Read chapter APPENDIX D: Differential Mortality Estimates Derived from Fertility History Data: Levels and Recent Trends in Fertility and Mortality in Colo...
The strength of natural selection is directly related to the degree of differential mortality in the population. If the probability of survival for an individual is a function of the value of a particular trait, then that trait is subject to selection pressures (assuming, of course, that the trait is heritable). Selection will not occur if the probability of mortality is the same for all individuals.. The relationship between mortality and a traits value need not be a linear one for selection to occur. The probability of mortality may increase with the trait value, decrease with the trait value, increase with extreme trait values, increase for intermediate trait values or density dependent; an infinite array of possibilities exist. ...
Downloadable! We study how mortality reductins and income growth interact, looking at their relationship prior to the Industrial Revolution, when income per capita was stagnant. We first present a model of individual medical spending giving a rationale for individual health expenditures even when medicine was not effective in postponing death. We then explain the rise of effective medicine by a learning process function of expenditures in health. The rise in effective medicine can then be linked to the take-off of the eighteenth century through life expectancy increases, and fostered capital accumulation. The rise of effective medicine has also an impact on the relation between growth and inequality and on the intergenerational persistence of differences in income. These channels are operative through differential mortality induced by medicine effectiveness that turns out to determines a differential in the propensity to save among income groups.
Relative to developed countries, there are far fewer women than men in parts of the developing world. Estimates suggest that more than 200 million women are demographically missing worldwide. To explain the global missing women phenomenon, research has mainly focused on excess female mortality in Asia.. However, as emphasized in our earlier research, at least 30 per cent of the missing women are missing from Africa. This paper employs a novel methodology to determine how the phenomenon of missing women is distributed across Africa. Moreover, it provides estimates of the extent of excess female mortality within different age groups and by disease category. The empirical results reiterate the importance of excess female mortality for women in Africa.. ...
Health Reports, volume 23, number 3. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study. Table 4 Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years at risk for selected causes of death, by educational attainment, age group and sex, cohort members aged 25 or older at baseline, Canada 1991 to 2006
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper examines the impact of universal, free, and easily accessible primary healthcare on population health as measured by age-specific mortality rates, focusing on a nationwide socialized medicine program implemented in Turkey. The Family Medicine Program (FMP), launched in 2005, assigns each Turkish citizen to a specific state-employed family physician who offers a wide range of primary healthcare services that are free-of-charge. Furthermore, these services are provided at family health centers, which operate on a walk-in basis and are located within neighborhoods in close proximity to the patients. To identify the causal impact of the FMP, we exploit the variation in its introduction across provinces and over time. Our estimates indicate that the FMP caused the mortality rate to decrease by 25.6% among infants, 7.7% among the elderly, and 22.9% among children ages 1-4. These estimates translate into 2.6, 1.29, and 0.13 fewer deaths among infants, the elderly,
BACKGROUND: Until 1990, there was an upward trend in mortality from breast, lung, prostate, and colon cancers in the United Kingdom. With improvements in cancer treatment there has, in general, been a fall in mortality over the last 20 years. We evaluate regional cancer mortality trends in the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2007. METHODS: We analysed mortality trends for breast, lung, prostate, and colon cancers using data obtained from the EUREG cancer database. We have described changes in age-standardised rates (using European standard population) per 100,000 for cancer mortality and generated trends in mortality for the 11 regions using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS: Across all regions in the United Kingdom there was a downward trend in mortality for the four most common cancers in males and females. Overall, deaths from colon cancer decreased most rapidly and deaths from prostate cancer decreased at the slowest rate. Similar downward trends in mortality were observed across all regions of the
Purpose: Glycoprotein 2b3a inhibitors are still commonly utilized in patients receiving coronary interventions for stable CAD and in patients who are suffering unstable coronary syndromes (ACS). Early reports suggested improved survival in PCI with use of these agents. There is little information available on whether this mortality benefit extends more than one month after administration. In this study, we sought to determine if there is a difference in early and late mortality with administration of G2b3a inhibitors in CAD and ACS.. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to locate randomized controlled trials of G2b3a inhibitors in patients undergoing PCI and suffering acute coronary syndromes (STEMI and ACS). Studies were included if there were reports of both 30 day and 180-365 day death rates. Meta-analyses were performed for early (,30 day), late (30-365 day) and total (0-365 day) mortality separately for stable and unstable CAD. A separate analysis of abciximab in ...
The Human Mortality Database (HMD) was created to provide detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity. The project began as an outgrowth of earlier projects in the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, and at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany (see history). It is the work of two teams of researchers in the USA and Germany (see research teams), with the help of financial backers and scientific collaborators from around the world (see acknowledgements). The Center on the Economics and Development of Aging (CEDA) French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) has also supported the further development of the database in recent years. We seek to provide open, international access to these data. At present the database contains detailed population and mortality data for the following 39 countries or areas: ...
IHME research used de-identified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the U.S. Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database and small area estimation models in order to estimate county-level mortality rates from all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke, and other types. This dataset provides estimates for age-standardized mortality rates by CVD type and sex at the county level for each state, the District of Columbia, and the United States as a whole for 1980-2014, as well as the changes in rates for each location during this period. Also included are data on the 10 counties with the highest and lowest mortality rates for each CVD type in 2014 and the top 10 causes of death by CVD type for each county. Study results were published in JAMA in May 2017 in Trends and patterns of geographic variations in cardiovascular mortality among US counties, ...
According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 2,278, 994 deaths occurred in the United States in 1994. This figure was 10,441 larger than that reported for 1993, and 103,381 more than the total for 1992. Although the number of deaths increased, the crude and age-adjusted death rates for 1994 suggest an overall improvement in the general mortality experienced by those in the U.S. The report, Advance Report of Final Mortality, 1994 presents trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality. Also included are descriptive data on U.S. deaths and death rates, according to such demographic and medical characteristics as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, State of residence, and causes of death. Data contained in this report are based on information from death certificates filed in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...
