Summary:. This paper examines trends in income distribution in Brazil and the determinants of income inequality, including social expenditure. While recent data reveal reduced income inequality since the Real Plan of July 1994, the distribution of income is still among the most unequal in the world. Among the most important determinants of income inequality in Brazil is extreme disparity in educational attainment levels. Public expenditures on education, health, and social insurance have tended to exacerbate income inequality. A number of options for improving the equity and efficiency of Brazilian social expenditure merit further examination.. ...
Editorial Note: Analysis of YPLL data has proven useful in assessing the impact of preventable causes of death on premature mortality (1). This information is also valuable in determining priorities for prevention activities. For example, the findings reported here reemphasize the importance of identifying, treating, and controlling hypertension, especially among blacks. Blacks accounted for a disproportionate percentage of YPLL due to cerebrovascular disease. The rate of YPLL for blacks was more than two and one-half times higher than the rate for whites. Based upon blood pressure measurements from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), 37.9% of blacks are hypertensive *, compared with 32.6% of whites (3). Additionally, blacks are more likely to have severe hypertension. The major risk factor for stroke is hypertension, a condition which often remains asymptomatic for decades until it is manifested as a stroke in later life. It is, therefore, not surprising ...
Climate change affects surface concentrations of air pollutants, such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and ozone (O3), which are associated with increases in human morbidity and premature mortality. Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with an increased relative risk of lung cancer, cardiopulmonary and all-cause mortalities while O3 exposure is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular, respiratory and all-cause mortality.. Research indicates that 21st century climate change (under the moderate SRES A1B climate change scenario) increases global all-cause premature mortalities associated with PM2.5 by approximately 100,000 deaths and respiratory disease mortality associated with O3 by 6,300 deaths annually. The relative change in premature mortality as the percent change between present and future simulations is about a 4 % increase in global all-cause mortality associated with PM2.5, and less than a 1 % increase in respiratory ...
Editorial Note: According to current estimates, 130,000 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and 41,000 women will die from the disease in 1987 (6). Breast cancer accounts for 27% of all newly diagnosed female cancers and 18% of female cancer deaths and was only recently surpassed by lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality among females (6). An examination of incidence rates between 1975 and 1984 reveals a small but gradual increase of about 1% per year. Overall, age-adjusted incidence rates are higher for white women than for black women, but this difference appears to be declining over time (3). The age-adjusted mortality rate from breast cancer for all females has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. Mortality rates for black women and white women are similar, although 5-year relative survival is measurably poorer among black women than among white women for the period 1975-1984. The difference is substantially reduced when the ...
Analyzing each of the four main group of NCDs for Brazil, cardiovascular diseases accounted for the highest mean rates in both periods, followed by rates for cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases, in that order. The same pattern was observed for the macro-regions, with the exception of the South region, where the highest means were attributed to cancer, followed by cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, in decreasing order (Table 1).. Still in the analysis of each group of NCDs, regarding the variation of the mean rates between 2010 to 2012 and 2015 to 2017, it is noteworthy that in Brazil there was a decline due to cardiovascular diseases (−9.5%; p = 0.00), chronic respiratory diseases (−5.8%; p = 0.00) and diabetes (−3.9%; p = 0.00) and an increase due to cancer (1.3%; p = 0.00). In all macro-regions, there was a significant decline in mortality from cardiovascular diseases. In the Central-West, North, Southeast and South regions there was also a ...
