F. Troje of Queens University in Kingston, Ontario.. This process is called biological motion perception, and humans are so good at it that even a few dots on a screen representing the major joints of a body are enough to retrieve all the information we need-as long as they move.. But what role does motion play in that process? Does the visual system use it only to connect the dots to create a coherent, or global, structure? Troje and his colleagues-Masahiro Hirai and Daniel R. Saunders at Queens, and Dorita H. F. Chang, now at the University of Birmingham, UK-investigated this question in a new study, to be published in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.. They presented their participants with computer-generated stimuli showing 11 light points representing the shoulder, hip, elbows, wrists, ...
We demonstrate Janus micro motor in fluid. The motor consists of magnesium (Mg) particles partially deposited gold (Au) on the outmost surface. The Janus particle exhibits a directional motion due to the exposed Mg region which generates hydrogen gas in chloride-rich solutions (e.g. seawater) in a long term manner. We manipulate such particles in a way that two or more particles are connected each other using DNA structures. Through motile observation of the aggregated particles, we identify the force and directional motion of multi-particle ensembles. ...
Abstract: Planning whole-body motions while taking into account the terrain conditions is a challenging problem for legged robots since the terrain model might produce many local minima. Our coupled planning method uses stochastic and derivatives-free search to plan both foothold locations and horizontal motions due to the local minima produced by the terrain model. It jointly optimizes body motion, step duration and foothold selection, and it models the terrain as a cost-map. Due to the novel attitude planning method, the horizontal motion plans can be applied to various terrain conditions. The attitude planner ensures the robot stability by imposing limits to the angular acceleration. Our whole-body controller tracks compliantly trunk motions while avoiding slippage, as well as kinematic and torque limits. Despite the use of a simplified model, which is restricted to flat terrain, our approach shows remarkable capability to deal with a wide range of non-coplanar terrains. The results are ...
We hypothesized that a rebound would be needed for the effect to occur, the horizontal motion would not be necessary, and inverted videos would behave in the same way as normal videos. This would show that a rebound is sufficient to make the sound go with the impact motion and that horizontal motion is not needed, allowing us to focus on the vertical motion.. The results came out as predicted.. ...
Visual motion detection is one of the most important computations performed by visual circuits. Yet, we perceive vivid illusory motion in stationary, periodic luminance gradients that contain no true motion. This illusion is shared by diverse vertebrate species, but theories proposed to explain this illusion have remained difficult to test. Here, we demonstrate that in the fruit fly Drosophila, the illusory motion percept is generated by unbalanced contributions of direction-selective neurons responses to stationary edges. First, we found that flies, like humans, perceive sustained motion in the stationary gradients. The percept was abolished when the elementary motion detector neurons T4 and T5 were silenced. In vivo calcium imaging revealed that T4 and T5 neurons encode the location and polarity of stationary edges. Furthermore, our proposed mechanistic model allowed us to predictably manipulate both the magnitude and direction of the flys illusory percept by selectively silencing either T4 ...
Flies are highly visually guided animals. In this thesis, I have used hoverflies as a model for studying motion vision. Flies process motion vision in three visual ganglia: the lamina, the medulla, and the lobula complex. In the posterior part of lobula complex, there are around 60 lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs). Most of LPTCs have large receptive fields where the local direction sensitivity suggests that they function as matched filters to specific types of optic flow. LPTCs connect to descending or neck motor neurons that control wing and head movements, respectively. Therefore, in this thesis I have focused on the electrophysiological responses of LPTCs to gain understanding of visual behaviors in flies.. The elementary motion detector (EMD) is a model that can explain the formation of local motion sensitivity. However, responses to higher order motion, where the direction of luminance change is uncorrelated with the direction of movement, cannot be predicted by classic EMDs. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heritable aspects of biological motion perception and its covariation with autistic traits. AU - Wang, Ying. AU - Wang, Li. AU - Xu, Qian. AU - Liu, Dong. AU - Chen, Lihong. AU - Troje, Nikolaus F.. AU - He, Sheng. AU - Jiang, Yi. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the two reviewers for their constructive comments, Jie chen for assistance during Mx data analyses. This research was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 31525011, 31671137, and 31771211), the Strategic Priority Research Program (Grants XDB02010003 and XDB02050001), the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences (Grant QYZDB-SSW-SMC030), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (to N.F.T.). Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank the two reviewers for their constructive comments, Jie chen for assistance during Mx data analyses. This research was supported by ...
