Background: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are well recognized players in inflammatory conditions. Among them TLR-4 is involved in chronic inflammatory processes such as formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Objective: The present study was aimed to examine the effects of percutanoeus coronary intervention (PCI) as a revascularization method on monocyte expression of hTLR-4 and on the serum levels of two proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 41 patients with stable angina who were candidates for PCI. The samples were collected immediately before and 2h and 4h after PCI. The expression of hTLR-4 on CD14+ monocytes and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using flowcytometry and ELISA techniques, respectively. Results: By comparing the frequency of circulating hTLR-4+/CD14+ monocytes at different time points, it was observed that PCI procedure up regulates the monocyte expression of hTLR-4 (p|0.05). The increase in expression was associated
Œstrogen replacement therapy in post-menopausal women exerts a protective effect against atherosclerosis, but the mechanism of its action is not clear. One of the early events in the development of atherosclerosis, is the adhesion of mononuclear phagocytes to the endothelial cells of the artery. Therefore, it was proposed that the benefits of œstradiol treatment could be by its action on the monocyte. Hence, it was hypothesised that œstradiol affects monocyte functions, which resulted in four investigations reported in this thesis. One of the effects of œstradiol could be by reducing monocyte hydrogen peroxide production. Studies on monocyte hydrogen peroxide production showed that œstradiol activated human peripheral blood monocytes to produce increased amounts of hydrogen peroxide in vitro. These studies also indicated that monocytes could contain multiple types of binding sites for œstradiol, which was confirmed by œstradiol binding studies. The intracellular effect of œstradiol was ...
LysMmPGES/PD1/LDLR KO Monocyte-specific mPGES-1 Knockout; global PD1 and LDLR Knockout is an eagle-i resource of type Mus musculus at The University of Pennsylvania.
Several studies support C-reactive protein (CRP) as a systemic cardiovascular risk factor. The recent detection of CRP in arterial intima suggests a dual activity in atherosclerosis as a circulating and tissue mediator on vascular and immune cells. In the present paper, we focused on the inflammatory effects of CRP on human monocytes, which were isolated by Ficoll-Percoll gradients and cultured in adherence to polystyrene, endothelial cell monolayer, or in suspension. Chemokine levels, adhesion molecule, and chemokine receptor expression were detected by ELISA, flow cytometry, and real-time RT-PCR. Migration assays were performed in a Boyden chamber. Stimulation with CRP induced release of CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 in adherent monocytes through the binding to CD32a, CD32b, and CD64, whereas no effect was observed in suspension culture. This was associated with CRP-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules membrane-activated complex 1 (Mac-1) and ICAM-1 on adherent monocytes. Blockade of Mac-1/ICAM-1
IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with potent immunomodulatory effects, including inhibition of cytokine production. However, regulation of monocyte IL-10 production is poorly understood. In this report we have investigated the mechanisms of LPS-induced IL-10 production by human peripheral blood monocytes and demonstrate that IL-10 synthesis is uniquely dependent on the endogenous proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and/or TNF-alpha. LPS signal transduction in monocytes has been shown to involve activation of the p38 and p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. The results in this paper indicate that inhibition of p38 MAPK potently inhibited the production of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha, whereas blockade of the p42/44 MAPK pathway, while partially inhibiting TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production, had no effect on monocyte secretion of IL-10. Furthermore, neither the inhibition of monocyte TNF-alpha induced by IL-10 nor the stimulation of soluble TNF receptor production was affected by
Bacteria possess a number of cell-associated and secreted molecules, termed bacterial modulins, that stimulate the release of proinflammatory mediators in the host (4). In previous work, we (1, 3) and others (14) have demonstrated that isolated flagella or fragments of isolated flagella from gram-negative bacteria elicit the production of TNF-α in cultures of adherent human PBMC and monocyte-like cell lines. Genetic complementation in afliC deletion mutant identified flagellin as the key component of the flagella that was essential for the induction of cytokine synthesis (1). Although flagella from other gram-negative organisms, such as E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and Y. enterocolitica, also stimulated TNF-α synthesis by human monocytes, flagella fromSalmonella strains were generally the most potent inducers (1).. In the present study, we demonstrate that purifiedSalmonella FliC and FljB are exceptionally potent inducers of TNF-α synthesis, with detectable amounts of TNF-α being induced in cells ...