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This article was published in, and the following abstract copied from Social Science & Medicine.. The persistence of adult health and mortality socioeconomic inequalities and the equally stubborn reproduction of social class inequalities are salient features in modern societies that puzzle researchers in seemingly unconnected research fields. Neither can be satisfactorily explained with standard theoretical frameworks. In the domain of health and mortality, it is unclear if and to what an extent adult health and mortality disparities across socioeconomic status (SES) are the product of attributes of the positions themselves, the partial result of health conditions established earlier in life that influence both adult health and economic success, or the outcome of the reverse impact of health status on SES. In the domain of social stratification, the transmission of inequalities across generations has been remarkably resistant to satisfactory explanations. Although the literature on social ...
Majid Ezzati and colleagues analyze US county-level mortality data for 1961 to 1999, and find a steady increase in mortality inequality across counties between 1983 and 1999.
Persons with disabilities who experience problems accessing PDF files should contact [email protected] or call 301-458-4688. Worktable orig 250R lists death rates per 100,000 population for NCHS mortality tabulation list of 113 selected causes of death. Death rates are tabulated for 10-year age groups and by Hispanic origin and race for non-Hispanic population. Selected causes include such major conditions as heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic respiratory diseases, pneumonia and influenza, diabetes, accidents (unintentional injuries), kidney conditions, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), septicemia (infection of the bloodstream), Alzheimers disease, birth defects, conditions originating in the perinatal period, complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, assault (homicide), intentional self-harm (suicide), anemia, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, hypertension, and other major causes of death. A number of States did not provide complete confirmation of deaths from ...
In summary, OP models do not accurately describe the structure of the genetic covariance function when the genetic correlation is expected to decline significantly with age. We argued (see above) that it is these types of covariance functions that one might expect from natural stochastic processes. For relatively simple covariance structures, however, the OP models accurately estimate the surfaces (Figure 2). Flexibility from the range of allowable character process models allows a reasonable approximation to the actual covariance structure even when it is very irregular (Figure 3). Moreover, Figures 1, 2, 3 suggest that a significant strength of the character process model is its separation of variance functions from correlation functions. In all the examples, the majority of lack of fit is in the covariance (not variance) structure, suggesting the overall fit of the model is determined primarily by estimates of age-specific variances.. Age-specific mortality rates in Drosophila: In this ...
We identified eight large randomised trials which had usable post-trial data to assess legacy effects on mortality outcomes. The direct effects of the statins on mortality reduction observed during the trials were much larger than potential legacy effects observed post-trial, which suggests the rhetoric on legacy effects for statins in general may not reflect the empirical evidence. WOSCOPS was the only trial to show a possible post-trial legacy effect on all-cause and CVD-specific mortality. When we pooled data from all eight studies, we found no evidence overall of legacy effects on CVD mortality, but some evidence of possible legacy effects on all-cause mortality. In the exploratory subgroup analysis, there was some evidence of a difference in results for primary prevention compared with secondary prevention. Considering these subgroups separately, we found no evidence of legacy effects following secondary prevention trials, suggesting the importance of long-term/lifelong prevention in these ...
Our study, based on a cohort of 1 466 726 residents in Rome, and followed for 14 years, showed significant differences in mortality by occupational status and type of job both, in men and in women. Globally, we found stronger occupational inequalities in men than in women for all outcomes, except for CVD mortality. The bigger difference in mortality risk by type of job in men respect to women is coherent with reports in other settings.6 32 However, it is difficult to perform international comparison, because occupational status (ie, employed vs unemployed), and type of job (ie, skilled vs non-skilled workers), depend on the contextual productive tissue, on local legislation, and on the variables categorisation.. We found a disadvantage for all categories of occupation status in both sexes compared with the employed, except for students. This pattern, for men, was confirmed in the international literature,6 in particular in the context of other European countries, with a 64% increased risk in the ...
In all cross-shore gradient-dependent mortality models the mortality function M was determined either by the cross-shore location of the particle (ADG), or by the cross-shore location of the particle and scaled solar insolation (ADGI). The cross-shore dependence of M was similar to the horizontal diffusion function used in all models (Eq. (1)): equation(8) ADG model:M=m1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscale equation(9) ADGI model:M=I(t)Imaxm1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscalewhere. m0 is surfzone mortality, m1 is offshore mortality, y0 is the offshore edge of the surfzone, and yscale determines the cross-shore scale of the surfzone/offshore transition. Values for y0 and yscale BGJ398 mouse were 50 m and 5 m, respectively, the same values used to parameterize diffusivity (Eq. (1)). Note that in the ADG and ADGI models, mortality is not an intrinsic property of a given particle (as in the ADS and ADSI models). Instead, particles move through stationary cross-shore mortality gradients and take on different mortality rates ...
Methods Our analyses include all Asian and white deaths in the USA between 2006 and 2010, from the Center for Disease Control. Using the International Classification of Diseases (V.10), we code causes of deaths into 19 categories, based on the most common causes as well as causes particularly relevant to racial differences. We then create life tables and apply a newly-developed demographic method to determine whether Asians have longer life expectancy because they are less likely than whites to die of causes of death that strike at younger ages, or because they tend to outlive whites regardless of cause of death. ...
Five year age-standardised mortality rates by county, sex and cause are presented in this table. These allow comparison of mortality rates between populations of different age composition, and also of mortality rates over time. The age-standardised rate for an area is the number of deaths (per 100,000) that would occur if that area had the same age structure as the WHO European Standard Population and the local age-specific rates for that area applied. Confidence intervals for these rates are also presented. The data cover the years from 1980 to 2012. For 2012, year of registration data are used; for all previous years, statistics are based on year of occurrence. Note: For example, year 2011 contains 5-year mortality data aggregated for years 2007-2011. A total of 74 causes of death categories are reported. These are ordered according to the Eurostat 65 Cause of Death shortlist, along with 9 additional national categories. The classification system used for data up to and including 2006 is ICD9. ...
This report presents worldwide estimates of annual mortality from all cancers and for 18 specific cancer sites around 1985. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and numbers of deaths were computed for 24 geographical areas. Of the estimated 5 million deaths from cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, 56% occurred in developing...
Early recording of mortality rate in European cities proved highly useful in controlling the plague and other major epidemics.[14] Public health in industrialised countries was transformed when mortality rate as a function of age, sex and socioeconomic status emerged in the late 19th and 20th centuries.[15][16] This track record has led to the argument that inexpensive recording of vital statistics in developing countries may become the most effective means to improve global health.[17] Gathering official mortality statistics can be very difficult in developing countries, where many individuals lack the ability or knowledge to report incidences of death to National Vital Statistics Registries. This can lead to distortion in mortality statistics and a wrongful assessment of overall health. Studies conducted in northeastern Brazil, where underreporting of infant mortality is of huge concern, have shown that alternative methods of data collection, including the use of popular Death Reporters ...
METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured serum RA concentrations in 1499 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease (mean age, 61 years; male, 67%) recruited from October 2008 and December 2011 in the Guangdong Coronary Artery Disease Cohort. During a median (interquartile range) period of 4.4 (3.6 to 6.1) years of follow-up, there were 295 all-cause mortality, among which 208 had cardiovascular mortality. Serum RA level was significantly lower in participants with mortality (median 21 [11-47] nmol/L) than in those without mortality (median 39 [19-86] nmol/L). In multivariate analyses, the hazard ratios for total mortality among those in the lowest (referent) to highest quartiles of serum RA measured at study entry were 1.0, 0.83, 0.74, and 0.56, respectively (P-trend,0.001). For cardiovascular mortality, the comparable hazard ratios were 1.0, 0.76, 0.69, and 0.60 (P-trend,0.001). Furthermore, high RA levels (defined as ,median) were associated with lower risk of total mortality ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mortality in workers employed in pig abattoirs and processing plants. AU - Johnson, Eric S.. AU - Ndetan, Harrison. AU - Felini, Martha J.. AU - Faramawi, Mohammed F.. AU - Singh, Karan P.. AU - Choi, Kyung Mee. AU - Qualls-Hampton, Raquel. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - Objective: workers in slaughterhouses and processing plants that handle pigs, and pork butchers/meatcutters have been little studied for health risks associated with employment, in spite of the fact that they are potentially exposed to oncogenic and non-oncogenic transmissible agents and chemical carcinogens at work. We report here on an update of mortality in 510 workers employed in abattoirs and processing plants that almost exclusively handled pigs and pork products. Methods: standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated for the cohort as a whole, and in subgroups defined by race and sex, using the corresponding US general population mortality rates for comparison. Study subjects were followed up from ...
(PhysOrg.com) -- Nurses are the front-line caregivers to hospital patients, coordinating and providing direct care and delivering it safely and reliably. The goal for any hospital is to ensure that each of its patient-care units has an adequate number of nurses during every shift.
The associations between socioeconomic variables and mortality for 41,000 adults Vietnamese followed from January 1999 to March 2008 are estimated using Coxs proportionally hazard models. Also, we use decomposition techniques to investigate the relative importance of socioeconomic factors for explaining inequality in age-standardized mortality risk. The results confirm previously found negative association between mortality and income and education, for both men and women. We also found that marital status, at least for men, explain a large and growing part of the inequality. Finally, estimation results for relative education variables suggest that there exist positive spillover of education, meaning that that higher education of ones neighbors or spouse might reduce ones mortality risk.. ...
The national 10-year Development Programme for the Prevention and Care of Diabetes (DEHKO) was launched in Finland in 2000. The program focused on improving early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and preventing diabetes-related complications. The FinDM database was established for epidemiological monitoring of diabetes and its complications. This study monitors mortality trends among people with diabetes during the DEHKO programme. A database obtained from a compilation of several administrative national health registers was used to study mortality in people with diabetes in 1998-2007. Relative excess mortality between people with and without diabetes was analyzed using Poisson regression models. The number of diabetic people in Finland increased by 66% from 1997 reaching 284 832 in 2007. Like among non-diabetic people, all-cause mortality decreased in people with diabetes. Overall excess mortality remained high in people with diabetes; in 2003-2007 RRs in the non-insulin treated was 1.82 for men and 1.95
BACKGROUND: We investigate the sex-age-specific changes in the mortality of a prospectively monitored rural population in South Africa. We quantify changes in the age pattern of mortality in a parsimonious way by estimating the eight parameters of the Heligman-Pollard (HP) model of age-specific mortality. In its traditional form this model is difficult to fit and does not account for uncertainty.. OBJECTIVE: 1. To quantify changes in the sex-age pattern of mortality experienced by a population with endemic HIV. 2. To develop and demonstrate a robust Bayesian estimation method for the HP model that accounts for uncertainty.. METHODS: Bayesian estimation methods are adapted to work with the HP model. Temporal changes in parameter values are related to changes in HIV prevalence.. RESULTS: Over the period when the HIV epidemic in South Africa was growing, mortality in the population described by our data increased profoundly with losses of life expectancy of ~15 years for both males and females. The ...
This is the first reported study of the mortality associated with LVD in an unselected population derived from the community as opposed to that of patients recruited for clinical trials. We have shown that significant LVD is associated with a substantial mortality rate of 21%, five times that of the general population with LVEF , 30% and six times that of patients with LVEF , 40%. Our study included subjects with both symptomatic and asymptomatic LVD, and is not directly comparable with other epidemiological studies of the mortality of CHF, the symptomatic end of the spectrum. At the same time, LVD in our study conferred an increment in mortality similar to that of the population in the Framingham heart studys 40 year follow-up, in which the CHF mortality rate was six times that of the age corrected normal population.3 The absolute five year all cause mortality rates in the Framingham cohort were higher (75% in men and 62% in women), as was the 34% one year mortality rate in another US study ...
Three interrelated projects together aim to develop an integrated, multifaceted understanding of the male-female health-survival paradox. Women - at least human women - tend to outlive men, but with higher disability levels at all ages. Building on our current research, we aim to analyze whether this paradox is universal or unique to our species, and whether it can be explained. Or, in other words, how much do male-female differences depend on context and species? Project 1: Male-Female Mortality Differences In this project, our focus is determining whether females, on average, always live longer than males. Our research will encompass demographic analyses to shed light on the supposed survival advantage of females by studying lifetables-from modern human populations, prehistoric human populations, and populations of nonhuman animals-that include estimates of age-specific death rates for males vs. females. We are: Analyzing thousands of years worth of human mortality data: The Paleodemographic ...