In many social fish species, visual cues play an important role in inducing shoaling behavior. The present study is the first to examine whether and how biological motion depicting a moving creature by means of only a small number of isolated points induces shoaling behaviour in fish. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used because they are known to have high visual acuity and exhibit a strong tendency to form shoals. In experiment 1, we found that the presentation of medaka biological motion resulted in heightened shoaling behaviour when compared with that of non-biological motion (depicted by a small number of points placed at fixed distances that moved at a constant speed in a constant direction). In experiment 2, it was indicated that medaka biological motion was more effective at inducing shoaling behaviour when compared with human biological motion. In experiment 3, it was demonstrated that shoaling behaviour was largely dependent on the smoothness of the biological motion. In experiment 4, ...
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Information about the motion of objects can be extracted by multiple sensory modalities, and, as a consequence, object motion perception typically involves the integration of multi-sensory information. Often, in naturalistic settings, the flow of such information can be rather discontinuous (e.g. a cat racing through the furniture in a cluttered room is partly seen and partly heard). This study addressed audiovisual interactions in the perception of time-sampled object motion by measuring adaptation aftereffects. We found significant auditory after-effects following adaptation to unisensory auditory and visual motion in depth, sampled at 12.5 Hz. The visually induced (cross-modal) auditory motion after-effect was eliminated if visual adaptors flashed at half of the rate (6.25 Hz). Remarkably, the addition of the highrate acoustic flutter (12.5 Hz) to this ineffective, sparsely time-sampled, visual adaptor restored the auditory after-effect to a level comparable to what was seen with high-rate bimodal
1. Biological motion perception. We are conducting TMS experiments aiming at determining the role played by functionally different visual areas (namely the posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus -pSTS- and the Extrastriate Body Area -EBA-) in biological motion perception. Dr. Joris Vangeneugden, a former postdoc, has used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) in an fMRI experiment aimed at determining whether pSTS and EBA respond differently to a walker orientation vs walking direction. The subsequent TMS experiment has shown a direct involvement of those areas in the two types of motion patterns (orientation vs direction). We are now trying to determine the role of different visual areas in walker orientation discrimination, using more ecological stimuli (3D walkers) (Dr. Nicholas Peatfield, postdoctoral fellow).. 2. Relative timing in vision. This project aims at determining the neural as well as behavioural correlates of timing in vision. We have previously shown that higher level visual areas ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper proposes a novel algorithm to solve the problem of segmenting foreground-moving objects from the background scene. The major cue used for object segmentation is the motion information, which is initially extracted from MPEG motion vectors. Since the MPEG motion vectors are generated for simple video compression without any consideration of visual objects, they may not correspond to the true motion of the macroblocks. We propose a Kernel-based Multiple Cue (KMC) algorithm to deal with the above inconsistency of MPEG motion vectors and use multiple cues to segment moving objects. KMC detects and calibrates camera movements; and then finds the kernels of moving objects. The segmentation starts from these kernels, which are textured regions with credible motion vectors. Beside motion information, it also makes use of color and texture to help achieving a better segmentation. Moreover, KMC can keep track of the segmented
Recognition of motions and activities of objects in videos requires effective representations for analysis and matching of motion trajectories. In this paper, we introduce a new representation speciï¬ cally aimed at matching motion trajectories. We model a trajectory as a continuous dense flow ï¬ eld from a sparse set of vector sequences using Gaussian Process Regression. Furthermore, we introduce a random sampling strategy for learning stable classes of motions from limited data. Our representation allows for incrementally predicting possible paths and detecting anomalous events from online trajectories. This representation also supports matching of complex motions with acceleration changes and pauses or stops within a trajectory. We use the proposed approach for classifying and predicting motion trajectories in trafï¬ c monitoring domains and test on several data sets. We show that our approach works well on various types of complete and incomplete trajectories from a variety of ...
