Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be homodimers both in the inner membrane of the organelle and in detergents. The dimensions and molecular masses of the detergent and protein-detergent micelles were measured for yeast ADP/ATP carriers in a range of different detergents. The radius of the carrier at the midpoint of the membrane, its average radius, its Stokes radius, its molecular mass, and its excluded volume were determined. These parameters are consistent with the known structural model of the bovine ADP/ATP carrier and they demonstrate that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents. Therefore, models of substrate transport have to be considered in which the carrier operates as a monomer rather than as a dimer.. ...
The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. The carrier cycles by an unresolved mechanism between the cytoplasmic state, in which the carrier accepts ADP from the cytoplasm, and the matrix state, in which it accepts ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. Here we present the structures of the yeast ADP/ATP carriers Aac2p and Aac3p in the cytoplasmic state. The carriers have three domains and are closed at the matrix side by three interdomain salt-bridge interactions, one of which is braced by a glutamine residue. Glutamine braces are conserved in mitochondrial carriers and contribute to an energy barrier, preventing the conversion to the matrix state unless substrate binding occurs. At the cytoplasmic side a second salt-bridge network forms during the transport cycle, as demonstrated by functional analysis of mutants with charge-reversed networks. Analyses of the domain structures and properties of the interdomain interfaces indicate ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative analysis of glucose-6-phosphate translocase gene expression in various human tissues and haematopoietic progenitor cells. AU - Ihara, K.. AU - Nomura, A.. AU - Hikino, S.. AU - Takada, Hidetoshi. AU - Hara, T.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - We investigated the quantitative expression of the human glucose-6-phosphate translocase gene (G6PT1) and its splicing variants in human tissues. The G6PT1 gene was strongly expressed in liver, kidney and haematopoietic progenitor cells, which might explain major clinical symptoms such as hepatomegaly, nephromegaly and neutropenia in glycogen storage diseases type 1b. Reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR amplification of G6PT1 cDNA revealed several splicing variants in tissue-specific manners. The brain-specific isoform, which has an additional 22 amino acids between exons 6 and 8, was also identified in heart and skeletal muscle. A new splicing variant, although less prominent in quantity and lacking polypeptide loops ...
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate. Through the catalyzed exchange of gamma-phosphate between di- and triphosphonucleosides participates in regulation of intracellular nucleotide homeostasis (PubMed:10799505). Binds to anionic phospholipids, predominantly to cardiolipin; the binding inhibits its phosphotransfer activity (PubMed:18635542, PubMed:23150663). Acts as mitochondria-specific NDK; its association with cardiolipin-containing mitochondrial inner membrane is coupled to respiration suggesting that ADP locally regenerated in the mitochondrion innermembrane space by its activity is directly taken up via ANT ADP/ATP translocase into the matrix space to stimulate respiratory ATP regeneration (PubMed:18635542). Proposed to increase GTP-loading on dynamin-related GTPase OPA1 in mitochondria (PubMed:24970086). In vitro can ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
The difficulties encountered in the crystallization of membrane proteins in a form suitable for X-ray analysis have stimulated the development of algorithms to predict, from primary amino acid...
Vector ConstructionMouse cDNA for the adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (inner mitochondrial membrane transporter). It was cloned into the multiple cloning site of pAC-CMV-pLpA. The resulting plasmid was cotransfected into HEK293 cells with plasmid pJM17 which contains the Ad5 genome. Homologous recombination between the two plasmids resulted in the replacement of the Ad5 early region 1 with the mouse cDNA for Ant2, generating a replication deficient recombinant virus. ...
The directed movement of a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator?
Chemical modification of primary amino groups of mitochondrial membrane proteins by the fluorescent probe fluorescamine induces non-specific membrane permeabilisation. Titration of the lysine ϵ-amino group promoted efflux of accumulated Ca2+, collapse of transmembrane potential and mitochondrial swelling. Ca2+ release was inhibited by cyclosporin A. Considering the latter, we assumed that fluorescamine induces permeability transition. Carboxyatractyloside also inhibited the reaction. Using a polyclonal antibody for adenine nucleotide translocase, Western blot analysis showed that the carrier appeared labelled with the fluorescent probe. The results point out the importance of the ϵ-amino group of lysine residues, located in the adenine nucleotide carrier, on the modulation of membrane permeability, since its blockage suffices to promote opening of the non-specific nanopore. ...