It has been well established in Australia that people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality than other Australians. Further, there is evidence that the differential has widened, with relative CVD mortality inequality between Australians from the most disadvantaged areas and those from the least disadvantaged areas being higher in recent years than it was in the mid-1980s. A similar trend of widening socioeconomic inequalities in CVD mortality has also been observed in other OECD countries.This bulletin examines inequalities in CVD mortality over the 10-year period from 1992 to 2002 and hospitalisations over the period 1996-97 to 2003-04 for people aged 25-74 years to try to answer key questions in relation to mortality and significant morbidity requiring hospitalisation.. ...
Background: Earlier investigations have shown mortality effects of community socio-economic resources. However, the sex differences have not been clear and the estimates may well have been biased because of inadequate control for community factors affecting both the socio-economic resources and mortality. The objective of this study was to see whether effects appeared when time-invariant community characteristics were controlled by including community dummies (fixed effects) and whether there were differences between women and men.. Methods: Discrete-time hazard models for all-cause mortality were estimated for 1981-2002 for all Norwegians aged 60-89, using register data. There were 730000 deaths among 1.7 million people observed during 19 million person-years. Average education was measured for 433 municipalities for each of the 22 years.. Results: According to the simplest models, a high average education in the municipality is associated with increased mortality. Control for population size ...
County population figures and death statistics are acquired using CDC WONDER from the Underlying Cause of Death database. Conditions were queried for years 2006-2010 based on a selection of codes from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Version 10. The ICD-10 is the current global health information standard for mortality and morbidity statistics. The ICD has been maintained by the World Health Organization since its conception in 1948. A searchable, detailed list of current ICD- 10 Codes (Version 2010) is available from the World Health Organization.. Mortality rates were acquired from the source age-adjusted to the year 2000 U.S. standard. To recalculate age-adjusted mortality rates for unique service areas and aggregated county groupings, the following formula was used ...
Age-standardised mortality rates by county, sex and cause are presented. These allow comparison of mortality rates between populations of different age composition, and also of mortality rates over time. The age-standardised rate for an area is the number of deaths (per 100,000) that would occur if that area had the same age structure as the WHO European Standard Population and the local age-specific rates for that area applied. Confidence intervals for these rates are also presented. The data cover the years from 1980 to 2012. For 2012, year of registration data are used; for all previous years, statistics are based on year of occurrence. A total of 74 causes of death categories are reported. These are ordered according to the Eurostat 65 Cause of Death shortlist, along with 9 additional national categories. The classification system used for data up to and including 2006 is ICD9. From 2007, ICD10 is used. Caution should be exercised in comparing data up to 2006 with data from 2007 onwards. ...
During 2016, mortality improvement in older age groups offset large mortality increases, mostly due to external causes in middle age groups, according to the Society of Actuaries.
Lets go through a simple example to illustrate this concept. Lets pretend that the total number of cases of disease D diagnosed using stone-age test T 30 years ago was 100 in a population of 10,000 people. Of these cases, 90 died, giving us the case fatality of 90% and mortality of 9 per 1,000 population. Now, we have a new test for D, a super-Doppler-MRI-PET-cyberscan called über-T, a much more sensitive test than the old gold standard test T. And now we detect 1,000 cases of D in the population of 10,000 people. Of the 1,000 cases detected by über-T, 90 have died. The case fatality now has decreased dramatically from 90% to 9%, and we can pat ourselves on the back for a job well done, right? Not so fast, the population mortality from disease D has remained a steady 9 per 1,000 population ...
The original forms used different schedules, Form E (E), a variant on form E (WE), Form EE (EE), and a social questionairre (SE). The variable form used indicates which of these it is. Because the data were collected under different screen versions, not all variables in this release are fully compatible. Screen version is indicated in the variable source (EE=form EE version 1, SE=social form, WE=variant on form E version 1, E=form E version 1, i2=form EE version 2, i7=form EE version 3, il=form E version 2). Note that some variables may contain absurd values, so users should check for measurements that are outside of reasonable bounds. Birth place codes are given in the pdf file, birthcodes.pdf.. To report errors, or if you have questions or comments, e-mail [email protected] ...
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in adult mortality have been observed in South Africa since the mid-2000s, but there has been no formal evaluation of how much of this decline is attributable to the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART), as previous models have not been calibrated to vital registration data. We developed a deterministic mathematical model to simulate the mortality trends that would have been expected in the absence of ART, and with earlier introduction of ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model estimates of mortality rates in ART patients were obtained from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration ...
A study published in the Journal of Public Health finds that for each person in the U.S. who died after contracting COVID-19, an average of nearly 10 years of life had been lost. Researchers claim years of life lost is a more insightful measure than death count since it accounts for the ages of the deceased.
The objective of this study is to measure the effect on mortality rates in post-weaned pigs in a real GD farm case when a specific vaccine program with HIPRASUIS® GLÄSSER vaccine (HIPRA) was applied either in sows or piglets.. ...
RESULTS The affected subjects had a nearly 40% higher all-cause mortality risk in the 1st month after the storms, but the difference fell to ,6% by the end of the full observation period. The mortality risks of heart disease and nephritis also exhibited the largest differences immediately following the storms. Among the affected subjects, the all-cause mortality risk was higher for those who moved to a different county, with an especially large difference among those who moved to an affected county. ...
Read Healthcare :: Lower mortality rates associated with hospitals that rank highest on quality of care indicators | Spirit India
The mortality data distributed along with SEER*Stat are collected and maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), part of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The data covers all causes of death, not just cancer deaths.. SEER*Stat users can only access these data in client-server mode.. Use of the NCHS mortality data for publication purposes should include a citation of software and data source.. ...
Differential Mortality in the United States (A Study in Socio-Economic Epidemiology) by Kitagawa Evelyn M. (ISBN: 978-0-674-18844-0); Published by Harvard University Pressin Oct 2013. Compare book prices on Bookwire.com to buy books from the lowest price among top online book retailers
Objectives. The present study aims to compare the direction and magnitude of sex differences in mortality and major health dimensions across Denmark, Japan and the US. Methods. The Human Mortality Database was used to examine sex differences in age-specific mortality rates. The Danish twin surveys, the Danish 1905-Cohort Study, the Health and Retirement Study, and the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging were used to examine sex differences in health. Results. Men had consistently higher mortality rates at all ages in all three countries, but they also had a substantial advantage in handgrip strength compared with the same-aged women. Sex differences in activities of daily living (ADL) became pronounced among individuals aged 85+ in all three countries. Depression levels tended to be higher in women, particularly, in Denmark and the HRS, and only small sex differences were observed in the immediate recall test and Mini-Mental State Exam. Conclusions. The present study revealed ...
