Axial pattern flaps are pedicle grafts which incorporate a direct cutaneous artery and vein at their base. While not a true axial pattern flap, branches of the saphenous artery are the direct cutaneous artery for the reverse saphenous conduit axial pattern flap. The direct cutaneous artery and vein extend along the length of the flap for a variable distance and the terminal branches supply the subdermal, cutaneous, and subpapillary plexuses. The reverse saphenous conduit axial pattern flap is indicated for reconstruction of wounds of the distal pelvic limb.. In a 2015 study investigating the outcome of axial pattern flaps in 49 dogs and 24 cats, postoperative complications were reported in 89% of animals. The most common complications included dehiscence (50% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 75% of axial pattern flaps in cats), flap swelling (43% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 50% of axial pattern flaps in cats), necrosis (46% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 15% of axial pattern flaps ...
Axial pattern flaps are pedicle grafts which incorporate a direct cutaneous artery and vein at their base. The cutaneous branch of the thoracodorsal artery is the direct cutaneous artery for the thoracodorsal axial pattern flap. The direct cutaneous artery and vein extend along the length of the flap for a variable distance and the terminal branches supply the subdermal, cutaneous, and subpapillary plexuses. The thoracodorsal axial pattern flap is indicated for reconstruction of wounds of the ipsilateral thoracic limb and thoracic wall.. In a 2015 study investigating the outcome of axial pattern flaps in 49 dogs and 24 cats, postoperative complications were reported in 89% of animals. The most common complications included dehiscence (50% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 75% of axial pattern flaps in cats), flap swelling (43% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 50% of axial pattern flaps in cats), necrosis (46% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 15% of axial pattern flaps in cats), infection ...
Ming, C. H., Wasserman, D., Hartwig, S., & Osenblum, N. D. (2004). P38MAPK Acts in the BMP7-dependent stimulatory pathway during Epithelial Cell Morphogenesis and is regulated by Smadl1. Journal Of Biological Chemistry, 279(13), 12051-12059. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
The developmental activities of morphogens depend on the gradients that they form in the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that differences in the binding of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) and FGF10 to heparan sulfate (HS) underlie the formation of different gradients that dictate distinct activities during branching morphogenesis. Reducing the binding affinity of FGF10 for HS by mutating a single residue in its HS-binding pocket converted FGF10 into a functional mimic of FGF7 with respect to gradient formation and regulation of branching morphogenesis. In particular, the mutant form of FGF10 caused lacrimal and salivary gland epithelium buds to branch rather than to elongate. In contrast, mutations that reduced the affinity of the FGF10 for its receptor affected the extent, but not the nature, of the response. Our data may provide a general model for understanding how binding to HS regulates other morphogenetic gradients.. ...
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The increasing repertoire of microRNAs expressed during organ development and their role in regulating organ morphogenesis provide a compelling need to develop methods to assess microRNA function using various in vitro and in vivo experimental models
The cellular changes constituting morphogenesis are executed by structural molecules involved with adhesion and cytoskeletal structure. The actin based cytoskeleton, rho/racGTPases, as well as the cadherin-catenin complex have been implicated in epithelial folding and convergent-extension (Sullivan and Theurkauf, 1995; Lu and Settleman, 1998; Tepass, 1999), although a detailed model placing functional interconnections between the different molecules has not yet materialized. The present paper demonstrates that a finely adjusted level of DE-cadherin is required for optic placode morphogenesis, and that β-catenin, as well as EGFR signaling, is involved in this process. Reduction in DE-cadherin results in dissociation of the placode around the time when it normally invaginates, suggesting that the forces exerted on the epithelial sheet while folding may disrupt cell contacts. A similar phenotype was described for other epithelial invaginations, including the Malpighian tubules and stomatogastric ...
Snail1, Snail2, and E47 promote mammary epithelial branching morphogenesis.: Several E-box-binding transcription factors regulate individual and collective cell
Plant morphogenesis and its regulation have fascinated researchers for more than two centuries. Among determinants of morphogenesis mechanical signals appear as an important cue. The fact that plants respond to mechanical stimuli was reported by Darwin in the 1850s. As described by Iida in this research topic, mechanical stimuli were used in traditional agriculture practices like mugifumi. In the past 40 years, the study of mechanical signaling in plants has regained interest because of its implication in fundamental processes of organo- and morphogenesis and their potential as an innovative means of controlling plant growth. The focus of this research topic is the quantification of mechanical signals and of their effects on plant growth, the ecological significance of mechanoperception and thigmomorphogenesis. The papers in this research topic summarize the current state of knowledge, present new experimental results, identify areas where further investigation is warranted, and propose investigative
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Research groupsGene regulation and morphogenesis Control of epithelial morphogenesis in vertebrates Dr Juan Ramón Martínez ..