BACKGROUND: Neurological impairments might significantly contribute to reduced life expectancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). There are no empirical studies of premature mortality in children with neurological impairments in Africa. This study estimated the risk of premature mortality in children with neurological impairments and identified risk factors and causes of death. METHODS: We did a cohort study based on a two-stage epidemiological survey in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kilifi, Kenya). Study participants were children aged 6-9 years. In the first stage, five trained field workers administered a low-cost screening tool to a random sample of households. In the second stage, we assessed for neurological impairments in five domains (epilepsy, cognitive impairments, vision impairments, hearing impairments, and motor impairments) using comprehensive clinical evaluation and extensive neuropsychological assessments. From the two-stage survey we identified a
Hospital mortality for critically ill patients is a complex function of age, surgical or medical status, elective or emergency status, comorbidities, physiological reserve, nature and severity of acute illness, and quality of care.7 Apart from long term sociopolitical strategies to improve the health of the nation,10 only quality of care and perhaps severity of illness (by earlier recognition of critical illness, intervention, and referral to intensive care) may potentially be influenced by clinicians.. The assessment of quality (and the quality of measuring it) is difficult and examination of the process may be more sensitive than measures of outcome. 11 12 All have limitations. This study, modelled on an earlier inquiry,1 is subject to similar limitations of power and outcome bias. Like other studies 1 2 we relied on the opinions of assessors on what constituted suboptimal care and its causes (table 4), as objective definitions for all conceivable scenarios were impractical. Other limitations ...
Hospital mortality for critically ill patients is a complex function of age, surgical or medical status, elective or emergency status, comorbidities, physiological reserve, nature and severity of acute illness, and quality of care.7 Apart from long term sociopolitical strategies to improve the health of the nation,10 only quality of care and perhaps severity of illness (by earlier recognition of critical illness, intervention, and referral to intensive care) may potentially be influenced by clinicians.. The assessment of quality (and the quality of measuring it) is difficult and examination of the process may be more sensitive than measures of outcome. 11 12 All have limitations. This study, modelled on an earlier inquiry,1 is subject to similar limitations of power and outcome bias. Like other studies 1 2 we relied on the opinions of assessors on what constituted suboptimal care and its causes (table 4), as objective definitions for all conceivable scenarios were impractical. Other limitations ...
This paper studies the cyclical behaviour of public social spending in 20 OECD countries observed over the period between 1982 and 2011. In view of the recent
Dive into the research topics of Alcohol abstention in early adulthood and premature mortality: Do early life factors, social support, and health explain this association?. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
fashion and inspire with their music, yet they know their local traditions. And they have hope, and look to us to give meaning to that hope. In response we must take measures to ensure that our young people can look forward to decent work in productive, competitive enterprises. It means that we will continue to strengthen social expenditure, enabling families to commit to participating in education and community activities, while supporting the old and sick. Inclusive growth means strenuous efforts to cut back poverty and shrink the inequality that continue to blight us. The South African growth path we envision is not measurable by GDP alone. It must be an inclusive growth, which especially benefits the many South Africans who have been left behind.. Inclusive growth also means addressing the climate change challenges that confront the long-term global outlook. This year South Africa will host the 17th United Nations Conference of the Parties on climate change. Our own efforts to green our ...
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological transition theory, first postulated by Omran in 1971, provides a useful framework for understanding cause-specific mortality changes and may contribute usefully to predictions about cause-specific mortality. However, understandings of mortality transitions and associated epidemiological changes remain poorly defined for public health practitioners due to lack of evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, understanding of the concept and development of epidemiological transition theory as well as population burden of premature mortality attributable to risk factors is needed.. OBJECTIVES: This thesis aims to understand how epidemiological transition theory has been applied in different contexts, using available evidence on mortality transitions from high, middle- and low- income countries, as well as the contribution of risk factors to mortality transitions, particularly for premature mortality.. METHODS: A Medline literature search from 1971 to 2013 ...
Background: We examined the part of socio-economic status (SES) and marital status in premature mortality among working-age Russian males. mortality for alcohol-related causes. Summary: While dangerous drinking is known to be a leading cause of premature mortality among working-age Russian males, it is unwise to ignore additional factors. Given the considerable interpersonal and economic buy […]. Read More ». ...
Background: We examined the part of socio-economic status (SES) and marital status in premature mortality among working-age Russian males. mortality for alcohol-related causes. Summary: While dangerous drinking is known to be a leading cause of premature mortality among working-age Russian males, it is unwise to ignore additional factors. Given the considerable interpersonal and economic buy […]. Read More ». ...
Independent of genetic factors, higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but not of myocardial infarction (MI) or death, suggests a twin study in JAMA Internal Medicine.