Age-adjusted death rates in the United States dropped significantly between 2005 and 2006 and life expectancy hit another record high, according to preliminary death statistics released today by CDC s National Center for Health Statistics.. The 2006 age-adjusted death rate fell to 776.4 deaths per 100,000 population from 799 deaths per 100,000 in 2005, the CDC report said. In addition, death rates for eight of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States all dropped significantly in 2006, it said. These included a very sharp drop in mortality from influenza and pneumonia.. The preliminary infant mortality rate for 2006 was 6.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, a 2.3 percent decline from the 2005 rate of 6.9. ...
Background: Since 2002, under the Bloomberg administration, New York City (NYC) has aggressively pursued and implemented a broad set of public health policies to reduce chronic disease. Limited research exists evaluating secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality against the backdrop of these policy initiatives.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that CVD mortality trends declined more rapidly during the years 2002-2011 compared with the previous decade.. Methods: Using individual death certificates of NYC residents during 1990-2011, all-cause mortality rates were calculated in addition to the following cause-specific mortality rates: any CVD, atherosclerotic CVD (ACVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, ischemic stroke. Mortality rates were age and sex standardized to the NYC year 2000 population. Joinpoint regression identified years in which mortality trends changed after excluding 116,285 deaths (10% of all deaths) occurring in 9 NYC hospitals (due to their participation in a ...
Australian mortality rates are higher in regional and remote areas than in major cities. The degree to which this is driven by variation in modifiable risk factors is unknown. We applied a risk prediction equation incorporating smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure to a national, population based survey to project all-causes mortality risk by geographic region. We then modelled life expectancies at different levels of mortality risk by geographic region using a risk percentiles model. Finally we set high values of each risk factor to a target level and modelled the subsequent shift in the population to lower levels of mortality risk and longer life expectancy. Survival is poorer in both Inner Regional and Outer Regional/Remote areas compared to Major Cities for men and women at both high and low levels of predicted mortality risk. For men smoking, high cholesterol and high systolic blood pressure were each associated with the mortality difference between Major Cities and Outer Regional/Remote areas-
Mortality rate; adult; female (per 1;000 female adults) in Micronesia was last measured at 152.04 in 2013, according to the World Bank. Adult mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60--that is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reaching age 60, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates between those ages.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - adult - female (per 1;000 female adults) in Micronesia.
Public health officials in Alameda County are asking local leaders to pause plans to move the county into its next phase of reopening as the novel coronavirus continues a statewide surge.. The Alameda County Public Health Department is pulling back a request to the countys Board of Supervisors to support a variance that would let the county move forward. A press release from Alameda Countys Office of Emergency Services announced that increases in COVID-19 cases and hospitalization rates have compelled the county to temporarily pause its reopening plans.. Alameda County has recorded 5,762 coronavirus cases since the beginning of the pandemic, the most of any Bay Area county. The county has added more than 700 cases to its count over the last seven days and has also recorded 13 additional deaths, bringing the COVID-19 death toll in Alameda County to 133.. We are concerned by the increase in local cases, disproportionate impact on communities of color, local impact of the outbreak at San Quentin ...
Mortality rate; under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil was last measured at 16.40 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil.
There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based interventions that had independently verified child mortality reduction estimates, as well as
Given that the cohort effect can be interpreted as a special case of the interaction between two categorical variables, the equation above satisfies the assumption that there is no interaction 21. Any violation of that assumption can be detected from graphs presenting the age-specific mortality rate by period. Lack of parallelism between the curves suggests the presence of the cohort effect 22.. This study used weighted parameterization, as proposed by Holford 20, as an alternative solution to the non-identifiability problem.. Given that lung cancer is a chronic, non-communicable disease, rate is assumed in this model to be constant within each of the given age and period categories. Individuals are also assumed to be independent cases and, consequently, contributions to different cells in the data base are also independent. Accordingly, the APC models for rates can be adjusted using Poisson Regression for event counts. This methodology permits the use of an offset term log(nijk), which ...
More maps: Africa , Asia , Central America & the Caribbean , Europe , Middle East , North America , Oceania , South America , World , Development Relevance: The crude mortality rate is a good indicator of the general health status of a geographic area or population. The crude death rate is not appropriate for comparison of different populations or areas with large differences in age-distributions. Higher crude death rates can be found in some developed countries, despite high life expectancy, because typically these countries have a much higher proportion of older people, due to lower recent birth rates and lower age-specific mortality rates.. Limitations and Exceptions: Annual data series from United Nations Population Divisions World Population Prospects are interpolated data from 5-year period data. Therefore they may not reflect real events as much as observed data.. Statistical Concept and Methodology: The crude death rate is calculated as the number of deaths in a given period divided by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The intellectual disability mortality disadvantage. T2 - Diminishing with age?. AU - Landes, Scott D.. PY - 2017/3. Y1 - 2017/3. N2 - On average, adults with intellectual disability (ID) have higher mortality risk than their peers in the general population. However, the effect of age on this mortality disadvantage has received minimal attention. Using data from the 1986-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (NHIS-LMF), discrete time hazard models were used to compare mortality risk for adults with and without ID by age and gender. Increased mortality risk was present for all adults with ID, but was most pronounced among younger age females. The mortality differential between those with and without ID diminished with increased age for both females and males. Findings support the argument that heterogeneity of frailty may explain differences in mortality risk between those with and without ID.. AB - On average, adults with intellectual disability (ID) have ...