The CXB set of recombinant inbred mouse strains provided an opportunity to observe the effects of reassorted subsets of genes on the shape of the mandible. The distances between 12 landmarks in all paired combinations were calculated to evaluate genetic control in small regions. The genetic relationships between interlandmark distances revealed genes to have most of their effects in localized regions, and the greater heritabilities usually to apply to those distances between adjacent landmarks. Interrelationships between measurements are usually explicable on a developmental basis. It is proposed that genes of this sort bring about the changes seen in organ shape during evolution. A model plan for the organization of gene activation during morphogenesis is described.
The roles of cellular orientation during trabecular and ventricular wall morphogenesis are unknown and so are the underlying mechanisms that regulate cellular orientation. Myocardial-specific Numb and Numblike double-knockout (MDKO) hearts display a variety of defects including in cellular orientation patterns of mitotic spindle orientation trabeculation and ventricular compaction. Furthermore Numb- and Numblike-null cardiomyocytes exhibit cellular behaviors distinct from those of control cells during trabecular morphogenesis based on single-cell lineage tracing. We investigated how Numb regulates cellular orientation and behaviors and determined that N-cadherin levels and membrane localization are reduced in MDKO hearts. To determine how Numb regulates N-cadherin membrane localization we generated an mCherry:Numb knockin line and found that Numb localized to diverse endocytic organelles but mainly to the recycling endosome. Consistent with this localization cardiomyocytes in MDKO did not ...
The morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and organs is profoundly dependent on the extracellular matrix (ECM), especially the specialized forms of ECM known as basement membranes (BMs) (Miner and Yurchenco, 2004). Active remodeling of BMs by tissues is essential for many developmental events, and aberrant cell-ECM interactions underlie tumorigenesis and metastasis of epithelial tissues (Larsen et al., 2006). Developing axons often grow over BM substrates, and BM components play central roles both in tissue morphogenesis and in axon guidance (Hinck, 2004). Yet, rather than a passive scaffold for tissue morphogenesis, the ECM can be regarded as an active participant in tissue morphogenesis and cell signaling (Nelson and Bissell, 2006).. C. elegans embryonic epidermal morphogenesis is an example of an organogenesis process that involves multiple interactions between an epithelial sheet, underlying muscle, and an intervening BM (Chisholm and Hardin, 2005). In late embryogenesis, epidermal cells ...
The overall objective of the four projects in this program of research is to develop and exploit biosensors and image analysis techniques to delineate the mecha...
Background: Increasing the complexity of in vitro systems to mimic three-dimensional tissues and the cellular interactions within them will increase the reliability of data that were previously collected with in vitro systems. In vivo vascularization is based on complex and clearly defined cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions, where the extracellular matrix (ECM) seems to play a very important role. The aim of this study was to monitor and visualize the subcellular and molecular interactions between endothelial cells (ECs), fibroblasts, and their surrounding microenvironment during vascular morphogenesis in a three-dimensional coculture model. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative analyses during the generation of a coculture tissue construct consisting of endothelial cells and fibroblasts were done using transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Results: Dynamic interactions were found in cocultures between ECs, between fibroblasts (FBs), between ECs and FBs, and between the cells
Systemic steroid hormone and intracellular signaling pathways are known to act cooperatively during the development of vertebrate and invertebrate epithelia. However, the mechanism of this interaction is poorly understood. Morphogenesis of Drosophila leg imaginal disc epithelia is regulated both by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) and the RhoA GTPase signaling pathway. Recent evidence suggests that these pathways act cooperatively to control imaginal disc morphogenesis. Thus, leg imaginal disc morphogenesis is an excellent system in which to study the interaction of steroid hormone and intracellular signaling pathways. We have identified mutations in three genes, 12-5, 18-5, and 31-6, with roles in the morphogenesis of leg epithelia. Of particular interest, these mutations interact genetically with each other, mutations in the RhoA signaling pathway, and the ecdysone regulated Sb-sbd (Stubble) transmembrane serine protease. This suggests that the 12-5, 18-5, and 31-6 gene products may
Kaplan N.A., Colosimo P.F., Liu X., Tolwinski N.S. (2011). Complex interactions between GSK3 and aPKC in drosophila embryonic epithelial morphogenesis. PLoS ONE 6 (4) : e18616. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. ...