Tikkanen-Dolenc, Heidi; Waden, Johan; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M.; Saraheimo, Markku; Elonen, Nina; Tikkanen, Heikki O.; Groop, Per- ...
In our followup study, we found a 50% increase in overall death and a near 2-fold increase in cardiovascular death among patients with RA compared with a sex- and age-matched Danish background population. Our study also indicated increased mortality due to infectious diseases, while mortality from malignancies was not increased among these patients with RA. Several known predictive factors were found to be associated with increased risk of total death and cardiovascular death. Moreover, higher serum levels of MBL were found to confer increased risk of overall death in both univariate and multivariable analysis, and the MBL2 genotype YA/YA, which is associated with the highest serum concentrations of MBL, was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death in univariate as well as multivariable analysis.. RA mortality and predictors of premature mortality in patients with RA have been examined in several studies. In a recent review including 124 studies of RA mortality and 53 studies ...
Published May 2013. ISBN: 978-1-78084-225-7. With approximately 5.4 million deaths annually, tobacco smoking is the leading noninfectious cause of premature mortality in the world. This book of 20 chapters from international experts comprehensively explores smoking-related health issues. The editors have paid special attention to the structure and content of Advances in Smoking Cessation so that only truly ground-breaking yet practical aspects of the topic would be dissected out to offer the reader a terrific learning experience.. ...
There is now little doubt that individuals who are well-adjusted, socially stable, and well-integrated into their communities are at significantly lower risk for disease and premature mortality than those who are more unstable, impulsive, isolated, and alienated. The reasons for these associations, …
Outdoor air pollution adversely affects human health and is estimated to be responsible for five to ten per cent of the total annual premature mortality in the contiguous United States1-3. Combustion emissions from a variety of sources, such as power generation or road traffic, make a large contribution to harmful air pollutants such as ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)4. Efforts to mitigate air pollution have focused mainly on the relationship between local emission sources and local air quality2. Air quality can also be affected by distant emission sources, however, including emissions from neighbouring federal states5,6. This cross-state exchange of pollution poses additional regulatory challenges. Here we quantify the exchange of air pollution among the contiguous United States, and assess its impact on premature mortality that is linked to increased human exposure to PM2.5 and ozone from seven emission sectors for 2005 to 2018. On average, we find that 41 to 53 per cent of air-quality
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, how governments may use the tradeoff between social and military expenditure to advance their electoral and partisan objectives. Three key results emerge. First, governments tend to bias outlays towards social expenditure and away from military expenditure at election times. Second, the size of this tradeoff is larger when we exclude countries involved in conflict, where national security plays an important role on voter choice. Third, while certain categories of social expenditure are higher during left administrations, military expenditure is higher during right administrations.
Background Four retrospective studies have reported premature mortality in patients with hypopituitarism with standard mortality ratios (SMRs) varying between 1?20 and 2?17. Patients with hypopituitarism have complex endocrine deficiencies, and the mechanisms underpinning any excess mortality are unknown. Furthermore, the suggestion has emerged that endogenous growth-hormone deficiency might account for any excess mortality. We aimed to clarify these issues by doing a large prospective study of total and specific-cause mortality in patients with hypopituitarism. Methods We followed up 1014 UK patients (514 men, 500 women) with hypopituitarism from January, 1992, to January, 2000. 573 (57%) patients had non-functioning adenomas, 118 (12%) craniopharyngiomas, and 93 (9%) prolactinomas. SMRs were calculated as the ratio of observed deaths to the number of deaths in an age-matched and sex-matched UK population. Findings The number of observed deaths was 181 compared with the 96?7 expected (SMR 1?87 [99% CI
TY - JOUR. T1 - Female Specific Association of Low Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) Levels with Increased Risk of Premature Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients. AU - Klont, Frank. AU - Kieneker, Lyanne M. AU - Gomes-Neto, Antonio W. AU - Stam, Suzanne P. AU - Ten Hacken, Nick H T. AU - Kema, Ido P. AU - van Beek, André P. AU - van den Berg, Else. AU - Horvatovich, Péter. AU - Bischoff, Rainer. AU - Bakker, Stephan J L. PY - 2020/1/21. Y1 - 2020/1/21. N2 - Associations between insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and mortality have been reported to be female specific in mice and in human nonagenarians. Intervention in the growth hormone (GH)-IGF1 axis may particularly benefit patients with high risk of losing muscle mass, including renal transplant recipients (RTR). We investigated whether a potential association of circulating IGF1 with all-cause mortality in stable RTR could be female specific and mediated by variation in muscle mass. To this end, plasma IGF1 levels were measured in ...
