The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The mammalian genome contains two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK)-encoding genes, Mek1 and Mek2. MEKs phosphorylate and activate the two extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) isoforms ERK1 and ERK2. Mek1−/− embryos die due to placental defects, whereas Mek2−/− mice survive with a normal life span and fertility, suggesting that MEK1 has functions not shared by MEK2. However, most Mek1+/−Mek2+/− embryos also die from placental defects, indicating that both Mek genes contribute to placental development. To assess the functional specificity of the Mek1 and Mek2 genes, we produced a Mek1 knock-in allele in which the Mek2 coding sequences were placed under the control of Mek1 regulatory sequences (Mek12 allele). Mek12/2 mice were viable with no apparent phenotype, indicating rescue by MEK2 and functional redundancy between the two MEK proteins. However, Mek12/− embryos with Mek2 in only one of the Mek1 alleles and the other Mek1 allele null died from abnormal ...
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a family of signaling molecules that stimulates cell growth, survival and migration. PDGF is recognized by specific transmembrane proteins, the PDGF receptors, which relay the signals to the cell activating the Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and other signaling pathways. Aberrant activation of these pathways is frequently detected in cancer. Hence, the study of these processes is essential for identifying potential drug targets or diagnostic markers.. In paper I, we identified Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 1 NR4A1 to be regulated by PDGF via MAP kinases, clarifying the role of Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) 1/2, Erk5 and Nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in its regulation. NR4A1 was found to be important for the tumorigenic potential, measured as anchorage-independent growth, of glioblastoma cells.. Since the cellular responses elicited by PDGF result from the balance between phosphorylation ...
S. Xie*, B. Schurink, F. Wolbers, R. Luttge*, and G. Hassink. Nanoscaffolds stiffness affects primary cortical cell network formation. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 2014, 32(6), 06FD03.. S. Xie*, R. Luttge*. Imprint lithography provides topographical nanocues to guide cell growth in primary cortical cell culture. Microelectron. Eng. 2014, 124, 30-36.. Xie, S. J.; Lu, Y. X.; Zhang, S. C.; Wang, L.D.; Zhang X.R.*. Electro-optical gas sensor based on a planar light-emitting electrochemical cell microarray, Small. 2010, 6(17), 1897-1899.. Xiaoyan Wang, Kenichi Harimoto,Sijia Xie, Hao Cheng, Jing Liu, and Zhao Wang*. Matrix Protein Biglycan Induces Osteoblast Differentiation through Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and Smad Pathways. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2010, 33(11) 1891-1897. ...
... : Effects of 50 μM DHA, EPA, SA, and PA or 25 μM OA and LA on IL-2-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation. Lymphocytes were incubated with 5 μg/mL ConA for 24 h. Afterwards, lymphocytes were washed with PBS and cultured with the different fatty acids in the presence or absence of IL-2 (30 ng/mL) for 1 h. Total proteins were extracted from lymphocytes for western-blotting analysis. Blots were analyzed by densitometry and the results normalized to their respective controls, which were set to a value of 100% for each experiment. The values are presented as the means ± SEM. ###p,0.001 for comparison with the control in the absence IL-2); *p,0.05, **p,0.01, and ***p,0.001 for comparison with the control treated with IL-2 ...
Cancer cells have different characteristics due to the genetic differences where these unique features may strongly influence the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that the spontaneous reactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), distinct from conventional ERK activation, represents a potent mechanism for cancer cell survival. We studied ERK1/2 activation in vitro in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Although ERK signaling tends to be transiently activated, we observed the delayed reactivation of ERK1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 cells. This effect was observed even after EGF withdrawal. While phosphorylated ERK1/2 translocated into the nucleus following its primary activation, it remained in the cytoplasm during late-phase activation. The inhibition of primary ERK1/2 activation or protein trafficking, blocked reactivation and concurrently increased caspase 3 activity. Our results suggest that the biphasic activation of ERK1/2 plays a ...
