Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of one sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose, galactose, and ribose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides like sucrose (common sugar) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms all with the same chemical formula. For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but they have different chemical and physical properties. ...
Carbohydrates are classified into three major categories depending upon their behaviour towards hydrolysis:. 1. MONOSACCHARIDES. These are simple carbohydrates which cannot be hydrolysed to simpler carbohydrates. About 20 monosaccharides are known to occur in nature. Glucose and fructose are common examples.. 2. OLIGOSACCHARIDES. These are the carbohydrates which on hydrolysis give two to ten units of monosaccharides. Accordingly, they may be further divided into di, tri or tetrasaccharides depending upon the actual number of monosaccharide units formed by the hydrolysis of a particular oligosaccharide.. Disaccharides give two units of monosaccharides on hydrolysis. The two monosaccharide units obtained on hydrolysis of a disaccharide may be same or different. Common examples are sucrose and maltose. Both have molecular formula C12H22O11.. Sucrose on hydrolysis gives one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose whereas maltose on hydrolysis gives two molecules of glucose ...
The addition of monosaccharides to metal-catalyzed coupling reactions can be beneficial in terms of decreasing the time required, chemical waste products and overall cost of the process. Monosaccharides are used in a number of different ways, including: (a) acting as a ligand for the metal, (b) providing the appropriate reduction potential for a chemical process and (c) acting as a reducing agent for the formation and stabilization of catalytically active metal nanoparticles. Recently, there has been a significant amount of research in this growing field and there is thus the potential for the addition of monosaccharides to coupling reactions to have significant impact on the synthesis of the important small molecules on which we have all come to rely. This Perspectives Article will cover recent developments in the addition of monosaccharides to metal-catalyzed coupling reactions with an emphasis on their utility and limitations in order to facilitate the further development of this exciting ...
This thesis describes stereoselective syntheses of four amino acids, three of which are C-glycosidic analogues of glycosylated amino acids. The overall goal of the project was to probe the interactions between MHC molecules, glycopeptide antigens and T cell receptors, that are essential for development of collagen induced arthritis. Collagen induced arthritis is a frequently used mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease that attacks joint cartilage and leads to a painful and eventually crippling condition.. The thesis is based on four studies. The first study describes the synthesis of hydroxylysine, an amino acid that is found in collagen and is an important constituent of the glycopeptide proposed as an antigen in collagen induced arthritis. During the synthesis of hydroxylysine some new insight into the mechanism of the reductive opening of p-methoxybenzylidene acetals was obtained.. The remaining three studies deals with the synthesis of C-glycosidic analogues of ...
Carbohydrates mainly include the following:. Sugar: In English labels, it is indicated by [sugar]. They include a single [polyhydroxy aldehyde and ketone] molecule (i.e. [monosaccharide]) and [disaccharide] formed by condensation of two monosaccharide molecules.. Glucose, fructose and galactose are the most common monosaccharides, while sucrose, lactose and maltose are the most common disaccharides. Honey, brown sugar, crystal sugar, maltose, high fructose syrup, corn syrup and rice syrup are the commercial states of monosaccharides and disaccharides from different sources.. In the digestive tract, disaccharide molecules can be quickly hydrolyzed into monosaccharides, which can be quickly absorbed into the blood. Different monosaccharides have different effects on health. For example, glucose increases blood sugar content, which is the enemy of diabetics, and fructose increases the risk of [metabolic syndrome].. Therefore, WHO recommends that the daily intake of added sugar should not exceed 10% ...
I have been desperately scouring PubMed trying to find information on how different monosaccharides gain entry into the cell. More specifically, I need to know how sulfated monosaccharides (6 sulfated glucosamine/galactosame, N-sulfated glucosamine/galactosamine, GalNac, etc) get into the cell ie. whether this is by some form of facilitated diffusion by sugar transporters, passive diffusion, active transport etc ...
Monosaccharide: Monosaccharide, any of the basic compounds that serve as the building blocks of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones; that is, they are molecules with more than one hydroxyl group (−OH), and a carbonyl group (C=O) either at the terminal carbon atom (aldose) or at the
Since there are twenty amino acids, there are only three types of monosaccharides; the large amount of variety is due to the changing in R groups. These monosaccharides are glucose, fructose and galactose. In contrast, there are only two types of fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated. In conclusion, amino acids exhibit the greatest structural variability.. ...