People who are physically fit have a fourfold lower risk of premature mortality due to cancer than the risk level of individuals who lack physical fitness. Research for cancer patients show that exercise, walking, and yoga programs improve quality of life, lessen fatigue, reduce symptoms associated with treatment, and enhance social functioning. Lifestyle changes have also been shown to reduce inflammation. Implementing lifestyle changes is a great way to prevent chronic diseases. ...
Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The key findings of this study are that (1) the leading causes of premature mortality were largely preventable: among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus; (2) leading causes of premature death differed remarkably between ethnic groups (Tables A-1-A-4); (3) a large health disparity was measured between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific Y LL rates are notably higher, especially for homicide among men (Figures 1, 2, and 3); and (4) except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians had comparable or lower Y LL rates among the leading causes of premature death compared to whites (Figures 2 and 3). These results illustrate how death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and monitor the leading causes of premature mortality for a local geographic region. ...
Lambs comments come weeks after a leading suicide prevention expert called for an end to the use of out-of-area placements for acute admissions. Professor Louis Appleby, who heads up the national confidential inquiry into suicide and homicide, warned that sending acutely ill patients away from their local areas increased the risk of suicide post-discharge.. Mental health charity Mind supported Applebys call to end out of area placements for acute admissions.. Ending the practice would only be possible if patients could be accommodated locally. This would require NHS commissioners to ensure that they commissioned adequate bed numbers from local trusts. It would also need issues that contribute to delays in people leaving hospital, such as social care and housing provision, to be addressed.. Figures obtained by Community Care under the Freedom of Information Act found that the number of mental health patients sent out of area rose 23% last year. The figures marked the third year in a row trusts ...
The overall aim of the assessment of the clinical risk in mental health service study facilitated by the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Safety…
This OECD iLibrary Theme subscription provides online access to all books and online databases OECD publishes on social issues, migration, and health. It includes access to the OECD International Migration Statistics, OECD Social Expenditure Statistics, and OECD Health Data databases as well as to about 20 new books each year on related topics, including such titles as Society at a Glance and Health at a Glance. The subscription includes access to titles published from 1998 onwards and all historical data available in the statistical databases.. ...
Downloadable! This paper explores the capability of the state to affect the individuals decision to work for free. For this purpose we combine individual-level data from the European and World Values Survey with macroeconomic and political variables for OECD member countries. Empirically we identify three channels for crowding out of voluntary labor. Firstly, an increase in public social expenditure decreases the probability that the individual will volunteer (fiscal crowding out). Secondly, a political consensus between individuals and the government also induces volunteers to reduce their unsalaried activities (consensual crowding out). And finally, the more a government supports democratization, the lower is the individuals engagement (participatory crowding out). Religiosity and a more unequal income distribution in a country increase individuals willingness to volunteer.
With the epidemiological transition, causes of death shifted from communicable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and life expectancy increased, as these NCD deaths occurred later in life. However, in the United States, over the past years, life expectancy has been stagnating or decreasing despite decreasing NCD mortality rates. Analyses of the most important underlying causes of death with increasing premature mortality reveal that psychoactive substance use played a crucial role for these increases. Furthermore, it can be shown, that a high proportion of the increased premature mortality and decreased life expectancies happened in lower socio-economic strata ...
Funding Agencies:. Örebro University Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC) RES-596-28-0001ES/JO19119/1. United States Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA. NIH National Cancer Institute (NCI) T32CA009001 P30CA008748. Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-10 Skapad: 2019-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-14Bibliografiskt granskad ...