One of the ways we perceive shape is through seeing motion. Visual motion may be actively generated (for example, in locomotion), or passively observed. In the study of how we perceive 3D structure from motion (SfM), the non-moving, passive observer in an environment of moving rigid objects has been used as a substitute for an active observer moving in an environment of stationary objects; the rigidity hypothesis has played a central role in computational and experimental studies of SfM. Here we demonstrate that this substitution is not fully adequate, because active observers perceive 3D structure differently from passive observers, despite experiencing the same visual stimulus: active observers perception of 3D structure depends on extra-visual self-motion information. Moreover, the visual system, making use of the self-motion information treats objects that are stationary (in an allocentric, earth-fixed reference frame) differently from objects that are merely rigid. These results show ...
Apparatus, Method, and Computer Program Product for Generating Interpolated Images - An interpolated image generating apparatus calculates a motion vector reliability level indicating reliability of a motion vector used for inserting an interpolated image, the value of the motion vector reliability level being determined in such a manner that the stronger the correlation is between a source image area and a destination image area that are brought into correspondence with each other by the motion vector, the larger is the value. The apparatus also calculates a failure-preventing vector reliability level indicating reliability of a predetermined failure-preventing vector used for preventing image failures. The apparatus obtains a motion compensated image based on the motion vector, obtains a failure-preventing image based on the failure-preventing vector, and blends the motion compensated image and the failure-preventing image according to a weighted average thereof calculated by using a weighting ...
Developmental dyslexia is associated with deficits in the processing of visual motion stimuli, and some evidence suggests that these motion processing deficits are related to various reading subskills deficits. …. Results suggest that there are in fact two distinct motion processing deficits in developmental dyslexia, rather than one as assumed by previous research, and that each of these deficits is associated with a different type of reading subskills deficit. A deficit in detecting coherent motion is selectively associated with low accuracy on reading subskills tests, and a deficit in discriminating velocities is selectively associated with slow performance on these same tests. In addition, … The two distinct patterns of motion processing and reading deficits demonstrated by this study may reflect separable underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia. ...
Visual area MT is a model of choice in primate neurophysiological and human imaging research of visual perception, due to its considerable sensitivity to moving stimuli and the strong direction selectivity of its neurons. While the location of MT(V5) in the non-human primate is easily identifiable based on gross anatomy and appears consistent between animals, this is less the case in human subjects. Functional localisation of human MT+ with moving stimuli can identify a group of motion-sensitive regions, but defining MT proper has proved more challenging. In this review we consider approaches to studying the cyto- and myleoarchitecture of this cortical area that may, in the future, allow identification of human MT in vivo based on anatomy.
When looking at two identical objects moving toward each other on a two-dimensional visual display, two different events can be perceived: the objects can either be seen to bounce off each other, or else to stream through one another. Previous research has shown that the large bias normally seen toward the streaming percept can be modulated by the presentation of an auditory event at the moment of coincidence. However, previous behavioral research on this crossmodal effect has always relied on subjective report. In the present experiment, we used a novel experimental design to provide a more objective/implicit measure of the effect of an auditory cue on visual motion perception. In our study, two disks moved toward each other, with the point of coincidence hidden behind an occluder. When emerging from behind the occluder, the disks (one red, the other blue) could either follow the same trajectory (streaming) or else move in the opposite direction (bouncing). Participants made speeded discrimination
Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects. AU - Teramoto, Wataru. AU - Kobayashi, Maori. AU - Hidaka, Souta. AU - Sugita, Yoichi. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Visual motion aftereffects can occur contingent on arbitrary sounds. Two circles, placed side by side, were alternately presented, and the onsets were accompanied by tone bursts of high and low frequencies, respectively. After a few minutes of exposure to the visual apparent motion with the tones, a circle blinking at a fixed location was perceived as a lateral motion in the same direction as the previously exposed apparent motion (Teramoto et al. in PLoS One 5:e12255, 2010). In the present study, we attempted to reverse this contingency (pitch aftereffects contingent on visual information). Results showed that after prolonged exposure to the audio-visual stimuli, the apparent visual motion systematically affected the perceived pitch of the auditory stimuli. When the leftward apparent visual motion was paired with the ...