Sequestration of harmful proteases as human neutrophil elastase (HNE) from the chronic wound environment is an important goal of wound dressing design and function. Monosaccharides attached to cellulose conjugates as ester-appended aldohexoses and ketohexoses were prepared on cotton gauze as monosccharide-citrate-cellulose-esters for HNE sequestration. The monosaccharide-cellulose analogs demonstrated selective binding when the derivatized cotton dressings were measured for sequestration of HNE. Each monosaccharide-cellulose conjugate was prepared as a cellulose citrate-linked monosaccharide ester on the cotton wound dressing, and assayed under wound exudate-mimicked conditions for elastase sequestration activity. A series of three aldohexose and four ketohexose ester cellulose conjugates were prepared on cotton gauze through citric acid-cellulose cross linking esterification. The monosaccharide portion of the conjugate was characterized by hydrolysis of the citrate-monosaccharide ester bond, and
List of words make out of Monosaccharides. All anagrams of Monosaccharides. Words made after unscrambling Monosaccharides. Scrabble Points.
There are polysaccharides, disaccarides, and monosaccharides. From my research polysaccharides and disaccarides (like bread and such) ferment longer in the gut, where monosaccharides can absorb more quickly. Polysaccharides and disaccharides are longer chains and take longer to break down whereas monosaccharides absorb more quickly. For someone with Candida, monosaccharides are not ideal because it means the Candida can absorb more quickly, and depending on where it has grown to e.g. moved its way into your small intestine, it can be bad eating sugar. From my understanding, Candida is typically located in the colon, but it works its way up into the small intestine and else where, sometimes even in the mouth when it gets pathogenic. If it is not within your small intestine, monosaccharides in small amounts I presume would be absorbed before they hit the colon. I would try to avoid sugar in general and when things become manageable and never eat processed sugar if you can keep from it. Since we ...
UPLC, UHPLC, and HPLC-based C18 columns that assist scientists with the analysis and quantitation of important glycan derived components.
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates in Living Organisms Carbohydrates are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The general formula is Cx(H2O)y. There are many different types of carbohydrates present in living organisms, each playing an important role in maintaining life of organisms. Monosaccharides are a group of carbohydrates, which include simple sugars such as glucose, fructose and galactose. Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of carbon atoms they possess. Trioses such as glyceraldehyde, and dihydroxyacetone contain three carbon atoms. The phosphorylated form of glyceraldehyde is the first formed sugar in photosynthesis, and may (like dihydroxyacetone) be used as respiratory substrate, or is converted to starch for storage. ...read more. Middle. Galactose, mannose and fructose are three principal respiratory substrates in organisms. Additionally, Galactose is central in the synthesis of lactose. Fructose is also involved in the synthesis of insulin, ...
Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 Da.
Two very important Monosaccharides are Ribose and Deoxyribose. Ribose is used for the construction of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA), and Deoxyribose to build Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). The ring structure diagram for each molecule is as follows ...
Biosynthesis and interconversion of monosaccharides. The relative contributions of each pathway under physiological conditions are unknown. (Rectangles) Donors; (ovals) monosaccharides; (asterisks) control points; (6PG) 6-phosphogluconate; (PEP) phosphoenolpyruvate; (KDN) 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galactonononic acid; (Dol) dolichol.
View carbohyd from CHEM 322 at SUNY Oneonta. Carbohydrates Typical formula: Cx(H2O)y, eg glucose: C6H12O6. Structure -Simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides; one sugar unit. Monosaccharides can
A monosaccharide is the most basic form of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides can by combined through glycosidic bonds to form larger carbohydrates, known as oligosaccharides or polysaccharides.