Background: Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk of premature death. Methods: We analysed data from 264,906 European adults from the EPIC prospective cohort study, aged between 40 and 70 years at the time of recruitment. Flexible parametric survival models were used to model risk of death conditional on risk factors, and survival functions and attributable fractions (AF) for deaths prior to age 70 years were calculated based on the fitted models. Results: We identified 11,930 deaths which occurred before the age of 70. The AF for premature mortality for smoking was 31 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 31-32 %) and 14 % (95 % CI, 12-16 %) for poor diet. Important contributions were also observed for overweight and obesity measured by waist-hip ratio ...
The YPLL among addicts was much higher than that in the national population; within the cohort, premature mortality was higher among Whites and Hispanics compared to African American addicts.
Using global data from 2010, and looking at disability-adjusted years (DAYs), years of life lost to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs), this study looked at 20 mental and substance use disorders. This accounted for 184 million DAYs or 7.4% of all the worlds DAYs, 8.6 million YLLs, and 175 million YLDs.…
Hello, Does anyone know if stress affects these fertility tests? I finally had these tests done for the first time today and I was probably the most stressed I have been in I dont know how long. We...
Our partners at National Childrens Bureau want to identify what might help todays boys and young men develop into confident users of health information and services. They are asking adult men to share their views because preventable health problems and premature mortality are affecting too many men in the UK, with one in five dying under the age of 65. Amongst 20-24 year olds
Research indicates that a significant percentage of premature mortality and morbidity in the United States can be prevented if individuals avoid certain high-risk behaviors (e.g., smoking), adopt healthy ones (e.g., exercise), and reduce exposure to major environmental risks to health (e.g., lead-based paint). The strategic objectives under this goal focus Department efforts
The body cannot be healthier than the food man eats. Nutrition is to health what drug is to the body too. This paper seeks to highlight the relationship between diet and longevity most importantly in prevention of morbidity and recovery from ill-health. Nutrition is coming to the fore as a major modifiable determinant of chronic disease, with scientific evidence increasingly supporting the view that alterations in diet have strong effects, both positive and negative, on health throughout life. Diet has been known for many years to play a key role as a risk factor for chronic disease. Hunger, malnutrition and poor lifestyle remain among the most devastating problems facing the majority of the worlds poor and needy people; our communities inclusive. The Objective is to clarify the role of diet in preventing and controlling morbidity and premature mortality resulting from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Using Health Belief Model (HBM), questionnaire was designed for data collection, 100 ...
To strengthen national efforts to address the burden of NCDs, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020 (resolution WHA66.10). The global action plan offers a paradigm shift by providing a road map and a menu of policy options for Member States, WHO, other UN organizations and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs and the private sector which, when implemented collectively between 2013 and 2020, will attain 9 voluntary global targets, including that of a 25% relative reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025
Dr. Sumida has received a $2.9 million grant to pursue his study of microbial populations circulating in the blood of patients with kidney failure. The award from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, a division of the National Institutes of Health, will support his project, titled Circulating microbiome and premature mortality in hemodialysis patients. The project focuses on whether microorganisms exist in the blood of ESRD patients, where they come from, and what roles they play in the disease.. Dr. Sumida first became interested in the relation of the microbiome to chronic kidney disease about five years ago. I have been particularly interested in the potentially underrecognized roles of the gut, specifically the multi-directional, pathophysiological interactions between the gut, kidney, and heart (also known as the gut-kidney-heart axis), said Dr. Sumida. When I started looking into the microbiomes role in the gut-kidney-heart axis in ESRD patients, the ...
The Max Foundation is a non-profit global health organization that believes all people living with cancer deserve access to the best treatment, care, and support.. We decrease premature mortality from cancer by channeling humanitarian donations of life-saving oncology products to underserved populations in countries where those products are not locally available. By partnering with the major cancer institutions and patient associations in low- and middle-income countries, we enable effective solutions for access to treatment. ...