We propose to combine computational and experimental approaches to investigate the mechanisms of epithelial morphogenesis, defined as the set of processes that...
Branching morphogenesis, the creation of branched structures in the body, is a key feature of animal and plant development. This book brings together, for the first time, expert researchers working on
Four of the mutants examined (tpm1Δ, sac6Δ, pfy1-111, and myo2-66) displayed a clear reduction in viability when the morphogenesis checkpoint was crippled by elimination of Swe1p (Fig. 2 B). This strongly suggests that the actin perturbations caused by the mutants triggered the checkpoint response, as confirmed below.. Intriguingly, the degree of growth benefit provided by Swe1p varied depending on the growth temperature, in a mutant-specific manner. The difference between the growth of different mutants in combination with swe1Δ was most extreme at the temperatures shown in Fig. 2 B but was often reduced at other (7°C higher or lower) temperatures. In the most dramatic example, growth of myo2-66 swe1Δ cells was impaired relative to myo2-66 cells at 29°C, but not at 28°C (Fig. 2 B). This was unexpected because the strain grows slowly and has impaired actin organization at both temperatures. One problem in interpreting growth assays for very sick strains is the accumulation of suppressor ...
This book, the last volume in the Social Morphogenesis series, examines whether or not a Morphogenic society can foster new modes of human relations that could exercise a form of relational steering, protecting and promoting a nuanced version of the good life for all. It analyses the way in which the intensification of morphogenesis and…
J:173573 Haara O, Fujimori S, Schmidt-Ullrich R, Hartmann C, Thesleff I, Mikkola ML, Ectodysplasin and Wnt pathways are required for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. Development. 2011 Jul;138(13):2681-91 ...
J:152818 Melnick M, Phair RD, Lapidot SA, Jaskoll T, Salivary gland branching morphogenesis: a quantitative systems analysis of the Eda/Edar/NFkappaB paradigm. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:32 ...
Invasive growth is a complex morphogenetic program in which proliferative responses are integrated by apparently independent events such as migration, survival, matrix degradation, and induction of cell polarity. In the first step of this sequence (Figure 1), a cell within a colony or solid tissue is instructed to disrupt cadherin-based intercellular junctions and acquire a fibroblastoid, motile phenotype, initiating detachment from the primary site of accretion. This dramatic reshaping is accompanied by cytoskeletal rearrangements and enhanced production of matrix proteases, which digest basal lamina components and facilitate cell movement through the surrounding environment. During this phase, invading cells must induce a constant and dynamic remodeling of integrin-mediated adhesive contacts with the ECM, which provides a mechanical support for cell migration and prevents the induction of apoptosis. Cell depolarization and invasion are followed by stimulation of cell growth, which allows new regions
Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to hepatocyte growth factor/HGF ligand. Regulates many physiological processes including proliferation, scattering, morphogenesis and survival. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces autophosphorylation of MET on its intracellular domain that provides docking sites for downstream signaling molecules. Following activation by ligand, interacts with the PI3-kinase subunit PIK3R1, PLCG1, SRC, GRB2, STAT3 or the adapter GAB1. Recruitment of these downstream effectors by MET leads to the activation of several signaling cascades including the RAS-ERK, PI3 kinase-AKT, or PLCgamma-PKC. The RAS-ERK activation is associated with the morphogenetic effects while PI3K/AKT coordinates prosurvival effects. During embryonic development, MET signaling plays a role in gastrulation, development and migration of muscles and neuronal precursors, angiogenesis and kidney formation. In adults, participates in ...