Synonyms for monosaccharide at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Whichever way you eat them, the body essentially breaks them down into monosaccharides (glucose, fructose or galactose). These monosaccharides are then absorbed and taken to the liver. The liver is a like a 54 year old mother of two in China working her second job manufacturing clothing for the Western world. In other words, it does a heap of work but doesnt get much recognition for it. Anyway, the liver does some crazy magical abracadabra-type voodoo stuff to all these monosaccharides and converts pretty much all of it into glucose. Classic attention seeking teenager behaviour. The glucose is then released into the blood and begins to fulfill its role as the bodys favourite energy source.. When glucose enters the blood, the pancreas knows immediately. As if glucose is a long lost love, it knows as soon as they are in town. In response, the pancreas releases something called insulin. Insulin works to help the glucose enter the bodys cells thereby allowing it to perform its magic. Without ...
Hydrolysis is a reaction involving the breaking of a bond in a molecule using water. The reaction mainly occurs between an ion and water molecules and often changes the pH of a solution.. Fructose Does Not Undergo Hydrolysis Because It Is A - Classification Of Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides, are classified according to the number of single carbohydrate molecules in each chemical structure. Carbohydrate compounds having just one carbohydrate molecule are called monosaccharides; compounds with two carbohydrate molecules are called dissarcharides; and those compounds containing more than two carbohydrate molecules are named polysaccharides. All carbohydrates either are monosaccharides or can be hydrolyzed (broken down) into two or more monosaccharides.. For further understanding of these different classifications of carbohydrates, the monosaccharides and disaccharides can be grouped together and compared with the polysaccharides. This can be done because monosaccharides and ...
The hormone insulin is recognized as having actions that affect the transmembrane transport of different substances, particularly glucose, into numerous different kinds of cells. Insulin is a large polypeptide molecule with a molecular weight of 5808. It consists of an A chain and a B chain, connected together by two disulfide bridges. The hormone is made in the beta cells of the pancreas, and the stimulus for its secretion into the blood stream is a rise in the blood glucose concentration. Its actions on liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle have all been studied in great detail, and it is now recognized that insulin also affects a wide variety of tissues in addition to just these three.(1). Apart from the membrane transport of glucose, insulin also regulates the transport of some amino acids, some fatty acids, potassium, magnesium, and certain other monosaccharides. Furthermore, it mediates the formation of macromolecules in cells which are used in cell structure, energy stores, and in ...
compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen belonging to a class of substances called carbohydrates . Sugars fall into three groups: the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The monosaccharides are the simple sugars; they include fructose
Carbohydrates are separated into three subunits: monosaccharides, polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Monosaccharides are the smallest of the subunits and are made up of single sugar molecules. The...
HPLC Application #14969: Monosaccharides with organic acids using Rezex ROA. Column used: Rezex™ ROA-Organic Acid H+ (8%), LC Column 300 x 7.8 mm, Ea Part#: 00H-0138-K0
Ward, C. J., Patel, P., Ashton, P. R. and James, T. D., 2000. A molecular colour sensor for monosaccharides. Chemical Communications, 2000 (3), pp. 229-230.. ...
Definition: The glucose (Glc) is a monosaccharide (or simple sugar) also known as grape sugar, blood sugar, or corn sugar. The name glucose (...)
Altrose is an aldohexose sugar. It is an unnatural monosaccharide. It is soluble in water and practically insoluble in methanol. Altrose is a C-3 epimer of mannose. ...
Cell-volume-normalized concentration of (a, d, g) monosaccharide and (b, e, h) polysaccharide excreted by the cells as well as (c, f, i) cellular concentration
Fill in the blank about Chemistry of Life: Carbohydrates 1) Disaccharides- Made up of _________ monosaccharides would the answer be 2?2 would be c...
Was watching this video claiming to be a tutorial about Deadmau5 chords, was just wondering if these are the actual type of chords he uses?? Youd need
The influence of EDTA, carboxylic acids, amino-and hydroxocarboxylic acids, monosaccharides and humic substances on the generation of arsines in hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) was investigated. EDTA (0.02 mol L−1), ascorbic acid (0.02 mol L−1) and glucose or fructose (0.2 mol L−1) are useful additives for levelling sensitivities for As(III), monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA). The presence of glycine, malonic, tartaric acids, BICIN and soil humin extracts leads to differences in analytical signal response between these arsenic species. An analytical application to the determination of the sum of As(III), monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) as well as the sum of toxicologically relevant hydride forming arsenic fraction As(III) + As(V) + MMA + DMA in EDTA soil/sediment extracts using continuous flow HGAAS was demonstrated. The limit of detection was 0.2 mg kg−1 As. Within-day and between-day precision were in the range 3-7% and ...