The main goal of this project was to investigate the differences in monocyte population and function between pregnant and non-pregnant dairy cows. Evaluating the differences in monocyte function may help to understand the immunosuppression of periparturient dairy cows. Blood was collected from three pregnant cows and four non-pregnant cows. The ... read more peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated in six well plates for 3 hours, after which the monocytes were collected. Each cow was sampled twice, with 2-5 days in between. There was no difference in the total blood monocyte population as a percentage of the circulating PMBCs between pregnant and non-pregnant dairy cows, but pregnant cows showed a slightly increase in CD14+ cells as a percentage of the whole blood monocyte population. Dairy cows in late gestation (270 days) showed a decrease in MHCII expression on the CD14+ subpopulation compared with non-pregnant cows and cows in early gestation (120 days). This project showed ...
Monocytes are precursors of macrophages and recruited to the uterus throughout pregnancy to perform important immunological functions. In this study, we hypothesized that pregnant women have reduced peripheral monocyte expression of chemokine receptors and alterations in PBMC responses to microbial stimuli as an adaption to pregnancy and that these changes are less pronounced in women with autoimmunity. We therefore investigated the chemokine receptor expression, migratory behaviour and responses to microbial stimulation of peripheral monocytes from pregnant women at parturition (n=13) and from non-pregnant women (n=9). In addition, we compared healthy pregnant women with women suffering from SLE (n=5), a condition with pronounced systemic inflammation increasing the risk for pregnancy complications. We demonstrate that peripheral monocytes are affected by pregnancy with reduced percentages of CCR2+, CCR5+ and CXCR3+ monocytes of both classical (CD16) and inflammatory (CD16+) subsets and that ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the activation of immune responses. Three Flt3-dependent blood DC populations including conventional BDCA1+ DCs and BDCA3+ DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs were described previously. This work identifies for the first time human peripheral blood monocyte derived BDCA1+CD14+ pro-inflammatory DCs (pro-iDCs) during steady state. Isolated pro-iDCs spontaneously secreted high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which matured cDCs and promoted T cell proliferation. They were superior in priming TH17 cells when compared to BDCA1+CD14- DCs and CD14+CD16- monocytes. BDCA1+CD14+ cells resembling blood pro-iDCs as identified by imaging cycler microscopy were found in samples from patients suffering from psoriasis, dermatomyositosis and inflamed halo nevus. Their absence in healthy donors skin indicated a recruitment of pro-iDCs to sites of inflammation. Analysis of the developmental relationship of pro-iDCs between monocytes, blood cDCs and in vitro generated ...
Direct cell-to-cell contact regulates a variety of cellular functions, including cell activation and cytokine production.42 43 45 We attempted to determine whether the interaction between monocytes and endothelial cells induces MCP-1 production from these cell types, because this interaction constantly occurs in recruitment of monocytes and because production of MCP-1 would affect subsequent monocyte transendothelial migration. Our results indicate that migrated monocytes express MCP-1 protein during the process of transmigration. Cocultures of resting monocytes and unstimulated or IL-1-prestimulated endothelial cell monolayers induced an increase in the amounts of soluble MCP-1 secreted into the medium. MCP-1 secreted in supernatants exhibited chemotactic and transendothelial activities for monocytes, and its biological effect was confirmed by the disappearance of the activity in the presence of anti-MCP-1 Ab. Quantification of mRNA levels indicates that augmentation was mediated at the level ...
Introduction - Peripheral blood monocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Significantly elevated numbers of activated monocytes were observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to those in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats [Liu 1996]. We isolated and cultivated human endothelial cells and examined monocytes from patients with arterial hypertension and healthy volunteers to identify possible differences in their adhesion behavior to human endothelial cells (HAEC, HSVEC, HUVEC, HUAEC). We determined the levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin, and we analyzed superoxide release by human endothelium and human monocytes. Methods - Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and plastic adherence. Subsets of the samples were stimulated with LPS, Angiotensin II, Angiotensin II following preincubation with the AT1-antagonist eprosartan or left without a stimulant. After incubation, monocytes were seeded onto confluent monolayers of human aortic ...