We showed in the past that starch accumulation in potato tubers is strongly affected by altering the plastidic ATP/ADP-transporter activity (Tjaden et al., 1998a) leading to a high metabolic-flux control coefficient (Geigenberger et al., 2001). Therefore, we analyzed whether reduced plastidic ATP import capacity governs the end-product accumulation in Arabidopsis embryos to a similar extent as observed in potato. This analysis was further encouraged, since experiments on isolated rapeseed seed-embryo plastids showed that the highest rates of fatty-acid synthesis depend upon the supply with exogenous ATP (Eastmond and Rawsthorne, 1998; Rawsthorne, 2002), whereas a recently developed mathematical carbon-flux model indicated that net ATP import is not required for maximal fatty-acid synthesis in rapeseed embryos (Schwender et al., 2004).. As given in Figure 11, AtNTT1∷T-DNA did not show altered seed weight, lipid, and protein content when compared to wild-type seeds, whereas AtNTT2∷T-DNA seeds ...
Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the cytosol and the peroxisomal lumen. This transport is accompanied by a proton transport from the peroxisomal lumen to the cytosol. Transport of ATP into the peroxisome is required for beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. Required for growth on medium-chain fatty acids, pH gradient formation in peroxisomes and for normal peroxisome proliferation.
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to…
Diabetes increases myocardial FA oxidation and MVO2, but underlying mechanisms are partially understood. We used perfused hearts, permeabilized fibers (fibers) and isolated mitochondria from diabetic db/db mice to assess mitochondrial (MITO) uncoupling and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. MITO uncoupling and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE) was absent in hearts perfused with glucose alone. However, in db/db hearts perfused with 1.0 mM Palmitate and 11mM glucose, RPP was reduced by 31% p, 0.02, MVO2 was increased by 45% p, 0.03, and CE reduced by 51% p,0.004. In fibers, state 3 respirations with palmitoyl carnitine were similar (16.4±1.3 and 16.7±1.5 nmol/min/mg), but ATP production rates were reduced by 36% in db/db fibers so that ATP/O ratios were 1.5±0.2 in db/db vs. 2.5±0.1 in controls (p,0.005), indicating FA-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. H2O2 production was also increased by 2.6 fold (p,0.001) in isolated db/db MITO exposed to the complex 1 substrate pyruvate. To ...
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SLC25A31 antibody (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLC25A31 pAb (GTX87816) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is composed of five intramitochondrial enzyme complexes (complexes I to V) that are responsible for producing the majority of the ATP required for normal cellular function. Assembly and maintenance of OXPHOS requires the coordinate regulation of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. The mtDNA encodes 12 OXPHOS subunits, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs, which provide the core elements for OXPHOS function and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The nuclear DNA is responsible for synthesizing approximately 70 OXPHOS subunits, transporting them to the mitochondria via chaperone proteins, ensuring their passage across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and coordinating their proper processing and assembly. OXPHOS is regulated by a wide variety of factors and processes that include hormone levels, oxygen supply, ion gradients, membrane transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocase that supplies ADP for conversion to ATP, transcription factors that alter the ...
Graham BH et al. (1997) A mouse model for mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator.. [^] ...
In plants, ATP is mainly regenerated in mitochondria and chloroplasts, but with the exception of vacuoles, virtually each organelle (Geigenberger et al., 2010) and the apoplast (Roux and Steinebrunner, 2007) has to be provided with this metabolite. Due to the substantial molecular size of adenylates and due to the high charge of this class of molecules, corresponding membranes must harbor specific proteins that allow transport across this physical barrier. PM-ANT1 fulfils basic criteria required for ATP transporters as this protein exhibits high structural similarity to the well-characterized ADP/ATP carriers AAC1-3, which reside in the inner mitochondrial membrane (Figure 1; Haferkamp et al., 2002), shows three METS, and possess the highly conserved RRRMMM motif (Figure 1) critical for ATP transport (Nelson et al., 1993; Nelson and Douglas, 1993). Thus, it was not surprising to observe that PM-ANT1 transports adenylates (Figure 2C, Table 1) and fully legitimates the position of PM-ANT1 as one ...