MPATH:458] normal [MPATH:1] cell and tissue damage [MPATH:2] cell death [MPATH:4] necrosis [MPATH:14] degenerative change [MPATH:25] tissue specific degenerative process [MPATH:33] intracellular and extracellular accumulation [MPATH:47] intracellular and extracellular depletion [MPATH:55] developmental and structural abnormality [MPATH:57] agenesis [MPATH:58] aplasia [MPATH:59] branching morphogenesis defect [MPATH:60] communication defect [MPATH:64] dysplasia [MPATH:72] growth acceleration [MPATH:73] growth arrest [MPATH:82] persistent embryonic structure [MPATH:86] organ specific developmental defect [MPATH:107] congestion [MPATH:119] hemorrhage and non-specified extravasation [MPATH:125] thrombosis [MPATH:126] growth and differentiation defect [MPATH:127] atrophy [MPATH:133] hypoplasia [MPATH:134] hyperplasia [MPATH:159] hypertrophy [MPATH:160] metaplasia [MPATH:175] healing and repair [MPATH:176] connective tissue replacement [MPATH:179] fibrin deposition [MPATH:180] fibroblast proliferation ...
MPATH:458] normal [MPATH:1] cell and tissue damage [MPATH:2] cell death [MPATH:4] necrosis [MPATH:14] degenerative change [MPATH:25] tissue specific degenerative process [MPATH:33] intracellular and extracellular accumulation [MPATH:47] intracellular and extracellular depletion [MPATH:55] developmental and structural abnormality [MPATH:57] agenesis [MPATH:58] aplasia [MPATH:59] branching morphogenesis defect [MPATH:60] communication defect [MPATH:64] dysplasia [MPATH:72] growth acceleration [MPATH:73] growth arrest [MPATH:82] persistent embryonic structure [MPATH:86] organ specific developmental defect [MPATH:107] congestion [MPATH:119] hemorrhage and non-specified extravasation [MPATH:125] thrombosis [MPATH:126] growth and differentiation defect [MPATH:127] atrophy [MPATH:133] hypoplasia [MPATH:134] hyperplasia [MPATH:159] hypertrophy [MPATH:160] metaplasia [MPATH:175] healing and repair [MPATH:176] connective tissue replacement [MPATH:179] fibrin deposition [MPATH:180] fibroblast proliferation ...
Plays a critical role in epithelial cell morphogenesis, polarity, adhesion and cytoskeletal organization in the lens (PubMed:26231217).
View Notes - bicd130_06_lecture9r from BICD 130 at UCSD. BICD 130 Embryos, Genes, and Development MORPHOGENESIS Establishment of form and position in the developing organism: Rearrangement of cell
Although in previous chapters in some cases we have attempted a theoretical analysis of some aspects of morphogenesis, the main purpose of these chapters was to describe the up-to-date factual...
This book series Cardiovascular Molecular Morphogenesis publishes works devoted to the development of the heart and blood vessels. Since both the developing embryo vessels and adult blood vessels are of great current interest, such ...
Morphogenesis of Endothelium von Gabor M. Rubanyi und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
We specialize in developing light sheet microscopy, a novel fluorescent imaging technique, to study the early development of several major modal organisms. The technique gently images fast biological processes that are extremely sensitive. Focused on the zebrafish, we are interested in the investigation of its organogenesis with special emphasis on the function and morphogenesis of the cardiovascular system and the endoderm. We believe that multi-disciplinary approaches are required to tackle questions in modern life sciences. With our background in biology, physics, microscopy, and informatics we develop custom optical imaging, manipulation, and image analysis tools to pursue research in the broad field of embryonic organ morphogenesis. We strive for a comprehensive solution by developing and optimizing all aspects of modern optical imaging from sample preparation to image analysis.. Follow us on YouTube ,. ...
Involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in kidney and lung morphogenesis that include epithelial differentiation and branching morphogenesis. May play a role in the specification or differentiation of one or more subsets of epicardial cell types.
Loss of pluripotency, and the coordination of cell fate specification, epithelial-to-mesencymal transition (EMT) and cell movement drive the formation of the three germ layers; ectoderm, mesoderm & endoderm.
Cells with high-level Neurog3 (Neurog3HI) exit the cell cycle, egress from the epithelium and cluster tightly with each other to form the nascent islets of Langerhans
The transcriptional modifications in response to EGFR inhibition mirror, presumably, the modifications in the action of transcription factors. We identified the
click the speakers name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker) Jolle Kirpensteijn, DVM, PhD, DACVS, DECVS ...