Herrmann, F.; Gebauer, G.; Lindemann, A.; Brach, M.; Mertelsmann, R., 1989: Interleukin 2 and interferon gamma recruit different subsets of human peripheral blood monocytes to secrete interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha
Blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MØ) and dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for effective control of infections. Exacerbated recruitment of these cells, in the other side, contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. The main blood monocyte subsets differ in the expression of the differentiation marker Ly6C and the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1. We recently found a subset of Ly6Clow/CCR2low/CX3CR1hi associated to inflammatory responses induced by urinary tract infection in the mouse. Therefore, here we analyzed monocyte-derived inflammatory cell subsets in a model of non-bacterial peritonitis using CCR2 and CX3CR1 KO mice. We found that CCR2 is not required for tissue recruitment of monocyte-derived MØ under homeostatic conditions. In contrast, CCR2 expression is required for the recruitment of two Ly6Chi/CX3CR1low and Ly6Clow/CX3CR1hi subpopulations of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, sorted Ly6Clow/CX3CR1hi cells produced high levels of IL-6, MIP-1 and TNF-α ...
We showed that YF-17D-induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D-neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination.. ...
Phagocytic activity of microglia and monocytes at 24 and 72 h and 7 days following stroke. Representative histogram showing a relative increase in side scatte
TY - JOUR. T1 - Programmed cell death in 2,3-dideoxycytidine-resistant human monoblastoid U937 cells. AU - Antonelli, Antonella. AU - Luchetti, Francesca. AU - Cerasi, Aurora. AU - Columbaro, Marta. AU - Papa, Stefano. AU - Falcieri, Elisabetta. AU - Magnani, Mauro. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - 2,3-Dideoxycytidine is a powerful in vitro inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus and is currently used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A long-term exposure of U937 monoblastoid cells to dideoxycytidine induces the selection of drug-resistant cells (U937-R). In previous studies, we investigated some important biochemical properties and functional activities, such as basal respiration, protein kinase C activity, superoxide anion release, and the level of reduced glutathione, which were found to be higher in the drug-resistant cell line, compared to the parental one. In the present study, we evaluated the response of the two cell lines to the induction of apoptosis by treatment ...
We describe a high, synergistic induction of IDO1 expression by the demethylating drug zebularine and IFN-γ in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. ► The ...
Looking for monocyte-macrophage system? Find out information about monocyte-macrophage system. A large , agranular leukocyte with a relatively small, eccentric, oval or kidney-shaped nucleus Explanation of monocyte-macrophage system
Alcohol intoxication or a history of alcohol abuse has long been associated with an increase in inflammatory cell activation, sepsis, organ failure, ARDS and mo...
A critical issue arising from these observations is the identity of the molecules on the T cell surface that are involved in contact-mediated signaling of Mφ activation, as well as their counter-ligands. It has been postulated that T cell membrane-associated TNF-α was involved in Mφ activation. However, fixed, stimulated Th2 cells from a T cell line that did not express membrane-associated TNF induced both TNF and IL-1 production in Mφ [21] demonstrating that TNF-α might play a part, but not a primary one. We have shown that neither soluble TNF-α receptors nor IL-1Ra block T cell signaling of the monocytic cell line THP-1. Besides, neutralizing antibodies to TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IFN-γ, and granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor all failed to affect monocyte activation by membranes from stimulated T cells [2-4]. Similarly, although lymphotoxin (LT)-α receptor is expressed in Mφ, it is not likely that membrane-associated LT is involved in Mφ signaling upon contact with ...
Statins have action mechanisms that may work nicely in preventing recurrence during acute stage of infarction!. First, statins have antithrombotic effects and lower thrombogenicity. Statins prolong time to arterial thrombosis in endothelial injury model, inhibit P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation, reduce platelet PAR-1 thrombin receptor, and reduce tissue factor levels in plasma, its expression on monocyte surface, and atherosclerotic plaques. Second, statins enhance thrombolysis. They reduce PAI-1, increase t-PA activity and reduce fibrinogen level. Combined treatment of statins and t-PA in rats reduces the infarct size and downregulates expression of tissue factor, ICAM-1, vWF, and MMP-9. In addition, t-PA induced toxicity is reversed by statins.. Third, statins have anti-inflammatory actions that can stabilize and even regress plaques. Statins reduce the number of T-lymphocytes within plaques, inhibit migration and activation of monocyte/macrophage system, and reduce matrix ...
