MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally through complementary base pairing with thousands of messenger RNAs. Although the target genes and precise biological functions of individual miRNAs remain largely unknown, miRNAs are speculated to play important roles in diverse biological processes in both normal and pathological states. The liver is a vital organ that plays major roles in a number of physiological functions. Recent advances in the study of liver miRNAs using gene-modified mice or in vivo nucleic acid delivery to overexpress specific miRNAs or inhibit miRNA functions have revealed the crucial biological roles of individual miRNAs in physiologically essential liver functions in vivo. Because miRNA-based strategies are being applied to clinical therapeutics, the importance of precise knowledge of miRNA functions cannot be underestimated, not only from a scientific point of view, but also from a clinical perspective to make ...
Cellular microRNAs play an integral part in the post-transcriptional regulation of almost every cellular gene regulatory pathway and it therefore is not amazing that viruses have found ways to subvert this process. right now known that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key functions in the rules of almost every important cellular process in all multicellular eukaryotes3. Human being E-7010 cells encode over 1000 miRNA varieties, and these have been implicated in cellular differentiation, innate immunity, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation, as well as many other cell fate decisions3. Almost all cellular miRNAs are 1st transcribed as capped, polyadenylated main miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts that can encompass one or a cluster of ~22-nt miRNAs4. These miRNAs occupy the upper portion of an ~33-bp imperfect stem that is crowned by a large (10 nt) unstructured loop and flanked by solitary stranded RNA. This ~80-nt RNA structure is definitely identified by Rabbit polyclonal to nephrin. the nuclear ...
1 microRNA-874 as a tumor suppressor in maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma based on microRNA expression signature Abstract #4143 Toyoyuki Hanazawa 1, Nijiro Nohata 1,2, Takashi Kinoshita 1,2,Naoko Kikkawa 1,Miki Fuse 1, Takeshi Chiyomaru 3, Hirofumi Yoshinoi 3, Hideki Enokida 3, Masayuki Nakagawa 3, Yoshitaka Okamoto 1 and Naohiko Seki 2 1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology / Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba Japan 2 Department of Functional Genomics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan 3 Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that function as negative gene regulators. They regulate diverse biological processes, and bioinformatic data indicates that each miRNA can control hundreds of gene targets, underscoring the potential influence of miRNAs on almost every genetic pathway. Recent ...
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that function by regulating target gene expression posttranscriptionally. They play a critical role in developmental and physiologic processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases including cancer. We examined the expression profiles of 241 human microRNAs in normal tissues and the NCI-60 panel of human tumor-derived cell lines. To quantify microRNA expression, we employed a highly sensitive technique that uses stem-loop primers for reverse transcription followed by real-time PCR. Most microRNAs were expressed at lower levels in tumor-derived cell lines compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis of microRNA expression revealed four groups among the NCI-60 cell lines consisting of hematologic, colon, central nervous system, and melanoma tumor-derived cell lines clustered in a manner that reflected their tissue of origin. We identified specific subsets of microRNAs that provide ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper,
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a fundamental role in controlling a variety of biological functions. Emerging evidence has shown that common genetic polymorphisms in miRNAs may be associated with the development of liver cancer; however, several individually published studies showed inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the association between functional polymorphisms in miRNAs and susceptibility to liver cancer.
Background: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of different cancer types. The aim of this study was to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared to healthy endometrium. These miRNAs can potentially be used to develop a panel for classification and prognosis in order to better predict the progression of the disease and facilitate the choice of treatment strategy.. Methods Formalin fixed paraffin embedded endometrial tissue samples were collected from the Örebro university hospital. QPCR was used to quantify the expression levels of 742 miRNAs in 30 malignant and 20 normal endometrium samples. After normalization of the qPCR data, miRNAs differing significantly in expression between normal and cancer samples were identified, and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify groups of miRNAs with coordinated expression profiles.. Results: In comparisons between endometrial adenocarcinoma and normal ...