Compounds. Compound I [IUPAC name: N-(3-fluoro-4-((7-methoxy-4-quinolinyl)oxy)phenyl)-1-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-5-methyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide] was synthesized at Amgen, Inc. The MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor U0126 was obtained from Calbiochem.. Cells. KATOIII (gastric), PC3 (prostate), HT-29 (colorectal), Colo205 (colorectal), BxPC3 (pancreatic), and U-87 MG (glioblastoma) cancer cell lines were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. NIH3T3 TPR-Met or NIH3T3 RON cells were generated by stable transfection of TPR-Met, a constitutively active, ligand-independent form of c-Met ( 31) or wild-type RON in NIH3T3 cells. Cells were grown as monolayers using standard cell culture conditions.. Antibodies and reagents. Antibodies against c-Met (C-12), RON (C-20), and actin (1615-R) were acquired from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. Antibodies against phospho-c-Met (Y1234/1235), phospho-Gab1 (Y627), phospho-ERK1/2 ...
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a family of signaling molecules that stimulates cell growth, survival and migration. PDGF is recognized by specific transmembrane proteins, the PDGF receptors, which relay the signals to the cell activating the Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and other signaling pathways. Aberrant activation of these pathways is frequently detected in cancer. Hence, the study of these processes is essential for identifying potential drug targets or diagnostic markers.. In paper I, we identified Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 1 NR4A1 to be regulated by PDGF via MAP kinases, clarifying the role of Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) 1/2, Erk5 and Nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in its regulation. NR4A1 was found to be important for the tumorigenic potential, measured as anchorage-independent growth, of glioblastoma cells.. Since the cellular responses elicited by PDGF result from the balance between phosphorylation ...
Constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is implicated in the development and progression of many human cancers, including
Recombinant Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8) Protéine. Origine: Humain. Source: Baculovirus infected Insect Cells. Commandez ABIN593493.
Low temperature is one of the most common environmental stresses affecting plant growth and agricultural production. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a pivotal role in...
Recombinant Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1310303 bestellen.
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
The Alpha SureFire® Ultra™ HV Multiplex p-ERK 1/2 + Total ERK assay kit is used to measure both the phosphorylation (Thr202/Tyr204) and total levels of endogenous
ERK1 / ERK2, 0.1 ml. Erk1 and Erk2 are closely related mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases which are activated by many growth factors, mitogens and differentiation-promoting agents via a protein kinase cascade.
The extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is one of the major signaling cassettes of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling ..
Sun QY.,Wu GM.,Lai LX.,Bonk A.,Cabot R.,...&Schatten H.(2002).Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, microtubule organization, chromatin behavior, and cell cycle progression by protein phosphatases during pig oocyte maturation and fertilization in vitro.Biology of Reproduction,66(3),580-588 ...
Looking for the definition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases? Find out what is the full meaning of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases on Abbreviations.com! Protein Kinase C is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), also called mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), are widely expressed signaling proteins that regulate meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. Following activation by upstream kinases, ERKs are translocated to the nucleus, where they perform their regulatory functions. Disruption of ERK-mediated pathways is common in many cancers. Two members of this family were originally identified with 85% sequence similarity, called ERK1 and ERK2. ERK1 is also known as MAPK3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase, microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase, PRKM3, ERT2, p44-ERK1, p44-MAPK, HS44KDAP, HUMKER1A, MAP kinase 1, and MAPK1. ERK2 is also known as MAPK1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, PRKM1, PRKM2, ERT1, p41-ERK1, p41-MAPK, p42-MAPK, MAP kinase 1, MAP kinase 2, MAPK1, MAPK2, p38, p40, and p41.. ...
Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), also called mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), are widely expressed signaling proteins that regulate meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. Following activation by upstream kinases, ERKs are translocated to the nucleus, where they perform their regulatory functions. Disruption of ERK-mediated pathways is common in many cancers. Two members of this family were originally identified with 85% sequence similarity, called ERK1 and ERK2. ERK1 is also known as MAPK3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase, microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase, PRKM3, ERT2, p44-ERK1, p44-MAPK, HS44KDAP, HUMKER1A, MAP kinase 1, and MAPK1. ERK2 is also known as MAPK1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, PRKM1, PRKM2, ERT1, p41-ERK1, p41-MAPK, p42-MAPK, MAP kinase 1, MAP kinase 2, MAPK1, MAPK2, p38, p40, and p41.. ...
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
MAPKK 6 is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which functions as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein phosphorylates and activates p38 MAP kinase in response to inflammatory cytokines or environmental stress. As an essential component of p38 MAP kinase mediated signal transduction pathway, this gene is involved in many cellular processes such as stress-induced cell cycle arrest, transcription activation and apoptosis.[6] ...