The alternative activation of monocytes with IL-13 and IL-4 is a host defense mechanism involved in the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of macrophages. The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of β2 integrins (CD11/CD18), receptors responsible for monocyte migration to the site of inflammation, in regulation of IL-13-mediated monocyte activation. We focused on the analysis of expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), an important enzyme involved in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins. Previously it has been shown, that IL-13 as well as IL-4 mediate the dramatic upregulation of 15-LO on monocytes. We found that adhesion of resting monocytes through β2 integrins and inside-out activation of β2 integrins by MCP-1 did not change IL-13-stimulated 15-LO induction; however, preincubation of monocytes with the antibody MEM48, which generates full activation of β2 integrins, dramatically inhibits IL-13-induced 15-LO mRNA and protein expression. A similar effect of MEM48 ...
Based on their ontogeny, tissue localization and functional specialization, monocyte-derived cells exhibit diverse phenotypic and functional properties. Monocyte-derived macrophages (moMAC) and dendritic cells (moDC) differentiate from common precursors in situ but carry out different regulatory functions in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). Under pathological conditions both moMACs and moDCs are known to be involved in inflammatory processes of the brain. The primary role of moDCs is to maintain self tolerance in the periphery as well as in the CNS and their subtypes and subsets are specialized for unique functional activities thus playing a pivotal role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity, orchestrating strictly controlled immune responses, and ensure restoration of the resting state or support the generation of regulatory, effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Depending on environmental cues, macrophages can be polarized to inflammatory and tissue regenerative/restorative
Originalartikel in wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriften. 1. G. Schuermann, P. Hohenberger, P. Martin: "Spontanruptur des Ösophagus bei neurogener Muskelatrophie." Chirurg (1986) 57:583-86. 2. W. Hofmann, G. Schuermann: "Parasitäre Myocarditis beim Rotwild." Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaften (1987) 33:131-34. 3. T. Mattfeldt, G. Schuermann, G. Feichter: "Stereology and flow-cytometry of well-differentiated follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland." Virchows Arch A (1987) 410:433-41. 4. G. Schuermann, M. Betzler, R. Decker, P. Möller, A. von Herbay, K. Koretz: „T cell and OKM1 positive monocyte populations in the intestinal lamina propria mucosae and in the peripheral venous blood in Crohns disease." Digestion (1987) 38:204-211. 5. G. Schuermann, M. Betzler, R. Waldherr: "Das Carcinoid der Ampulla Vateri." Chirurg (1988) 10:670-675. 6. T. Mattfeldt, G. Schuermann, U. Matthaei-Maurer, G. Feichter, P. Möller: "Morphometrische Äquivalente des Differenzierungsgrades bei epithelialen Tumoren und ...
Human CD14 monocytes from peripheral blood of healthy adult donors. Our primary human monocytes are uncultured and have purity |95%.
Monocyte levels can be affected by infections; certain blood disorders, genetic disorders, and autoimmune diseases; and cancers...
DNAM-1 is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and T cells and plays an important role in cytotoxicity of these cells against target cells. Although the role of DNAM-1 in the function of T cells and NK cells has been well studied, the expression and function of DNAM-1 on myeloid cells have been incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated expression of DNAM-1 on monocyte subsets in mouse peripheral blood and found that only inflammatory monocytes (iMos), but not patrolling monocytes (pMos), expressed high levels of DNAM-1. In addition, we found that DNAM-1 was highly expressed on iMos, rather than pMos, also in human. Furthermore, we found that DNAM-1 on inflammatory monocytes was involved in cell adhesion to CD155-expressing cells. Therefore, we propose that expression of DNAM-1 on inflammatory monocytes are evolutionally conserved and act as an adhesion molecule on blood inflammatory monocytes.. ...
Posted on November 18, 2014 By Ilia Elenkov Stress-Immune News. A study published in Nature Medicine suggests that stress mediators may also directly activate hematopoi-etic stem cells (HSCs), which increase proliferation and differentiate into downstream progenitor cells, with the end result of an accelerated neutrophil and monocyte production. Acute stress is known to induce a transient leukocytosis, mostly due to an increase in natural killer […] ...