A motion controlled handheld device includes a display having a viewable surface and operable to generate a current image. The device includes a motion detection module operable to detect motion of the device within three dimensions and to identify components of the motion in relation to the viewable surface. The device also includes a gesture database comprising a plurality of gestures, each gesture defined by a motion of the device with respect to a first position of the device. The gestures comprise at least four planar gestures each defined by a motion vector generally aligned in parallel with the viewable surface. The device includes a gesture mapping database mapping each of the gestures to a corresponding command, the gesture mapping database mapping each of the four planar gestures to a corresponding grid navigation command. The device also includes a motion response module operable to identify a matching one of the planar gestures based on the motion and to determine the corresponding one of
Heading direction is determined from visual and vestibular cues. Both sensory modalities have been shown to have better direction discrimination for headings near straight ahead. Previous studies of visual heading estimation have not used the full range of stimuli, and vestibular heading estimation has not previously been reported. The current experiments measure human heading estimation in the horizontal plane to vestibular, visual, and spoken stimuli. The vestibular and visual tasks involved 16 cm of platform or visual motion. The spoken stimulus was a voice command speaking a heading angle. All conditions demonstrated direction dependent biases in perceived headings such that biases increased with headings further from the fore-aft axis. The bias was larger with the visual stimulus when compared with the vestibular stimulus in all 10 subjects. For the visual and vestibular tasks precision was best for headings near fore-aft. The spoken headings had the least bias, and the variation in precision was
Short presentation of a large moving pattern elicits an Ocular Following Response (OFR) that exhibits many of the properties attributed to low-level motion processing such as spatial and temporal integration, contrast gain control and divisive interaction between competing motions. Similar mechanisms have been demonstrated in V1 cortical activity in response to center-surround gratings patterns measured with real-time optical imaging in awake monkeys. More recent experiments of OFR have used disk gratings and bipartite stimuli which are optimized to study the dynamics of center-surround integration. We quantified two main characteristics of the global spatial integration of motion from an intermediate map of possible local translation velocities: (i) a finite optimal stimulus size for driving OFR, surrounded by an antagonistic modulation and (ii) a direction selective suppressive effect of the surround on the contrast gain control of the central stimuli [Barthelemy06,Barthelemy07].In fact, the ...
Author: Pretto, P; Genre: Talk; Published in Print: 2017-09-12; Title: How studying human self-motion perception can improve VR technology and viceversa
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A different opinion from Galens about the motions of the head In the first place, we move the head either with a primary motion in which the neck holds still, or with a secondary motion, where the head follows the motion of the neck even if you try to move it in a different direction from the neck. There are two movements peculiar to the head: in one, we bend it forward and incline it backward, or extend it. You perform this motion with a rigid, unmoved neck or with a neck moved simultaneously, whether you do it with a motion equal with the head, or a contrary motion. For although you move the neck forward and the head necessarily follows the neck, still you can bend the head backward with its own motion and easily observe that the head and neck have their separate and distinct motions in bending and unbending. The other peculiar movement of the head should be counted that by which we rotate it more or less as if we were spinning it as a wheel is turned on an axle. You will undergo this motion ...
1998;9:1807-1810. 67. Shallo-Hoffmann J, Bronstein AM. Motion detection in patients with absent vestibular function. Vision Res. 2003;43:1589-1594. 68. Acheson JF, Cassidy L, Grunfeld EA, ShalloHoffmann JA, Bronstein AM. Elevated visual motion detection thresholds in adults with acquired ophthalmoplegia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1447-1449. 69. Bedell HE. Perception of a clear and stable visual world with congenital nystagmus. Optom Vision Sci. 2000;77:573-581. 22 BASIC CONCEPTS OF STABLE VISION AND GAZE 70. 3. Southall JPC, ed. New York: Dover;1962. von Holst E, Mittelstädt H. The principal of reafference: interactions between the central nervous system and the peripheral organs. In: Dodwell PC, ed. Perceptual Processing: Stimulus Equivalence and Pattern Recognition. New York: Appleton Century Crofts;1971:41-71. Gauthier GM, Nommay D, Vercher JL. The role of ocular muscle proprioception in visual localization of targets. Science. 1990;249:58-61. Bridgeman B, Stark L. Ocular proprioception and ...