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs): Activation, Functions and Regulation opens with a summary of the present knowledge about MAPK, with special emphasis on p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The authors focus on how these signaling pathways are engaged during some infections with intracellular parasites.. The authors also describe selected regulatory aspects of circadian clocks in vertebrates, exploring an intriguing link to MAPK. Circadian clocks are time-tracking systems that provide organisms with a survival advantage.. Cadmium, one of the toxic metals, is an important occupational and environmental pollutant that damages various organs, especially the kidney. The concluding study proposes that the type of kidney cell and severity of cadmium-induced cellular stress appear to determine the effect of MAPK on cell fate ...
... - reflects the multidimensional character of chemical biology, focusing in particular on the fundamental science of biological structures and systems, the use of chemical and biological techniques to elucidate
Ran-Binding Protein M (RanBPM) has been previously shown to inhibit c-Raf expression, however how this was achieved remains unclear. c-Raf is the central component of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway which has been linked to many cancer types. Furthermore, RanBPM was recently identified as part of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and the CTLH (C-terminal to LisH) complex (McTavish et al., 2019). Lastly, RanBPM has been linked to various signaling pathways related to numerous cellular processes which include - apoptosis, cell adhesion, migration, transcription, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport and also plays a significant role during development (Salemi et al., 2017). ...
Although several multiprotein complexes containing MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) have been identified using overexpression of kinases and scaffold proteins, the components of the complexes and their physical properties at endogenous expression levels have not been defined. We characterized a large protein complex containing a nerve-growth-factor-activated ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. This protein complex fractionated into a high-speed pellet and was resistant to non-ionic detergent treatments that solubilized membranes. Disruption of protein-protein interactions by treatment with high salt was required to facilitate immunoprecipitation of active ERK1 and co-precipitation of MEK1. Microtubule fragments were also present in the detergent-resistant high-speed pellet, and some kinases were bound to them, especially ERK1b (an alternatively spliced isoform of ERK1), which showed a strong preference for binding ...
This trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of fulvestrant +/- selumetinib [AZD6244] in patients with advanced stage breast cancer progressing after aromatase
Background Multi-drug proneness and level of resistance to metastasize are main clinical complications in cancers treatment. on cell migration and in cell protein-protein association Neurog1 had been researched by wound-healing and closeness ligation assays, respectively. Outcomes We present right here, that N11 treatment network 336113-53-2 marketing leads to i) significant caspase-mediated apoptotic cell loss of […]. Read More ». ...
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Yan Z, Ohuchida K, Fei S, Zheng B, Guan W, Feng H, Kibe S, Ando Y, Koikawa K, Abe T, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Nakamura M. Inhibition of ERK1/2 in cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells suppresses cancer-stromal interaction and metastasis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019 May 27; 38(1):221 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
ERK1 / ERK2, 0.1 mg. The activation of signal transduction pathways by growth factors, hormones and neurotransmitters is mediated through two closely related MAP kinases, p44 and p42, designated extracellular-signal related kinase 1 (ERK 1) and ERK 2,
MAPK4 antibody [N1C1] (mitogen-activated protein kinase 4) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-MAPK4 pAb (GTX104128) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are the prototypical intracellular mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). ERK1/2 are activated by mul...
VX 954 was selected in October 2000 as a drug development candidate from Vertex Pharmaceuticals p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase research programme.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenWay \ SRE Reporter Kit (MAPK ERK Signaling Pathway ) \ GWB-PS60EE for more molecular products just contact us
We have previously reported the in vitro pharmacological properties of E6201, including the following: 1) E6201 suppressed the activation of AP-1 via inhibitory effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase-; 2) E6201 decreased activation of NF-κB; 3) E6201 suppressed the production of various proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes and leukocytes; and 4) E6201 attenuated hyperproliferation and IL-8 production in human keratinocytes in vitro (Goto et al., 2009). These pharmacological properties of E6201 indicate that this compound represents a promising strategy for the treatment of psoriasis, because psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe hyperplasia in the epidermis and marked infiltration of leukocytes into dermis and epidermis. In this article, we investigated the therapeutic effects of topically administered E6201 in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Mechanism of Heat Shock Activation of ERK Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases in the Interleukin 3-dependent ProB Cell Line BaF3. AU - Ng, D.C.H.. AU - Bogoyevitch, M.A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Article. VL - 275. SP - 40856. EP - 40866. JO - The Journal of Biological Chemistry. JF - The Journal of Biological Chemistry. SN - 0021-9258. IS - 52. ER - ...