Understanding the precise mechanisms by which mutSOD1 destroys multiple mitochondrial functions and identifying the mitochondrial targets of mutSOD1, is crucial to develop target-based therapies to rescue mitochondria in mutSOD1-ALS. We provide evidence that (1) the primary target of mutSOD1 at the mitochondria is Bcl-2, (2) the initiating event in mutSOD1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is the formation of the toxic mutSOD1/Bcl-2 complex, and (3) preventing formation of the mutSOD1/Bcl-2 complex restores mitochondrial ADP permeability ex vivo in mitochondria of symptomatic mutSOD1-G93A ALS mice as well as mitochondrial bioenergetics in situ in mutSOD1-expressing cells, ultimately preventing mutSOD1-induced cell loss. Thus, our data provide a solid rationale for the development of a targeted therapeutic approach that, by affecting the key steps leading to mitochondrial demise, may prove effective in broadly restoring mitochondrial functions, and eventually, preventing or delaying motor neuron ...
Download this stock image: Molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism - B5R0WK from Alamys library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors.
YAAC currently has this limitation. Should I remove it? Andrew Pavlin, KA2DDOauthor of YAAC http://www.ka2ddo.org/ka2ddo/YAAC.html -------- Original message -------- From: Robert Bruninga via aprssig ,aprssig at tapr.org, Date: 04/25/2016 5:07 PM (GMT-05:00) To: aprssig at tapr.org Subject: [aprssig] APRS Message Callsign SPEC- Ambiguity There is an unintended ambiguity in the APRS SPEC regarding the addressee in the APRS MESSAGE format. It was intended that the TOCALL of any transmitted message could be sent to ANY 9 character callsign field and this included mixed-case. Although TNCs have historically forced callsigns to UPEPRCASE only, this is only a limitation of TNCs and was not intended to be a limitation of APRS. STATION names, OBJECT names, ITEM names were intended to be a general 9 character mixed case field in APRS padded to 9 with spaces. We just noticed that some radios do not allow sending an APRS message to a mixed case address. Unfortunately, the QIKCOM-2 satellite which does ...
Looking for online definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in the Medical Dictionary? adenine nucleotide translocator 1 explanation free. What is adenine nucleotide translocator 1? Meaning of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 medical term. What does adenine nucleotide translocator 1 mean?
Atractyloside (ATR) is a natural, toxic glycoside and an effective ADP/ATP translocase inhibitor. Atractyloside is synthesized by some plant species in the daisy family e.g. Callilepis laureola, Xanthium strumarium, Iphiona alsoeri, and Pascalia glauca. The poisonous effect of the distaff thistle (and by extension atractyloside) is well documented in history. The plant growing in the Mediterranean region was often used for suicide or murder. Examples of accidental poisoning are documented in Italy and Algeria in 1955 and 1975 respectively, where children have eaten parts of the plant. Although Ed Lefranc[who?] isolated Atractyloside in 1868 from Atractylis gummifera, the structure was identified 100 years later. Atractyloside is a hydrophilic glycoside. A modified glucose is linked to the hydrophobic diterpene atractyligenin by a β1-glycosidic bond. A carboxyl group is positioned at the C4 position in the axial position. The glucose part is esterified with isovaleric acid on the C2 atom, and ...
The effect of the local anaesthetic, butacaine, on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria partially depleted of their adenine nucleotide content was investigated. The range of butacaine concentrations that inhibit adenine nucleotide translocation and the extent of the inhibition are similar to the values obtained for native mitochondria. Butacaine does not alter either the total number of atractyloside-sensitive binding sites of depleted mitochondria, or the affinity of these sites for ADP or ATP under conditions where a partial inhibition of the rate of adenine nucleotide translocation is observed. The data are consistent with an effect of butacaine on the process by which adenine nucleotides are transported across the mitochondrial inner membrane rather than on the binding of adenine nucleotides to sites on the adenine nucleotide carrier. The results are briefly discussed in relation to the use of local anaesthetics in investigations of the mechanism of adenine ...