You can try using PMA that help to differentiate these primary human monocytes into macrophages. Human monocytes include PBMC or THP-1 cell lines.. ...
Principal Investigator:KIKAWA Yoshiharu, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Pediatrics
Super immunodeficient NOG mouse expressing human IL-6 cytokine with enhanced expansion of human monocytes following human HSC engraftment.
InvivoGen THP1-Dual KO-cGAS and THP1-Dual human monocytes are reporter cells designed for cell-based assays of cGAS function through monitoring of IFN and NF-kB pathway induction.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inflammatory co-morbidities in HIV+ individuals: learning lessons from healthy ageing. AU - Hearps, Anna Clare. AU - Martin, Genevieve. AU - Rajasuriar, Reena. AU - Crowe, Suzanne Mary. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Increased life expectancy due to improved efficacy of cART has uncovered an increased risk of age-related morbidities in HIV+ individuals and catalyzed significant research into mechanisms driving these diseases. HIV infection increases the risk of non-communicable diseases common in the aged, including cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive decline, non-AIDS malignancies, osteoporosis, and frailty. These observations suggest that HIV accelerates immunological ageing, and there are many immunological similarities with the aged, including shortened telomeres, accumulation of senescent T cells and altered monocyte phenotype/function. However, the most critical similarity between HIV+ individuals and the elderly, which most likely underpins the heightened risk of ...
A human monocytic cell line, THP-1-S, was cultured in a serum-free medium. The effect of the culture supernatant of THP-1-S on the cytotoxicity of rTNF-alpha to three kinds of cell lines and the binding of rTNF to its ...
THP1-Dual cells were derived from the human THP-1 monocyte cell line by stable integration of two inducible reporter constructs. THP1-Dual cells allow the simultaneous study of the NF-kB pathway, by monitoring the activity of SEAP, and the IRF pathway, by assessing the activity of a secreted lucifer
Hello, We are interested in metabolic labeling (using 35S-Met) human monocytes stimulated under various conditions. Has anyone done this? I am looking for recommendations on media to use, length of starvation, labeling, etc. Any input is appreciated. Thanks in advance, Blair R. Renshaw Immunex Corp ...
Analysis of TNF-α production by DCs in response to sHA stimulation. (A and B) Human monocyte-derived day 4 DCs were treated with 25 μg/ml sHA or 100 ng/ml L
G Berman, S L C Woo, D Burnett, R A Stockley; Alpha, Antichymotrypsin Synthesis by Alveolar Macrophages And Monocyte-Like Cell Lines. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1987; 73 (s17): 2P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs073002P. Download citation file:. ...
We have examined the receptor-ligand interactions and the method of phagocytosis of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human monocytes. mAb against complement receptors (CR) inhibit adherence and phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis in fresh nonimmune serum. A mAb against the type 1 CR (CR1) inhibits adherence of M. tuberculosis by 40 +/- 5%, and three different mAb against the type 3 CR (CR3) each inhibit adherence by 39 +/- 5% to 47 +/- 4%. A mAb against CR1 used in combination with one of the three mAb against CR3 inhibits adherence by up to 64 +/- 7%. Most strikingly, two mAb used in combination against CR3 inhibit adherence by up to 81 +/- 2%. mAb against other monocyte surface Ag do not significantly influence adherence. In like fashion, mAb against CR but not other monocyte surface Ag inhibit adherence of preopsonized M. tuberculosis in the presence of heat-inactivated serum. By electron microscopy, monocytes ingest all M. tuberculosis that adhere in the presence of nonimmune serum; mAb ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential monocyte responses to TLR ligands in children with autism spectrum disorders. AU - Enstrom, Amanda M.. AU - Onore, Charity E.. AU - Van de Water, Judith A. AU - Ashwood, Paul. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social interactions, communication deficits, and restricted repetitive interests and behaviors. Recent evidence has suggested that impairments of innate immunity may play an important role in ASD. To test this hypothesis, we isolated peripheral blood monocytes from 17 children with ASD and 16 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls and stimulated these cell cultures in vitro with distinct toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands: TLR 2 (lipoteichoic acid; LTA), TLR 3 (poly I:C), TLR 4 (lipopolysaccharide; LPS), TLR 5 (flagellin), and TLR 9 (CpG-B). Supernatants were harvested from the cell cultures and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, MCP-1, and GM-CSF were ...