Although classic genetic analyses, such as those described above, have revealed much about the molecular pathways involved in artery-vein specification, such approaches have limitations when it comes to examining signaling pathways that function at multiple stages in development. With a typical nonconditional mutation, the primary role for a gene at later stages of development is often difficult to distinguish from indirect consequences of disrupting the gene at an earlier stage. The Hedgehog pathway, for example, plays a critical role in vasculogenesis, but is also involved in development of numerous other structures at various developmental time points.34 Moreover, classic genetic approaches can be hampered by genetic redundancy.35 A powerful alternative approach, chemical genetic analysis, can overcome the challenges posed by repeated utilization of a signaling pathway during development and by genetic redundancy. Recently, Hedgehog signaling inhibitor cyclopamine was instrumental in ...
Investigation of T-helper type 2 cytokines and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the modulation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and remodelling ...
We aimed to investigate specific roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the deterioration of endothelial function during the progression of diabetes and the potential therapeutic effects of MAPK inhibitors and agonists in the amelioration of endothelial function. Protein expression and phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) were assessed in mesenteric arteries of 3- (3M) and 9-month-old (9M) male diabetic and control mice. The expression of p38, JNK, and Erk was comparable in all groups of mice, but the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was increased in 3M and further increased in 9M diabetic mice, whereas the phosphorylation of Erk was substantially reduced in 9M diabetic mice. NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production was significantly increased in vessels of two ages of diabetic mice. Inhibition of either p38 with SB203580 or JNK with SP600125 reduced superoxide production and improved shear stress-induced ...
p42 MAP Kinase (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPK), also known as Erk2 (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2) is one of two isoforms of MAP kinase family. It is a serine/threonine protein kinase
Mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in a signal transduction pathway that is activated by changes in the osmolarity of the extracellular environment. Controls osmotic regulation of transcription of target genes (By similarity).
Söderström T.S., Poukkula M., Holmström T.H., et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in activated T cells abrogates TRAIL-induced apoptosis upstream of the mitochondrial amplification loop and caspase-8. (англ.) // J. Immunol. (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2002. - Vol. 169, no. 6. - P. 2851-2860. - PMID 12218097. ...
Inhibition of MAPKs and activator protein-1. MAPKs have been implicated in many physiologic processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. There are three major types of MAPKs in mammalian cells, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), the p38 MAPKs, and the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK). The major pathways that lie downstream of the membrane-associated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are shown in Fig. 1. In this cascade, Ras interacts with and activates Raf-1, which in turn phosphorylates and activates MAP/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2). Activated MEK1/2 then phosphorylates ERK1/2. The JNK1/2/3 and p38α/β/γ pathways are parallel MAPK cascades in mammalian cells. Once activated, MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38) activate ELK and c-Jun. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is activated by RTKs and it synthesizes the second messenger, phosphatidyl inositol-3,4,5-triphosphate, which is necessary for phosphorylation of Akt. Akt directly phosphorylates the proapoptotic ...
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History and purpose: Trabecular meshwork (TM) can be an ocular cells mixed up in rules of aqueous humour outflow and intraocular pressure (IOP). and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ shops. A PTX-sensitive upsurge in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation was also seen in response to WIN55 212 indicative of the Gi/o signalling pathway. CB1-Gq/11 coupling to activate PLC-dependent raises in Ca2+ were particular to WIN55 212 and werent observed with additional.. Read More. ...
Pediatric low-grade glioma (pLGG) is the most common childhood brain tumor. Many patients with unresectable or recurrent/refractory tumors have significant lifelong disability. The majority of pLGG have mutations increasing the activity of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is also a hallmark of pLGG. We therefore hypothesized that the dual target of rapamycin complexes 1 and 2 (TORC1/2) kinase inhibitor TAK228 would synergize with the mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor trametinib in pLGG ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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