Article: Ethnic-specific splicing mutation of the carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase gene in a Chinese neonate presenting with sudden unexpected ...
Increased O(2) metabolism resulting in chronic hypoxia is common in models of endstage renal disease. Mitochondrial uncoupling increases O(2) consumption but the ensuing reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential may limit excessive oxidative stress. The present study addressed the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling regulates mitochondria function and oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney. Isolated mitochondria from kidney cortex of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied before and after siRNA knockdown of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). Diabetes resulted in increased UCP-2 protein expression and UCP-2-mediated uncoupling, but normal mitochondria membrane potential. This uncoupling was inhibited by GDP, which also increased the membrane potential. siRNA reduced UCP-2 protein expression in controls and diabetics (-30-50%), but paradoxically further increased uncoupling and markedly reduced the membrane potential. This siRNA mediated uncoupling was unaffected by GDP ...
Zhang, Y.; Matsuyama, H.; Shiratsuchi, T.; Tian, D.; Hook, D. J.; Walters, M. A.; Georg, G. I.; Hawkinson, J. E.; Hamazaki, T.; Terada, N. Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocase (ANT) Modulators Identified by High-Throughput Screening of Transgenic Yeast. J Biomol Screen 2016.. Kurbanov, E. K.; Chiu, T.-L.; Solberg, J.; Francis, S.; Maize, K. M.; Fernandez, J.; Johnson, R. L.; Hawkinson, J. E.; Walters, M. A.; Finzel, B. C.; Amin, E. A. Probing the S2 Subsite of the Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Using Novel N-Alkylated Hydroxamates. J. Med. Chem. 2015, 58, 8723-8733.. Dahlin, J. L.; Nissink, J. W. M.; Strasser, J. M.; Francis, S.; Higgins, L.; Zhou, H.; Zhang, Z.; Walters, M. A. PAINS in the Assay: Chemical Mechanisms of Assay Interference and Promiscuous Enzymatic Inhibition Observed during a Sulfhydryl-Scavenging HTS. J. Med. Chem. 2015, 58, 2091-2113.. Dahlin, J. L.; Nissink, J. W. M.; Francis, S.; Strasser, J. M.; John, K.; Zhang, Z.; Walters, M. A. Post-HTS case report and structural alert: ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the biosynthesis of the ATP synthase in various tissues, and to test hypotheses about possible models of activation of several mitochondrial proteins, the ATP/ADP translocase and UCPs, that could utilize the proton gradient, thus bypassing the ATP synthase. We have examined the role of the expression of the P1 isoform of the c-Fo subunit in the biogenesis of ATP synthase in brown adipose tissue. Our findings point to a role for the c-Fo subunit in defining the final content of the ATP synthase in brown adipose tissue.. We have analyzed sequences in the 3UTR of the β subunit F1-ATPase mRNA that are important for formation of RNA-protein complexes. We could detect protein complexes that bind to two different sequence regions of the 3UTR, one being the poly(A) tail and an adjacent region), and the other being a sequence stretch at the 3 end of the 3UTR able to form a stem-loop structure, which is evolutionarily conserved throughout mammalian ...
Although the precise molecular composition of the MPTP is currently undergoing investigation, its core components are thought to be the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and cyclophilin D, a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase that interacts with ANT.129 Other components may include VDAC and the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, which are located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. In healthy mitochondria, the close association of VDAC and ANT create a macromolecular complex that shuttles adenine nucleotides between the ATP-producing matrix and ATP-consuming cytosol. MPTP opening can be triggered under stress conditions, however, by increases in Ca2+, oxidative stress, depletion of adenine nucleotides, increases in inorganic phosphate, and depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, stimuli that operate during ischemia-reperfusion.129 Although proapoptotic (Bax and Bak) and antiapoptotic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) Bcl-2 proteins have been ...