We have investigated the effect of plasma fibronectin (Fn) on binding and phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes (E) by human peripheral blood monocytes. Unopsonized E were not phagocytosed in the absence or presence of Fn, but Fn enhanced the phagocytosis of E bearing IgG. Sheep erythrocytes sensitized with IgM and C3b were ingested only when monocytes were exposed to Fn. The Fn enhancement of phagocytosis occurred for both fluid-phase and glass-adherent monocytes. Experiments in which Fn was washed out before mixing monocytes with opsonized E demonstrated that the Fn effect occurred because of interaction with the monocytes and not the opsonized particles. Chromatography of the Fn on Biogel A 1.5m showed that the phagocytosis-enhancing activity exactly co-chromatographed with the Fn protein. Fn did not increase the number of monocyte membrane receptors for the Fc fragment of monomeric IgG. We conclude that Fn enhances monocyte phagocytosis, not by binding to particles as a conventional opsonin, ...
Monocytes in the circulation of normal individuals express two receptors for the constant region of immunoglobulin, Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII. In contrast, we have observed that AIDS monocytes express significant levels of a third Fc gamma R, Fc gamma RIII (CD16), which is normally associated with activation or maturation of the monocyte population. By dual-fluorescence analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for Fc gamma RIII (MAb 3G8), 38.5 +/- 3.2% of the LeuM3 (CD14)-positive monocytes in AIDS patients were CD16 positive as compared to 10.4 +/- 1.0% for healthy individuals (n = 29; P less than 0.005). Furthermore, AIDS monocytes expressed Fc gamma RIII-specific mRNA which is expressed minimally or not at all in control monocytes. As a recently identified inducer of Fc gamma RIII expression on blood monocytes, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was found to be elevated in the serum and/or plasma of AIDS patients. Moreover, incubation of normal monocytes with AIDS serum or ...
Isoflurane reduced significantly the expression of PSGL-1 on unstimulated monocytes, whereas the remaining selectins and β2-integrins were not affected. At both concentrations, the FMLP-induced removal of PSGL-1 from the monocyte surface was increased. Furthermore, at 1 MAC isoflurane the FMLP-induced increase in CD11a expression was significantly inhibited. The surface expression of L-selectin and CD11b was not affected following exposure to isoflurane. Conclusion ...
Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement are considered regional reactions. However, how systemic immune responses are involved in this regional reaction remains unclear. In this study, we explored the systemic effects of orthodontic force by focusing on the mononuclear phagocyte system. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of inflammatory monocytes, in peripheral blood and in the monocyte reservoir spleen, decreased on days 1 and 3 and then recovered on day 7 after force application. Along with the systemic decrease of inflammatory monocyte percentage, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts increased in the compression side of the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Systemic transfusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled inflammatory monocytes showed recruitment of these monocytes to the orthodontic force compression side of periodontal tissues. These monocytes were ...
Our data demonstrate that CD36 functions as an Ox-LDL receptor in human monocyte-derived macrophages. An anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody inhibited approximately 50% of the specific binding and 26% of the specific degradation of Ox-LDL in human monocyte-derived macrophages, implicating CD36 as a major receptor for oxidatively modified forms of LDL. These data suggest that CD36 may play a functional role in lipid accumulation by human macrophages and subsequent foam cell development during atherosclerosis.. Interactions between CD36 and Ox-LDL were evaluated in murine NIH-3T3 cells stably transfected with human CD36 cDNA. Ox-LDL bound to CD36-transfected 3T3 cells in a saturable and specific manner. LDL binding was equivalent in transfected and sham-transfected cells, as was Ac-LDL binding. Binding, internalization, and degradation of Ox-LDL were increased fourfold in CD36-transfected cell lines compared with 3T3 cells transfected with vector alone. However, the absolute amount of degraded ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased monocyte phagocytosis in cancer patients. AU - Ruco, L. P.. AU - Procopio, A.. AU - Uccini, S.. AU - Baroni, C. D.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Phagocytosis of IgG opsonized sheep erythrocytes (EA) by peripheral blood monocytes was evaluated in 73 individuals: 29 patients with malignant neoplastic diseases, 24 patients with non-malignant diseases and 20 normal donors. In a 30-min assay, phagocytosis values observed in 16 of 29 cancer patients and in 3 of 24 control patients were above the upper limit of the 2 S.D. interval for the normal donor population. The enhanced EA phagocytosis was dependent on a higher percentage of phagocytic cells as well as on an increased phagocytic rate. Mean values of phagocytosis obtained for cancer patients were statistically different (P ,0.01) from those obtained for normal donors and control patients. According to a still limited number of observations, no association could be demonstrated between increased monocyte phagocytosis and ...