A carbohydrate[ Carbohydrate, Carb, Saccharide ] A group of organic compounds occurring in living tissues, comprising of sugars, starches, and cellulose. Carbohydrates can be divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Shorter-chain carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) are generally sweet tasting are commonly referred to as sugars. More molecule that cannot be further hydrolysedThe enzymatic cleavage of chemical bonds involving water. For instance, amylose is hydrolysed into glucose in the presence of amylase, a digestive enzyme. More into simpler carbohydrates[ Carbohydrate, Carb, Saccharide ] A group of organic compounds occurring in living tissues, comprising of sugars, starches, and cellulose. Carbohydrates can be divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Shorter-chain carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) are generally sweet tasting are ...
Monosaccharides are simple sugars with only one sachharide unit. These cannot be hydrolysed into simpler forms. A monosaccharide containing an aldehydic group (-CHO) in its molecule is called aldose. The glucose and galactose are aldoses. A monosaccharide which contains a keto group (| C = O) in its molecule is called ketose. Fructose is a ketose.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes of monosaccharide availability of human hybridoma lead to alteration of biological properties of human monoclonal antibody. AU - Tachibana, Hirofumi. AU - Taniguchi, Kiyotaka. AU - Ushio, Yoshitaka. AU - Teruya, Kiichiro. AU - Osada, Kazuhiro. AU - Murakami, Hiroki. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - The effect of glucose and other monosaccharide availability in culture medium on production of antibody by human hybridomas has been studied. Human hybridoma cells C5TN produce an anti lung cancer human monoclonal antibody, and the light chain is N-glycosylated at the variable region. When the cell line was grown in the presence of various concentrations of glucose, the antibodies produced changed their antigen-binding activities. Analysis of the light chains produced under these condition revealed that four molecular-mass variant light chains ranging from about 26 to 32 kDa were secreted. The twenty six-kDa species, which corresponds to a non-glycosylated form of the light ...
Herein we present a comparative study about the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive model) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative model) employing a neutral and a dicationic axially functionalized SiIV phthalocyanine. Depending on the charge of the siloxane moiety (neutral monosaccharide or cationic ammonium salt), different interactions with the bacteria were observed and a differential photoinactivation was facilitated. The intensity of the fluorescence labelling correlated with the photoinactivation of the two types of bacteria: while the neutral species only significantly affected the Gram-positive cells, we observed that the positively charged photosensitizer interacted both with the Gram-positive and with the Gram-negative models ...
To characterize the polysaccharides which exist as soluble forms in fruit wines, crude polysaccharides were isolated from red, white, raspberry, wild grape, and pear wine, respectively. Among them, the crude polysaccharide (RW-0) in red wine showed the highest yield and considerable amounts of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-positive materials. The pectic polysaccharide RW-2 was purified to homogeneity from RW-0 by subsequent size-exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-75 and its structure was characterized. RW-2 consisted of 14 different monosaccharides which included rarely observed sugars in general polysaccharides, such as 2-O-methyl-fucose, 2-O-methyl-xylose, apiose (Api), 3-C-carboxy-5-deoxy-L-xylose (aceric acid, AceA), 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo), and 3-deoxy-D-lyxo-2-heptulosaric acid (Dha). Methylation analysis indicated that RW-2 comprised at least 20 different glycosyl linkages such as 3,4-linked fucose, 2,3,4-linked rhamnose, 3-linked apiose, and 2,3,3-linked apiose, ...