2968 We previously suggested that a dCTP transport system (Bridges EG et al, J Biol Chem 1999 Feb 19;274(8):4620-5) exists in mitochondria and plays a role in delayed cytotoxicity of deoxynucleoside analogs in mitochondria. Another group has identified a mitochondrial protein, deoxynucleotide carrier (DNC), and suggested that its role is a mitochondria transporter for dNDPs and dNTPs. Based on our studies, we suggest that DNC may not be the dNTP transporter associated with the delayed cytotoxicity of deoxynucleoside analogs, since the Km values of dNTPs are much higher than physiological range and over-expression of DNC in HepG2 cells does not effect the action of deoxynucleoside analogs. DNC shares a high percentage of amino acid sequence homology with adenine nucleotide translocator (Ant), the most abundant transporter in mitochondria and Kaukonen et. al. proposed that Ant1 plays a role in mitochondria DNA maintenance (Kaukonen, J et. al. Science 289: 782-785, 2000). We, therefore, expressed ...
The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the transport of phosphate into the mitochondrial matrix, either by proton cotransport or in exchange for hydroxyl ions. The protein contains three related segments arranged in tandem which are related to those found in other characterized members of the mitochondrial carrier family. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of this protein protrude toward the cytosol. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been isolated. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Closure of Ca2+-dependent pores by cyclosporin A: the role of magnesium ions, adenine nucleotides, and conformation status of the ADP/ATP antiporter]. Academic Article ...
In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1−/− mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1−/− brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration (proton leak). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT). T2 - appearance of an actress on the stage of purinergic signaling. AU - Moriyama, Yoshinori. AU - Hiasa, Miki. AU - Sakamoto, Shohei. AU - Omote, Hiroshi. AU - Nomura, Masatoshi. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Vesicular storage of ATP is one of the processes initiating purinergic chemical transmission. Although an active transport mechanism was postulated to be involved in the processes, a transporter(s) responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP remained unidentified for some time. In 2008, SLC17A9, the last identified member of the solute carrier 17 type I inorganic phosphate transporter family, was found to encode the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) that is responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP. VNUT transports various nucleotides in a membrane potential-dependent fashion and is expressed in the various ATP-secreting cells. Mice with knockout of the VNUT gene lose vesicular storage and release of ATP from neurons ...
In addition to their normal physiological role in ATP production and metabolism, mitochondria exhibit a dark side mediated by the opening of a non-specific pore in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) causes the mitochondria to breakdown rather than synthesize ATP and, if unrestrained, leads to necrotic cell death. The MPTP is opened in response to Ca2+ overload, especially when accompanied by oxidative stress, elevated phosphate concentration and adenine nucleotide depletion. These conditions are experienced by the heart and brain subjected to reperfusion after a period of ischaemia as may occur during treatment of a myocardial infarction or stroke and during heart surgery. In the present article, I review the properties, regulation and molecular composition of the MPTP. The evidence for the roles of CyP-D (cyclophilin D), the adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate carrier are summarized and other potential interactions with outer ...
Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a strong inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), inducing inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. We designed and synthesized simplified benzene-ring-containing BKA analogs. The key reaction is the one-pot double Sonogashira reaction, which forms the main skeleton. The analogs were efficiently synthesized in 8-10 longest linear sequence steps. This synth ...
Cardiolipin is found predominantly in the membranes of mitochondria and bacteria. It is a unique diphosphatidylglycerol containing four acyl groups. In animal tissues 80% of the acyl groups are composed of linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)).

The identification of Barth′s syndrome, a disease associated with abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of cardiolipin causing cardiomyopathy and neutropenia, has displayed the importance of cardiolipin in mitochondrial functionality. Cardiolipin effects mitochondrial bioenergetics by providing essential structural and functional support to proteins localized within the mitochondria. Specifically, interaction of cardiolipin with cytochrome oxidase and adenine nucleotide translocase is required in order for both of these mitochondrial enzymes to maintain activity.