Preparation and setup: Female blowflies (C. erythrocephala) were prepared as described in (17). Visual stimuli were produced by a grating drum illuminated from the inside by an arc lamp, the image of which was projected onto a screen (10 × 8 cm) positioned 10 cm below the fly (Fig. 1A). The fly was mounted to look down on the stimulus and the objective was above the back of its opened head capsule. The square wave grating had a spatial wavelength of 26°, a mean luminance of 17.7 cd/m2, and a contrast of 92%. The velocity of the moving pattern depended on the type of experiment and is indicated in the figure legends. Electrophysiological recording: Electrodes were pulled on a Brown-Flaming micropipette puller (P-97, Sutter Instruments) using thin-wall glass capillaries with a diameter of 1 mm (GC100TF-10, Clark). When filled with 2 M KAc, 0.5 M KCl, and 8.8 mM calcium green, they had resistances of about 30 to 40 MΩ. A SEC-10L amplifier (npi-electronics) was used throughout the experiments and ...
2 if the k2 -axis is replaced by the w-axis. 0). 0). 8 octaves, this process eventually yields 23 filter types: 6 tuned to speeds about 0 with preferred directions at multiples of 30 degrees; 10 tuned to speeds of 1/v3 with directions at every 36 degrees; 6 tuned to speeds of v3 with directions every 60 degrees; and a flicker channel tuned to non-zero temporal frequencies and zero spatial frequency [Fleet, 1988]. We now consider the discrete sampling of the output of a single filter type. 4). 2) yields the normal velocity of level contours of constant intensity, Vn = vnn, where n is the direction of the spatial intensity gradient. 3) is that the two components of the 2-d velocity v are constrained by only one linear equation. Further constraints are therefore necessary to determine both elements of v. , 1989]. 4) also follows from the assumption that I(x, t) is conserved: = o. 2). 2) and other differential constraints to yield an over-determined system of linear equations. e. if the intensity ...
Author(s): Saygın, Ayşe Pınar | Abstract: In nature, organisms not only process what is in the environment, but also continuously use the sensory information gathered in planning and acting upon the environment. Thus a theory of perception which regards it as a passive, receptive process is not likely to provide a complete picture. Instead, we can view perception as intimately related to processes and brain areas which were traditionally viewed as motor or executive in nature. I have studied the neural substrates of human perception in different modalities and at different levels of complexity. There are three main research areas represented in this dissertation: 1) The sensorimotor neural bases of language; 2) Sensory and motor areas involved in biological motion perception; 3) Representations of visual space in higher cortical areas and their response properties. First, in neuropsychological studies, I have examined the extent to which language comprehension shares processing and neural resources
The present invention relates to motion estimation and compensation. For example, a screen capture encoder performs motion estimation that is adapted to screen capture video in various respects. For example, the motion estimation uses a distortion measure based upon the count of equal/unequal pixels in two regions, sub-samples the distortion measure to speed up motion estimation, and/or uses a search pattern that prioritizes types of motion common in screen capture video. Or, a screen capture decoder performs motion compensation that is adapted to screen capture video in various respects. For example, the decoder performs the motion compensation for pixels with different values at corresponding locations in a current frame and a reference frame, but not for all pixels of the current frame. Alternatively, an encoder/decoder performs the motion estimation/compensation to compress/decompress other kinds of content.
A VLSI architecture adapted to be implemented in the form of a reusable IP cell and including a motion estimation engine, configured to process a cost function and identify a motion vector which minimizes the cost function, an internal memory configured to store the sets of initial candidate vectors for the blocks of a reference frame, first and second controllers to manage the motion vectors and manage an external frame memory, a reference synchronizer to align, at the input to the estimation engine, the data relevant to the reference blocks with the data relevant to candidate blocks coming from the second controller, and a control unit for timing the units included in the architecture and the external interfacing of the architecture itself.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perception of rotation, path, and heading in circular trajectories. AU - Nooij, Suzanne A.E.. AU - Nesti, Alessandro. AU - Bülthoff, Heinrich H.. AU - Pretto, Paolo. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - When in darkness, humans can perceive the direction and magnitude of rotations and of linear translations in the horizontal plane. The current paper addresses the integrated perception of combined translational and rotational motion, as it occurs when moving along a curved trajectory. We questioned whether the perceived motion through the environment follows the predictions of a self-motion perception model (e.g., Merfeld et al. in J Vestib Res 3:141-161, 1993; Newman in A multisensory observer model for human spatial orientation perception, 2009), which assume linear addition of rotational and translational components. For curved motion in darkness, such models predict a non-veridical motion percept, consisting of an underestimation of the perceived rotation, a distortion of the ...