Understanding metabolic‐pathway function during tumour development is leading directly to new ideas for therapeutic intervention. J. Brugge (Boston, MA, USA) uses three‐dimensional mammary cell‐culture models to investigate mammary morphogenesis. Mammary‐lumen formation requires Bim‐mediated apoptosis; however, in the absence of Bim, inner cells undergo rampant autophagy and eventually die through non‐apoptotic cell death (Mailleux et al, 2007). Cells that are deprived of extracellular matrix in vitro have reduced ATP levels and high levels of ROS owing to defects in glucose uptake. However, oncogenes such as ErbB2 can elevate ATP levels by rescuing glucose metabolism. Interestingly, antioxidants can also elevate ATP levels by rescuing the ROS inhibition of fatty‐acid oxidation. Therefore, Brugge suggests that the survival of tumour cells outside their natural matrix niches requires alterations that prevent apoptosis and rescue metabolic defects caused by a loss of glucose uptake. ...
Our lab is interested in the system level properties of pattern forming systems in and of cells. Towards this end we use cell biology, microscopy, molecular biology and computer simulations to tackle this exciting and complex problem ...
Abstract Cells of multicellular organisms are semi-fluid creatures. Even when they form specific cell-cell adhesions, they cannot create a defined shape or a tissue-specific architecture. Cartilaginous organs, such as ears and noses, exemplify the fact that form is imprinted in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which leads to the conclusion that cells must have the ability to shape the ECM in which they reside. This seems to be true for most tissues. The role of the ECM as an integrator of cells into functional assemblies with defined architecture is unique to multicellular organisms. The evolution of multicellularity became possible as a consequence of cells acquiring two new properties: first, cell surface macromolecular complexes that function in cell-cell binding; and, second, an ECM that integrates cells into three-dimensional structures. These two new properties allowed the evolution of the two basic types of cells-epithelial and mesenchymal. The appearance of the latter, a fibroblast-like ...
Multicellular morphogenesis is a sequential process of deformations in three-dimensional (3D) space. The coordination of 3D tissue deformations correlates with geometric cell patterns, where individual cells are characterized by their biochemical states such as protein synthesis, mRNA transcription and gene methylation. During morphogenesis, such cell patterning can be dynamically rearranged because of the regulatory nature of signalling molecules inside and outside cells. As an example, because the signalling molecules diffuse away from a localized source, they assume a distribution with a steady gradient within a tissue [1,2]. By reading the local levels of the signal concentrations, the cells determine their positions and differentiate to form the global tissue pattern. The global pattern can be robustly organized in the entire tissue by balancing molecular production and degradation [3]. Furthermore, the diffusivity of signalling molecules can be physically affected by the geometry of their ...
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Case Study 2: Turings model of chemical morphogenesis. Outline of the ideas. The ODEs of chemical reactions. The isolated cell and its linear stability. The model of tissue and diffusive communication between cells. Analysis of the diffusive, pattern forming instability in the case of a ring of cells. The conditions needed for pattern formation ...
Recombinant protein of human dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Morphogenesis in a developing organism depends on the mechanics of the structural elements of the organism. In plants, typical experiments involve indenting tissues with a probe and measuring the force needed to reach a ...
A lecture course on morphogenesis for fourth-year Moscow State University Specialist Diploma students specializing in embryology is described. The main goal of the course is to give the students an extensive theoretical background based on the tenets of the modern theory of Self-Organization and to show them how important this theory is for the proper understanding of developmental events. The corresponding mathematics are bound as tightly as possible to the actual morphogenetic processes. All of the lectures take the format of an active dialogue between the students and a tutor.
It has long been suggested that the generation of biological patterns depends in part on gradients of diffusible substances. In an attempt to bridge the gap between this largely theoretical concept and experimental embryology, we have examined the physiology of diffusion gradients in an actual embryonic field. In particular, we have generated in the chick wing bud concentration gradients of the morphogenetically active retinoid TTNPB, (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-prope nyl] benzoic acid, a synthetic vitamin A compound. Upon local application of TTNPB the normal 234 digit pattern is duplicated in a way that correlates with the geometry of the underlying TTNPB gradient; low doses of TTNPB lead to a shallow gradient and an additional digit 2, whereas higher doses result in a steep, far-reaching gradient and patterns with additional digits 3 and 4. The experimentally measured TTNPB distribution along the anteroposterior axis, can be modeled by a local source and ...
The morphogenetic behavior of a tropical marine Yarrowia lipolytica strain on hydrophobic substrates was studied. Media containing coconut oil or palm kernel oil (rich in lauric and myristic acids) prepared in distilled water or seawater at a neutral