Cardiolipin has been shown to perform a role in a number of other specific biological activities, including oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, cholesterol translocation and gene
Magmas-like proteins have been previously implicated in tethering the J-proteins to the translocation channel (16, 17). Our results indicate that Magmas, in addition to its conserved function at human presequence translocase, regulates the distribution of individual J-proteins associated with the complex and thereby activates the translocases for neoplastic transformation under overexpressed conditions. In agreement with the idea, intrinsic overexpression of Magmas in prostate cancer and pituitary adenomas remodels the J-protein distribution at the TIM23 complex. A similar phenotype was observed upon exogenous elevation of Magmas protein levels that lead to redistribution and recruitment of J-proteins to either of the translocases, suggesting that Magmas plays a critical role in governing translocase activity. Indeed, reorganization of J-proteins at the import channel results in equivalent translocation activity for both translocases, and they play a synergistic role in the import of precursors ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Thermogenin (called uncoupling protein by its discoverers and now known as uncoupling protein 1, or UCP1) is an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT). It is used to generate heat by non-shivering thermogenesis, and makes a quantitatively important contribution to countering heat loss in neonates which would otherwise occur due to their high surface area-volume ratio. UCPs are transmembrane proteins that decrease the proton gradient generated in oxidative phosphorylation. They do this by increasing the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, allowing protons that have been pumped into the intermembrane space to return to the mitochondrial matrix. UCP1-mediated heat generation in brown fat uncouples the respiratory chain, allowing for fast substrate oxidation with a low rate of ATP production. UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
Glioblastoma has a 5-year survival of less than 5% and is responsible for more years of life lost than any other malignancy, making it a challenging therapeutic problem. Healthy cells mainly rely on oxidative phosphorylation to catabolize glucose, while glioblastoma cells use aerobic glycolysis. The first step in glycolysis, conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate using ATP, is catalyzed by hexokinase and glioblastoma tumors employ an isoform (HKII) that is bound to mitochondria via interaction with the outer-membrane voltage dependent anion channel. The prevailing theory is that this localization affords HKII preferential access to the mitochondrial ATP via inner-membrane adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) to rapidly phosphorylate and trap glucose, thus initiating glycolysis across the cell cytosol. We have tested this hypothesis using a novel water-soluble organoarsenical, PENAO, to inactivate ANT (1). Treatment of glioblastoma cell lines and primary glioma initiating cells with PENAO ...
Protein name: VNUT Aliases: N/D Substrates: purine nucleotides Transport type: electrogenic, Cl- dependent Tissue and cellular expression: brain (neurons), adrenal, thyroid Subcellular expression: synaptic vesicle Disease: none Locus: 20q13.33 Sequence ID: NP_071365.3, Gene ID: 63910 ...
can be subdivided into two group with closer relationships within each group than between the groups; the first three families form one group whereas the last two families form the other group ...
1) enter that persons business premises to determine compliance with this chapter; (2) inspect records subject to 18 AAC 53.090, 18 AAC 53.100, and 18 AAC 53.105; and (3) take gasoline samples for testing. State effective: 10/31/97; EPA effective: 2/28/00 ...
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Structural compon-ents are exposed to mech-an-ical stress, which requires a compre-hens-ive char-ac-ter-iz-a-tion of the mech-an-ical prop-er-ties. Thus compon-ents can be tailored for their inten-ded use. We can determ-ine the follow-ing import-ant key figures for the designer.. ...
个人简历. 2004年获博士学位,现为遗传与细胞研究所教授、博士生导师。2008-2010年在美国德克萨斯大学医学分校进行博士后研究。2012-2013年在美国德克萨斯大学医学分校进行国际合作研究。多年来从事炎症的信号转导及基因表达调控机制研究。包括两个主要研究方向:1)DNA氧化损伤修复过程偶联基因转录及天然免疫病理发展的分子机制;2)蛋白质的多聚ADP核糖化(PAR化)对基因表达调控的影响、参与炎性疾病病理发展的机制。共发表SCI论文40余篇。主持在研自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,吉林省科技厅自然科学基金1项,及国际合作基金1项。主持完成自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,参加完成自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,参加国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(973)项目2项。学习经历: 1986年--1990年:东北师范大学 生命科学学院 生物学专业 学士 ...