Prostate cancer, according to the World Health Organization, is the second most common cause of cancer worldwide. With an estimated 1.1 million people affected by prostate cancer in 2012, composing 15% of all new cancer cases worldwide, this condition poses a significant burden of mortality and morbidity on society. Even though the burden of prostate cancer is present worldwide, there are disparities in mortality rates worldwide. While in Sub-Saharan Africa and Caribbean, the age-adjusted mortality rates are as high as 24 per 100,000, in Asia the age-adjusted mortality rates are as low 2.9 per 100,000. Specific countries in Sub-Saharan Africa like Uganda have a prostate cancer mortality rate as high as 38.8 per 100,000, which is close to the incidence rate of 48.2 per 100,000. Even though in the United Kingdom the incidence rate is much higher at 111.1 per 100,000, the mortality rate is comparable to that of Sub-Saharan Africa at 22.8 per 100,000. As demonstrated in this global review of prostate cancer
article{f694784f-8231-4893-a2d2-c04b98a02454, abstract = {Objective: Cigarette smoking has been reported as probable risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a poorly understood disease in terms of aetiology. The extensive longitudinal data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were used to evaluate age-specific mortality rates from ALS and the role of cigarette smoking on the risk of dying from ALS. Methods: A total of 517,890 healthy subjects were included, resulting in 4,591,325 person-years. ALS cases were ascertained through death certificates. Cox hazard models were built to investigate the role of smoking on the risk of ALS, using packs/years and smoking duration to study dose-response. Results: A total of 118 subjects died from ALS, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.69 per 100,000/year. Current smokers at recruitment had an almost two-fold increased risk of dying from ALS compared to never smokers (HR = 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.14-3.14), ...
This dissertation consists of three comparative studies of health and mortality which address major topics in the field: persistent mortality disparities within the U.S., how mortality in the U.S. compares to other high-income countries, and early life determinants of adult morbidity in developing countries. The design of these studies is predicated on the belief that we can draw meaningful inferences from comparisons across populations. Chapter I examines the contribution of smoking to black-white mortality differences above age 50 from 1980-2005. This study shows that smoking-attributable mortality accounted for 20-40% of the black-white mortality gap among males between 1980-2005, but accounted for almost none of the black-white mortality gap among females. The results support the hypothesis that later initiation and lower rates of smoking cessation among black men may contribute to their higher levels of smoking-related mortality relative to white men. Chapter II provides a comprehensive assessment
Objectives The study investigated the relationship between shiftwork and mortality, both total mortality and cause-specific mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes.. Methods The cohort consisted of 2354 shiftworkers and 3088 dayworkers in two pulp and paper manufacturing plants. The mortality of the cohort was monitored from 1 January 1952 to 31 December 2001 by linkage to the national Cause of Death Register. Groups of workers defined by different durations of shiftwork exposure were compared with dayworkers by calculating standardized relative rates (SRR).. Results Death due to any cause (total mortality) was not higher among the shiftworkers than among the dayworkers [SRR 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.93-1.11]. A longer duration of shiftwork was associated with an increased risk of CHD, and shiftworkers with ,30 years of shiftwork had the highest risk of CHD (SRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) Diabetes was more common as the number of shift years of exposure ...
To establish which major disorders are susceptible to increased mortality following acute admissions on weekends, compared with week days, and how this may be explained. Cohorts based on national administrative inpatient and mortality data for 14,168,443 hospitalised patients in England and 913,068 in Wales who were admitted for 66 disorders that were associated with at least 200 deaths within 30 days of acute admission. The main outcome measure was the weekend mortality effect (defined as the conventional mortality odds ratio for admissions on weekends compared with week days). There were large, statistically significant weekend mortality effects (| 20%) in England for 22 of the 66 conditions and in both countries for 14. These 14 were 4 of 13 cancers (oesophageal, colorectal, lung and lymphomas); 4 of 13 circulatory disorders (angina, abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral vascular disease and arterial embolism & thrombosis); one of 8 respiratory disorders (pleural effusion); 2 of 12 gastrointestinal
Importance: In China, diabetes prevalence has increased substantially in recent decades, but there are no reliable estimates of the excess mortality currently associated with diabetes. Objectives: To assess the proportional excess mortality associated with diabetes and estimate the diabetes-related absolute excess mortality in rural and urban areas of China. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 7-year nationwide prospective study of 512 869 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 (5 rural and 5 urban) regions in China, who were recruited between June 2004 and July 2008 and were followed up until January 2014. Exposures: Diabetes (previously diagnosed or detected by screening) recorded at baseline. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality, collected through established death registries. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted mortality rate ratio (RR) comparing individuals with diabetes vs those without diabetes at baseline. Results: Among the 512 869 participants, the mean (SD)
Random glucose is widely measured in epidemiological studies and in the clinical setting when standardized fasting protocols and oral glucose tolerance testing or HbA1c measuring are not feasible. The relationship between random glucose and all-cause mortality has hardly been studied so far and was examined in the present study. We ascertained mortality status among 5955 persons aged 18-79 years and free of known diabetes when participating in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (mean observation time 11.7 years, 458 deaths). Cox regression was applied to analyze the association of random serum glucose with all-cause mortality taken potential confounders into account. Relative mortality risks were estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) modeling random glucose as categorical or continuous variable. Compared to random glucose levels of 4.3 - | 5.3 mmol/L, HRs (95% CIs) were 1.94 (0.85-4.45) for levels | 4.3 mmol/L and 1.16 (0.89-1.50), 1.20 (0.91
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Gangelt, Germany is the first city to do random antibody testing. By testing 1,000 people, Gangelt was able to determine people who had the virus as well as those people recovered from the virus. The results will amaze you.
Ottawa - The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) today released the results of a study entitled Cancer and General Mortality in Port Hope, 1956 - 1997. The study, carried out by Health Canada and subjected to a scientific peer review by independent scientists, found that the overall cancer mortality rates in the town of Port Hope, Ontario are comparable to rates throughout the Province of Ontario.. The study was commissioned by the CNSC and conducted by scientists at Health Canada.. Using data from the Canadian Mortality Database (CMDB), the study compared rates of cancer and other causes of death in Port Hope with provincial death rates, comparing death rates back to as early as 1956. It also compared cancer mortality results with a previous cancer incidence study conducted for the Port Hope area, results of which were released in August 2000.. The findings of this recent study are consistent with the earlier cancer incidence report. On the whole, the study findings demonstrate that the ...