The emerging epidemic of hypertension (HTN) in sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to worsen. Uncontrolled HTN is associated with CVD, high morbidity and premature mortality; hence early detection, treatment and control of HTN is critical to reduction of the associated sequelae. The study was guided by the Social Ecological Model and principles of Community Based Participatory Research ...
Because of YOU! The world around us is filled with heroes who help silently through prayers and money. We promise Lea who will turn 3 this summer, and we promise you to reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases by 2030 through prevention and treatment and through promoting mental health and well-being. This is one of the #UN #SDG goals we actively participate in and we will fulfill it ...
Malnutrition is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is one of the main causes of child morbidity and contributes significantly to premature mortality. This chapter discusses the design...
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major health problem in Fiji causing considerable premature mortality and limitation of improvement in life …
Researchers at the University of Birmingham have published results that suggest a non-invasive breath test for liver disease using an IONICON PTR-MS. Elevated levels of limonene in patients have been found to be indicative of a diseased liver.. Especially in the UK liver disease has risen sharply over the past few decades and is the third biggest cause of premature mortality. Patients do not often present with symptoms until the disease is advanced. Even then diagnosis is difficult and the symptoms are often general and can be mistaken for other pathologies.. ...
Leading causes of premature death among men (ranked by YLLs), comparing age-standardized YLL rates (ASYR) by cause of death and ethnicity, San Francisco, 2003
Breast cancer drugs that suppress the bodys production of oestrogen significantly reduce the risk of premature death, a study has shown.
The UN Sustainable Development Goals, in force from 2016, should focus on cutting premature deaths by tackling chronic disease, say health experts
Research have helped explain how ozone causes severe respiratory problems and thousands of cases of premature death each year by attacking the fatty lining of our lungs.
Try googling the phrase make money online and you will quickly see that one of the top cited ways, if not the first search you will find, to making money online is by doing paid surveys. If you think about it, this sounds really nice. You are asked a couple of questions on various topics, sometimes because you are an expert, or you have purchased or used a product or service. Of course the truth is that most of the time you are chosen for surveys because you are the one who the companies want to purchase their products or services. That way, with their surveys they can find out what you really want for their next series of products and of course they sort of get a small advertisement. Well now, since these companies find out what you like and you are really a significant part of their research and development team, why not be compensated for this task.. Yes all these sound quite nice. The main problem with this picture is that you only receive a small fraction of the money that companies spend ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Stress is one of the most common problems in the world. It is tempting to think that stress is a product of modern life, but thats probably not the case. Sure, our ancestors might not have had 9-to-5 jobs, but they often had much harder trials to endure. Everything from daily activities to wars to famines has conditio
Coping with stress in a helpful way is a challenge for most people. But you hear about how we should all learn to deal with stress more effectively. Because
High levels of a specific hormone in a patient of kidney ailment can tell who will develop heart problems, require dialysis or die prematurely. This discovery allows us to predict at-risk patients before they require dialysis, said lead
Smoking is number one cause of preventable premature death in the United states. Percentage of US poplation that smokes comes to around 25% with Male more then
Its hard to fathom what its like to live in the abyssal sea, miles below the sunlit world we experience. Dark, cold, high pressure, all the time. Living in such a habitat is so foreign to the way we interact with the world. Yet life in this deep-sea world is directly coupled to the world we know-life-supporting energy input to the deep sea arrives from above, in the form of sinking particles. These particles include dead and decaying organisms, fecal wastes, and discarded mucous-like webs used by marine invertebrates to catch their prey. The energy to make these particles can be traced back to harvesting of sunlight in the upper ocean by photosynthetic microorganisms. These particles gradually settle to the bottom of the sea, where they support the energetic needs of organisms that permanently reside on the oceans bottom.. The most abundant of these deep-sea organisms are microbes - tiny single-celled organisms too small to be seen without high-powered microscopes. At upwards of a billion ...
A genomic interrogation of homosexuality turns up speculative links between genetic elements and sexual orientation, but researchers say the study is too small to be significant. 6 Comments. ...