This crossword puzzle on the types of cell transport is a fun vocabulary review for students and contains the following: 1. Blank Version without word bank 2. Blank Version with word bank 3. Answer Key Vocabulary Words: ♦ ATP ♦ Carrier
OXPHOS - this site is dedicated to mitochondria research. Theoretical and practical aspects, reagents, protocols, tools, funding agencies, databases, conferences, etc.
The effect of long-chain acyl-CoA on subcellular adenine nucleotide systems was studied in the intact liver cell. Long-chain acyl-CoA content was varied by varying the nutritional state (fed and starved states) or by addition of oleate. Starvation led to an increase in the mitochondrial and a decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in liver both in vivo and in the isolated perfused organ as compared with the fed state. The changes were reversed on re-feeding glucose in liver in vivo or on infusion of substrates (glucose, glycerol) in the perfused liver, respectively. Similar changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios occurred on addition of oleate, but, importantly, not with a short-chain fatty acid such as octanoate. It is concluded that long-chain acyl-CoA exerts an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocation in the intact cell, as was previously postulated in the literature from data obtained with isolated mitochondria. The physiological relevance with ...
The (18 kDa) Translocator Protein (TSPO) was initially identified in 1977 as peripheral binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam and named Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR). It is an evolutionarily well-conserved protein particularly located at the outer/inner mitochondrial membrane contact sites, in closely association with the 32 kDa voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the 30 kDa adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), thus forming the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). TSPO is ubiquitary expressed in peripheral tissues (steroid producing tissues, liver, heart, kidney, lung, immune system) and in lower levels in the central nervous system, where it is mainly located in glial cells, and in neurons. TSPO is involved in a variety of biological processes such as cholesterol transport, steroidogenesis, calcium homeostasis, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial oxidation, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis induction, and regulation of immune functions. In the ...
Homo sapiens solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; oxoglutarate carrier), member 11 (SLC25A11), mRNA. (H00008402-R01) - Products - Abnova
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
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Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website.
eng] Cyclophilin-D (CyP-D) is a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase located in the mitochondrial matrix of mammalian cells. The subcellular localization of the protein is determined by the presence of a mitochondrial targeting presequence. In the first part of this work, we characterized human CyP-D presequence allowing the protein translocation into mitochondria. We showed that the 16 first amino acid of the presequence are necessary and sufficient to form a functional presequence and to address hCyP-D into mitochondria. One of the main physiological roles of CyP-D is to activate the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. The mPTP is a protein complex formed during oxidative stress and leading to cell necrosis. Thus, CyP-D may be considered as a necrosis inductor. Nevertheless, several studies have also shown that CyP-D exhibits a protective role toward apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. However, the mechanism implicated in the cellular protection conferred by CyP-D is ...
We investigated how mitochondrial membrane proteins remain soluble in the cytosol until their delivery to mitochondria or degradation at the proteasome. We show that Ubiquilin family proteins bind transmembrane domains in the cytosol to prevent aggregation and temporarily allow opportunities for membrane targeting. Over time, Ubiquilins recruit an E3 ligase to ubiquitinate bound clients. The attached ubiquitin engages Ubiquilins UBA domain, normally bound to an intramolecular UBL domain, and stabilizes the Ubiquilin-client complex. This conformational change precludes additional chances at membrane targeting for the client, while simultaneously freeing Ubiquilins UBL domain for targeting to the proteasome. Loss of Ubiquilins by genetic ablation or sequestration in polyglutamine aggregates leads to accumulation of non-inserted mitochondrial membrane protein precursors. These findings define Ubiquilins as a family of chaperones for cytosolically exposed transmembrane domains and explain how they ...
Top performende Maus Translocase of Inner Mitochondrial Membrane 9 Homolog (Yeast) ELISA Kit für viele Proben vergleichen & kaufen.