Secretion of complement component C3 by U937 cells was studied. Preliminary evidence for a cell-associated proteolytic activity specific for C3 is given, as well as for a covalent-like binding of C3 fragments to the cell membranes. Secretion of C3, in the presence of 10 ng of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ml, is 120-140 ng/10(6) cells per 24 h on the third day after addition of the activator. As shown by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the intracellular pro-C3 (200 kDa) and the extracellular secreted C3 (alpha-chain 110 kDa and beta-chain 75 kDa) are identical with the forms of C3 previously characterized from human serum. Incubation of U937 cells in the presence of exogenous radiolabelled C3 shows that membrane-bound proteinase(s), not related to the classical-pathway or the alternative-pathway C3 convertases, is (are) able to cleave C3; this cleavage leads to the binding of the resulting C3 fragments to the cell membrane through reaction of membrane acceptors with the carbonyl group ...
CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages are important components of the immune system. Blood monocytes are usually targeted for studies of the human macrophage lineage cells because of their accessibility through blood sampling. Most separation techniques currently available to obtain human monocytes either require large volumes of blood or do not yield a monocyte fraction sufficiently depleted of other cell types. We have developed a simple strategy to isolate a highly enriched population of monocytes from small volumes (, 6 ml) of peripheral blood by using an anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody and magnetic microspheres. Yields of monocytes ranged from 75 to 80% of CD14+ cells in peripheral blood. CD4+ T cells were subsequently selected from the monocyte-depleted peripheral blood by using an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody and immunomagnetic beads. The effectiveness of immunomagnetic selection to yield a monocyte population highly depleted of T cells was analyzed by using a sensitive molecular ...
U937 cells attach to the RGDS-containing 80-kD fragment of fibronectin (Fn). The present report examined whether these cells recognize other domains of Fn. U937 cells attach to a 38-kD fragment derived from the A chain of Fn, which includes the Hep II domain and most of the alternatively spliced IIICS region. U937 did not bind to a 58-kD fragment derived from the B chain (which lacks IIICS) and has the Hep II site. They also did not bind to a 31-kD COOH-terminal fibrin-binding fragment or to a 29-kD fragment containing the Hep I domain. Cell adhesion to the 38-kD fragment was not inhibited by the 80-kD fragment, by GRGDSPC synthetic peptides, or by a mAb directed to the RGDS-containing domain of Fn. Attachment was completely inhibited by the 38-kD fragment and by the synthetic peptide CS-1, comprising the first 25 amino acid residues of IIICS. These results indicate that U937 cells interact with two sites of Fn, the RGDS-containing region, and the IIICS region. ...
Human gamma interferon (HuIFN gamma) was assessed for its capacity to enhance release of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors (GM-CSF) from human peripheral blood monocytes. Natural HuIFN gamma (2 X 10(7) NIH reference units per milligram) at concentrations as low as 0.01 U/mL to 10 U/mL reproducibly enhanced release of GM-CSF. This enhancement was detected when T lymphocytes were depleted from monocyte preparations and when T lymphocytes and monocytes were depleted from populations of human bone marrow cells stimulated by monocyte-conditioned media to form colonies and clusters. T lymphocytes alone or in the presence of HuIFN gamma did not release GM-CSF. The enhancing activity of HuIFN gamma was removed by preincubating HuIFN gamma with neutralizing concentrations of monoclonal anti-HuIFN gamma, and recombinant HuIFN gamma mimicked the effects of natural HuIFN gamma, suggesting that the effects were due to HuIFN gamma itself. HuIFN gamma suppression of the release of inhibitory ...