In this paper, we present a CMOS image sensor design with a high dynamic range. This feature is achieved by a two-frame scheme, in which an image is captur
Humans can visually perceive the motion of a small object better than that of a large one. By contrast, according to a study reported in the journal Current Biology on September 5, babies under 6 months of age are better at seeing the movement of large objects than small objects.
Any motion loss can affect daily life. Severe motion loss significantly affects lifestyle and daily living. In this way, the emotional state of a patient suffering severe motion loss can also be affected, sometimes even redefining a sense of personal identity.. When motion loss does occur, early recognition and appropriate treatment is absolutely needed to restore normal motion and improve function and quality of life.. ERMI, Inc. is committed to advancing research in orthopaedic medicine and to understanding the effectiveness of different treatments for severe motion loss patients. Our vision is to Improve Motion, and we strive to work with clinicians, and healthcare professionals in partnership to serve patients and achieve superior outcomes. Get Motion is our call to action to work with deliberate care, focus, and importance.. We created this section on Improving Motion as a destination to help communicate and better inform visitors more about motion loss and ERMI, Inc.. ...
Motion Sensors, Inc. Announces ATEX Certified Speed Sensors with Ambient Temperature Rating up to 80C - Apr 28, 2009 - Motion Sensors, Inc.
Following lesions to (usually) the right parietal lobe, patients may fail to report stimuli on their contralesional side if a stimulus is also presented ipsilesionally. The problem can be ameliorated if the stimuli form part of a common action (e.g., a bottle pouring into a glass), when the contralesional item may be brought to awareness. We examined whether this improved awareness depended on implied motion from one object to another. This was tested using pairs of stimuli in which one had implied motion towards or away from the other stimulus. The results showed that patients were more aware of the presence of two objects on trials when one object had implied motion towards the other, compared with when motion was directed away from the second object. This held when the implied motion was in the contralesional as well as when it was in the ipsilesional field. In a single case, this effect held even when the direction of motion could not be explicitly discriminated. The data suggest that motion was
A motion sensor module enables any lighting fixture to become an automated security light. You must disconnect a defective motion sensor module from the electrical power going to the lighting fixture, as well as from the fixture itself. Once you remove the module you can install a replacement.
a)In general. A request for an order must be made by motion. The motion must: (1) Be in writing, unless made during a hearing; (2) State with particularity the grounds for seeking the order; (3) State the relief sought; (4) Unless the relief sought has been agreed to by all parties, be accompanied by affidavits, declarations, or other evidence; and (5) If required by paragraph (c)(4) of this section, include a memorandum of points and authority supporting the movants position. (b)Form. The rules governing captions and other matters of form apply to motions and other requests. (c)Written motion before hearing. (1) A written motion before a hearing must be served with supporting papers, at least 21 days before the time specified for the hearing, with the following exceptions: (i) When the motion may be heard ex parte; (ii) When these rules or an appropriate statute, regulation, or executive order set a different time; or (iii) When an order sets a different time. (2) A written motion served ...
Motion compensation is based on analysis of intensity signals received by detectors, without separately measuring a motion signal, without providing feedback to cancel the motion signal and without attempting to mathematically eliminate the motion signal. Instead, the present invention mathematically recognizes the presence of the motion signal and recognizes a few key characteristics of the motion signal and makes corresponding assumptions. First, it is recognized that the motion/noise in each wavelength signal is proportional. Second, it is assumed that the blood pulse signal is not affected by motion.
Analysing computations in neural circuits often uses simplified models because the actual neuronal implementation is not known. For example, a problem in vision, how the eye detects image motion, has long been analysed using Hassenstein-Reichardt (HR) detector or Barlow-Levick (BL) models. These both simulate motion detection well, but the exact neuronal circuits undertaking these tasks remain elusive. We reconstructed a comprehensive connectome of the circuits of Drosophilas motion-sensing T4 cells using a novel EM technique. We uncover complex T4 inputs and reveal that putative excitatory inputs cluster at T4s dendrite shafts, while inhibitory inputs localize to the bases. Consistent with our previous study, we reveal that Mi1 and Tm3 cells provide most synaptic contacts onto T4. We are, however, unable to reproduce the spatial offset between these cells reported previously. Our comprehensive connectome reveals complex circuits that include candidate anatomical substrates for both HR and BL ...