SLC25A11 antibody (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; oxoglutarate carrier), member 11) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-SLC25A11 pAb (GTX101761) is tested in Human, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
ProSpecs Cyclophilins include: Cyclophilin-A Human Recombinant, Cyclophilin-B Human Recombinant, Cyclophilin-D Human Recombinant
ATP je sestavljen iz adenozina (adeninski obroč, povezan s sladkorjem ribozo) in treh fosfatnih skupin (trifosfat). Fosfatne skupine označujemo z alfa (α), beta (β) in gama (γ) glede na njihovo oddaljenost od riboze, začenši s fosfatno skupino alfa, ki je najbližje ribozi. ATP je dobro topen v vodi in dokaj stabilen v območju pH od 6,8 do 7,4, medtem ko pri ekstremnih vrednostih pH hitro poteče hidroliza. ATP je tako najbolje shranjevati v obliki brezvodne soli. ATP v nepufrani vodi razpade na ADP in fosfat. To je posledica šibkejših vezi med fosfatnimi skupinami znotraj molekule ATP v primerjavi z vodikovimi vezmi, ki se vzpostavijo med produkti hidrolize ATP (ADP + fosfat) in vodo. ATP in ADP sta v vodi v kemijskem ravnotežju (večina je v obliki ADP). Sistem, ki je oddaljen od ravnotežja, vsebuje Gibbsovo prosto energijo in je sposoben opravljanja delo. Celice vzdržujejo razmerje ATP/ADP približno 10 velikostnih razredov stran od ravnotežja, kar pomeni, da je koncentracija ...
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Got ant problems and wondering what kills ants? Heres how to get rid of ants with items you already own-and learn how to kill ants for good.
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Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingpreprotein translocase, SecG subunit (TIGR00810; HMM-score: 82.4) ...
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I know I read someones comments about ants in their RV but I cant find the thread. CRS perhaps. Anyway. Prior to loading up the other day the wife says there are ants in the bedroom of the MH. What
ATP7A兔多克隆抗体(ab125137)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 兔样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Background: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder associated with the partial deletion of integral numbers of 3.3 kb D4Z4 DNA repeats within the subtelomere of chromosome 4q. A number of candidate FSHD genes, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 gene (ANT1), FSHD-related gene 1 (FRG1), FRG2 and DUX4c, upstream of the D4Z4 array (FSHD locus), and double homeobox chromosome 4 (DUX4) within the repeat itself, are upregulated in some patients, thus suggesting an underlying perturbation of the chromatin structure. Furthermore, a mouse model overexpressing FRG1 has been generated, displaying skeletal muscle defects. Results: In the context of myogenic differentiation, we compared the chromatin structure and tridimensional interaction of the D4Z4 array and FRG1 gene promoter, and FRG1 expression, in control and FSHD cells. The FRG1 gene was prematurely expressed during FSHD myoblast differentiation, thus suggesting that the number of D4Z4 repeats in ...
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High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides.Metabolites were measured by HPLC in Control, SHF and DHF hearts. A-C. Chromatograms of extracts from ven
J Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 27;287(18):15016-23. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.328377. Epub 2012 Mar 13. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
Letters refer to COG functional categories. C - Energy production and conversion; D - Cell division and chromosome partitioning; E - Amino acid transport and metabolism; F - Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G - Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; H - Coenzyme metabolism; I - Lipid metabolism; J - Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; K - Transcription; L - DNA replication, recombination and repair; M - Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; O - Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; P - Inorganic ion transport and metabolism; R - General function prediction only; S - COG of unknown function. See the BacMap help page for a description of how proteins were classified into COG categories. ...
Letters refer to COG functional categories. C - Energy production and conversion; D - Cell division and chromosome partitioning; E - Amino acid transport and metabolism; F - Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G - Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; H - Coenzyme metabolism; I - Lipid metabolism; J - Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; K - Transcription; L - DNA replication, recombination and repair; M - Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; O - Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; P - Inorganic ion transport and metabolism; R - General function prediction only; S - COG of unknown function. See the BacMap help page for a description of how proteins were classified into COG categories. ...
... Only God knows what they really are: a cross between cockroaches and ants; very strong, defiant They are robust, daring; cunning. Hit them and
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