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by cause is a key public health issue. The aim of this study was to compare methods to measure social inequalities in cause-specific mortality in the French population aged 25-55 years. More specifically, it compares bias and precision related to the use of occupational class declared at the last census (linked data) to the one declared at the time of death on the death certificate (unlinked data). METHODS: We used a representative sample of 1% of the French population. Causes of death were obtained by direct linkage with the French national death registry. Occupational class was classified into eight categories. Taking professionals and managers as the reference, relative risks of mortality by cause and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson models for the 1983-1989, 1991-1997, and 2000-2006 periods. The relative risks were calculated with both linked data and exhaustive unlinked data. RESULTS: Over
Updated Iraq Survey Affirms Earlier Mortality Estimates. Mortality Trends Comparable to Estimates by Those Using Other Counting Methods
Information on mortality rates for type 1 diabetes mellitus is difficult to ascertain without complete national registers of childhood diabetes, although age-specific mortality is probably double that... more
There were 3 major findings from this study (Central Illustration). First, runners had consistently lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with nonrunners. Second, running even at lower doses or slower speeds was associated with significant mortality benefits. Third, persistent running over time was more strongly associated with mortality reduction.. An earlier study found a 39% lower risk of all-cause mortality in 538 runners who were ≥50 years of age from the Runners Association database compared with 423 matched nonrunners from the Lipid Research Clinics database after adjustment for baseline age, sex, and functional ability (12). In our subsample of runners ≥50 years of age, we found 29% lower mortality risk, compared with nonrunners. The somewhat greater mortality benefits of running in the earlier study may be because runners from a running club were more likely to be health conscious, and physical activities other than running were not adjusted for in the ...
This paper documents a marked increase in the all-cause mortality of middle-aged white non-Hispanic men and women in the United States between 1999 and 2013. This change reversed decades of progress in mortality and was unique to the United States; no other rich country saw a similar turnaround. The midlife mortality reversal was confined to white non-Hispanics; black non-Hispanics and Hispanics at midlife, and those aged 65 and above in every racial and ethnic group, continued to see mortality rates fall. This increase for whites was largely accounted for by increasing death rates from drug and alcohol poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. Although all education groups saw increases in mortality from suicide and poisonings, and an overall increase in external cause mortality, those with less education saw the most marked increases. Rising midlife mortality rates of white non-Hispanics were paralleled by increases in midlife morbidity. Self-reported declines in health, ...
He also said most of the structures were improvised and not appropriately designed to serve as health facilities. Health staff needed in emergency cases lived very far from the various hospitals as a result of lack of staff accommodation.. Bad Roads. Dr Kakari said easy and safe access to health facilities by the sick and expectant mothers was very crucial, however, the road infrastructure from the communities to the health centres were in a very deplorable state and that made the expectant mothers arrive at the hospital late.. To arrest the situation, he said, the metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies (MMDAs) have a critical role to play and, as a matter of urgency, they must rise up and assist to improve the bad road network to these health facilities.. He said that the biggest challenge, apart from the obsolete equipment, was staff accommodation. If the critical health staff are not accommodated within or near the health facility, it will be difficult for them to respond promptly ...
OBJECTIVES: Concern about the health hazards of exposure to workers in the ferroalloy industry has initiated this historical cohort study. The aim was to examine the mortality pattern among male employees in 12 Norwegian ferroalloy plants. METHODS: All men employed for at least six months who started their first employment during 1933-91 were eligible for the cohort. Deaths observed during 1962-90 were compared with expected figures calculated from national mortalities. Internal comparisons of rates were performed by Poisson regression analysis. The final cohort comprised 14,730 male employees who were observed for 288,886 person-years. RESULTS: Mortality from all causes of death was slightly increased (3390 deaths, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.11). Regression analysis of total mortality showed a significant negative trend for the rate ratios with increasing duration of employment. An increased mortality was found among employees in urban ...
In a cohort of treated preventive cardiology clinic patients, WC predicted all-cause mortality after adjustment for commonly measured CV risk factors. Extrapolating from data presented in Table 3, a 10 cm difference in WC was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality of 20% for both genders, in DM prevalence of 40% and 50%, and CAD prevalence of 10% and 20%, for men and women, respectively. In contrast, BMI did not associate with all-cause mortality and CAD but did associate with DM prevalence. These data support the clinical utility of WC over BMI for mortality as well as DM and CAD risk prediction and support the use of obesity-specific interventions that target WC reduction and abdominal obesity rather than weight loss alone (e.g., exercise training) to improve CV outcomes in high risk populations.. The apparent lack of association of BMI with CAD and mortality demonstrated in this study is consistent with some reports (22,23,24,25), but it conflicts with population studies that have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenomedullin refines mortality prediction by the BODE index in COPD: the BODE-A index.. AU - Stolz, D.. AU - Kostikas, K.. AU - Blasi, F.. AU - Boersma, W.. AU - Milenkovic, B.. AU - Lacoma, A.. AU - Louis, R.. AU - Aerts, J.G.. AU - Welte, T.. AU - Torres, A.. AU - Rohde, G.G.. AU - Boeck, L.. AU - Rakic, J.. AU - Scherr, A.. AU - Hertel, S.. AU - Giersdorf, S.. AU - Tamm, M.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, predicted 2-year mortality among inpatients with COPD exacerbation.We accuracy of initial proadrenomedullin level, BODE, and BODE components, combined, in predicting 1-year or 2-year all-cause mortality in a multinational observational cohort with stable, moderate to very severe COPD.Proadrenomedullin was significantly associated (P,0.001) with 1- mortality (4.7%) and 2-year mortality (7.8%), and comparably predictive regarding both (C ...
Discussion. TB has consistently been the leading cause of death in SA over the past two decades. From 1997 TB deaths increased, peaking in 2006 with 76 881 deaths (13% of total mortality). The number of deaths due to TB then steadily declined to 29 399 (6% of total mortality) in 2016. Reducing TB deaths to meet the End TB Strategy mortality target of a 95% reduction in TB mortality (from 2015) by 2035 is within our reach, but will require ongoing focus and effort.. From 1997 to 2006 there was a steady rise in reported TB-related mortality that can be attributed to migration, high levels of patients co-infected with TB and HIV, and the increasing burden of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB).[6-9] However, for a number of possible reasons, TB-related mortality started to decline in 2006 (Fig. 3 and Table 1). The first of these reasons is the intensified ART roll-out for adults, which resulted in marked declines in both HIV/AIDS and TB mortality after 2006.[10,11] According to National Department of Health ...