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are composed of longer chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic bonds. The distinction between the two is based upon the number of monosaccharide units present in the chain. Oligosaccharides typically contain between three and ten monosaccharide units, and polysaccharides contain greater than ten monosaccharide units. Definitions of how large a carbohydrate must be to fall into each category vary according to personal opinion. Examples of oligosaccharides include the disaccharides mentioned above, the trisaccharide raffinose and the tetrasaccharide stachyose.. Oligosaccharides are found as a common form of protein posttranslational modification. Such posttranslational modifications include the Lewis and ABO oligosaccharides responsible for blood group classifications and so of tissue incompatibilities, the alpha-Gal epitope responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransplantation, and O-GlcNAc modifications.. Polysaccharides represent an ...
A tetrasaccharide is a carbohydrate which gives upon hydrolysis four molecules of the same or different monosaccharides. For example, stachyose upon hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose and two molecules of galactose. The general formula of a tetrasaccharide is typically C24H42O21 ...
With Prof. John Ward and Prof. Helen Hailes, I am working on the project "Bio-derived feedstocks for sustainable, UK-based manufacture of pharmaceuticals and their intermediates" using sugar beet pulp as feedstock. I am investigating the production of value-added chemicals from different monosaccharides from sugar beet pulp using biocatalysis. Furthermore, using principles of synthetic biology, I hope to engineer a host organism to synthesise the desired product from sugar beet pulp in a single integrated process.. ...
0121] X is CH2, O, N--R1, or S, preferably O; R1 is H or C1-C3 alkyl; and Z is a bond, a monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, glycoprotein or glycolipid, preferably a sugar group, more preferably a sugar group selected from the monosaccharides, including aldoses and ketoses, and disaccharides, including those disaccharides described herein. Monosaccharide aldoses include monosaccharides such as aldotriose (D-glyceraldehyde, among others), aldotetroses (D-erythrose and D-Threose, among others), aldopentoses, (D-ribose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, D-lyxose, among others), aldohexoses (D-allose, D-altrose, D-Glucose, D-Mannose, D-gulose, D-idose, D-galactose and D-Talose, among others), and the monosaccharide ketoses include monosaccharides such as ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone, among others), ketotetrose (D-erythrulose, among others), ketopentose (D-ribulose and D-xylulose, among others), ketohexoses (D-Psicone, D-Fructose, D-Sorbose, D-Tagatose, among others), aminosugars, including ...
Bees have various enzymes, of which invertase is the most important for the digestion of carbohydrates. It breaks down the disaccharide sucrose into its component monosaccharides, fructose and glucose. These monosaccharides are available to the bees as nutrients relatively quickly. The disaccharide maltose contained in starch-conversion products is broken down much more slowly into glucose, and is thus less readily available to the bees as a nutrient. In some cases, the proportion of maltose in the feed deposited in the hive had increased by the end of the winter, which is an indication of further reactions. The resulting oligosaccharides either cannot be assimilated at all by the bees, or only poorly ...
Fructose Does Not Undergo Hydrolysis Because It Is A - Fructose is a easy ketonic monosaccharide discovered in many plant life. Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the only shape of sugar. due to the fact they cannot get broken into some other portions, as they do not possess any achiral carbon atom ...
Medscape - Indication-specific dosing for 2-Aminodeoxyglucose sulfate, amino monosaccharide, chitosamine glucosamine sulfate in combination, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
Practice solving Monosaccharides - Cyclization problems. Master even the most complex scientific problems with our step-by-step explanation videos.
Overview This document describes the monosaccharide representation scheme used by GMML in its monosaccharide identification. It is essentially a monosaccharide shorthand for humans to use when needing to translate a visual representation of a cyclic monosaccharide into its name. Since it is also linearizable, it is similarly useful in computer programs. Rationales 1. Ease of communication […]. ...
TheInfoList.com - (Disaccharide) A DISACCHARIDE (also called a DOUBLE SUGAR or BIOSE ) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose , lactose , and maltose . Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides , disaccharides, oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides )
Carbohydrates are a common class of simple organic compouds. A carbohydrate is an aldehyde or a ketone that has additional hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, which has the basic structure (C·H2O)n, where n is three or greater. Monosaccharides link together to form oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Two monosaccharides link together to form a disaccharide ...
Saccharide is also called carbohydrate, consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.. A glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store ...
Saccharide is also called carbohydrate, consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.. A glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store ...