Background. Past research has shown that individuals who have had experiences of out-of-home care (OHC) in childhood have increased risks of premature mortality. Prior studies also suggest that these individuals are more likely to follow long-term trajectories that are characterised by economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages, compared to majority population peers. Yet, we do not know the extent to which such trajectories may explain their elevated mortality risks. The aim of this study is therefore to examine whether trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages in midlife mediate the association between OHC experience in childhood and subsequent all-cause mortality.. Methods. Utilising longitudinal Swedish data from a 1953 cohort (n = 14,294), followed from birth up until 2008 (age 55), this study applies gender-specific logistic regression analysis to analyse the association between OHC experience in childhood (ages 0-19; 1953-1972) and all-cause mortality (ages ...
There is currently very limited data and evidence on the impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities and pre-existing health conditions, with no disability-disaggregated data on mortality rates available in the public sphere. However, reports from the media, disability advocates and disabled peoples organisations (DPOs) point to several emerging impacts, including primary and secondary impacts including on health, education, food security and livelihoods. Most of the available data is from high income countries (HICs) though reports from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are likely to emerge. Evidence was gathered by a rapid desk based review. Gaps are identified. The section concerned with lessons drawn from similar epidemics draws heavily on lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016, and touches on lessons from the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016 and the SARS pandemic in the early 2000s.10 It also touches briefly on SARS, MERS and H1N1 (swine flu). Primary and ...
Mental health effects on mortality were fully attenuated by physical health in men, and partially so in women. Neither mental nor physical health mediated the effect of each other on mortality risk for either gender. We conclude that physical health is a stronger predictor of mortality risk than mental health ...
Discussion. A brief explanation will be given of the meaning assigned to each of the factors studied before addressing the results. Vulnerability has diverse meanings depending on the disciplinary approach. However, within health sciences it is frequently used to denominate health problems, harm or negligence; from this perspective, vulnerability is intimately related to the differential risk, either observed or expected, and enables the definition of vulnerable populations in reference to the enhanced susceptibility to adverse effects on health 22. Biodiversity is the degree of variety in nature in terms of genes, species, or ecosystems present in a determined region 23. The relationship between diminished biodiversity and an increment in the occurrence of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases has been described 24,25,26.. Urbanization is a social phenomenon characterized by the relative growth in the population residing in urban zones, along with underlying changes in inhabitants ...
LR- Volkswagens Emissions Fraud May Affect Mortality Rate in Europe http://buff.ly/2mi6Y5T - posted in Risks & Survival: Volkswagens Emissions Fraud May Affect Mortality Rate in Europe http://buff.ly/2mi6Y5T View the tweet
BACKGROUND: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria. METHODS: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced. RESULTS: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms ...
Background: Russian adults have extraordinarily high rates of premature death. Retrospective enquiries to the families of about 50 000 deceased Russians had found excess vodka use among those dying from external causes (accident, suicide, violence) and eight particular disease groupings. We now seek prospective evidence of these associations. Methods: In three Russian cities (Barnaul, Byisk, and Tomsk), we interviewed 200 000 adults during 1999-2008 (with 12 000 re-interviewed some years later) and followed them until 2010 for cause-specific mortality. In 151 000 with no previous disease and some follow-up at ages 35-74 years, Poisson regression (adjusted for age at risk, amount smoked, education, and city) was used to calculate the relative risks associating vodka consumption with mortality. We have combined these relative risks with age-specific death rates to get 20-year absolute risks. Findings: Among 57 361 male smokers with no previous disease, the estimated 20-year risks of death at ages 35-54
I have read with interest the large and long follow-up study by McCallum et al1 concerning the risk of low serum chloride on the mortality in 12 968 patients with hypertension. They concluded that an increase of the serum chloride by 1 mEq/L was associated with a 1.5% reduction of the all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, and non-CVD mortality after adjusting for confounding variables. The authors recognized a bias by excluding 2000 individuals without data on the serum chloride, and also accepted that the association between low serum chloride and mortality remains unclear. Although the statistical power was satisfactory and time-dependent Cox … ...
BACKGROUND: Russian adults have extraordinarily high rates of premature death. Retrospective enquiries to the families of about 50,000 deceased Russians had found excess vodka use among those dying from external causes (accident, suicide, violence) and eight particular disease groupings. We now seek prospective evidence of these associations. METHODS: In three Russian cities (Barnaul, Byisk, and Tomsk), we interviewed 200,000 adults during 1999-2008 (with 12,000 re-interviewed some years later) and followed them until 2010 for cause-specific mortality. In 151,000 with no previous disease and some follow-up at ages 35-74 years, Poisson regression (adjusted for age at risk, amount smoked, education, and city) was used to calculate the relative risks associating vodka consumption with mortality. We have combined these relative risks with age-specific death rates to get 20-year absolute risks. FINDINGS: Among 57,361 male smokers with no previous disease, the estimated 20-year risks of death at ages 35-54
Purpose and Background Large age is connected with improved postoperative mortality, however the factors that forecast mortality in older knee and hip replacement recipients arent known. of osteoarthritis), preoperative anemia, serious renal insufficiency, and usage of bloodstream transfusions were connected with higher mortality. Large body mass index got a protective impact in individuals after hip alternative. Interpretation Postoperative mortality can be low in healthful old joint alternative recipients. Comorbidities and practical restrictions preoperatively are connected with higher mortality and warrant consideration before proceeding with joint alternative surgery. Capability to walk is crucial for maintaining self-reliance in day to day activities. Problems in strolling and impaired function will also be solid predictors of mortality in older buy JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) people (Keeler et al. 2010, Hardy et buy JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) al. 2011). Joint disease is among most frequent known ...
Median survival in NH was 2.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-2.4). Yearly mortality rate throughout the three-year observation period was 31.8%. Mortality was associated with higher age and comorbidity at BL, and more severe dementia, higher ADL-dependency, less severe psychotic symptoms, and a lower BMI throughout the study period. Of the organizational variables, living on a ward with more residents resulted in a higher risk of mortality.. Conclusion. In conclusion, the NH mortality rate remained stable throughout the three-year study period with about one third of the residents deceasing each year. Individual resident characteristics appeared to be more important than organizational variables for predicting mortality risk. The finding of an association between ward size and mortality risk deserves further investigation in future studies.. OPEN ACCESS ...