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Prior studies have shown that they regulate numerous physiological processes critical for normal development, cellular growth control, and organismal behavior. Here, we systematically surveyed 134 different miRNAs for roles in olfactory learning and memory formation using sponge technology to titrate their activity broadly in the Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. We identified at least five different miRNAs involved in memory formation or retention from this large screen, including miR-9c, miR-31a, miR-305, miR-974, and miR-980. Surprisingly, the titration of some miRNAs increased memory, while the titration of others decreased memory. We performed more detailed experiments on two miRNAs, miR-974 and miR-31a, by mapping their roles to subpopulations of brain neurons and testing the functional involvement in memory of potential mRNA targets through bioinformatics and a RNA interference
The role of obesity in regulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression in distal and proximal colon was assessed: 1) isolation and quantification methods for miRNAs were established in rat liver tissue; 2) miRNA expression patterns were compared using miRNA PCR arrays in lean proximal and distal colonic tissue; and 3) the influence of obesity on miRNA expression in these colonic regions was investigated by screening cancer miRNA coding genes in colonic mucosal samples from Zucker obese and lean rats. Up-regulation of 20 miRNAs was observed in obese liver tissue. Colonic mucosal miRNA expression patterns and abundance differed for distal and proximal colonic regions in both lean and obese tissue. Obesity exerted a profound region-specific effect on miRNA expression patterns and levels indicating biologically distinct tissue in distal and proximal colon. Obesity markedly affects miRNA gene regulation, and miRNA is a key molecular player in the genesis of colon cancer.
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs approximately 22 nt long that modulate gene expression in animals and plants. It has been recently demonstrated that herpesviruses encode miRNAs to control the post-transcriptional regulation of expression from their own genomes and possibly that of their host, thus adding an additional layer of complexity to the physiological cross-talk between host and pathogen. The present study focussed on the interactions between porcine dendritic cells (DCs) and the Pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha-herpesvirus causing Aujeszkys disease in pigs. A catalogue of porcine and viral miRNAs, expressed eight hours post-infection, was established by deep sequencing. An average of 2 million reads per sample with a size of 21-24 nucleotides was obtained from six libraries representing three biological replicates of infected and mock-infected DCs. Almost 95% of reads mapped to the draft pig genome sequence and pig miRNAs previously annotated in dedicated databases were detected ...
Brittney Jackson. Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the United States and consume a significant amount of healthcare expenditures8. It is well researched and known that gene expression patterns are substantially altered in cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure5. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that can target multiple molecules to regulate proteins and are essential for normal development and physiology of the heart. Dysregulation of these miRNAs is linked to CVD and serve as biomarkers1. Methods: Mice were placed under vigorous physical aerobic exercise including swimming and running 5 days per week for 8-10 weeks following an induced MI2,6. miRNA levels were measured and evaluated in regard to increased or decreased expression and their effect on cardiovascular health. This was accomplished by taking left ventricle samples and homogenizing them in TRIZOL. RNA was isolated and specific miRNAs were analyzed ...
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with a length of 18-25 nucleotides. They can regulate tumor invasion and metastasis by changing the expression and translation of their target mRNAs. Their expression is substantially altered in colorectal cancer cells as well as in the adjacent tumor-associated stroma. Both of these compartments have a mutual influence on tumor progression. In the development of metastases, cancer cells initially interact with the host tissue. Therefore, compartment-specific expression signatures of these three locations-tumor, associated stroma, and host tissue-can provide new insights into the complex tumor biology of colorectal cancer. Frozen tissue samples of colorectal liver (n = 25) and lung metastases (n = 24) were laser microdissected to separate tumor cells and the adjacent tumor-associated stroma cells. Additionally, normal lung and liver tissue was collected from the same patients. We performed a microarray analysis in four randomly selected liver metastases and four
Antagomirs also known as anti-miRs or blockmirs are a class of chemically engineered oligonucleotides that prevent other molecules from binding to a desired site on an mRNA molecule. Antagomirs are used to silence endogenous microRNA (miR). An antagomir is a small synthetic RNA that is perfectly complementary to the specific miRNA target with either mispairing at the cleavage site of Ago2 or some sort of base modification to inhibit Ago2 cleavage. Usually, antagomirs have some sort of modification, such as 2-methoxy groups and phosphorothioates, to make them more resistant to degradation. Antagomirs are microRNA inhibitors that inhibit miRNAs but, because of the promiscuity of microRNAs, antagomirs could affect the regulation of many different mRNA molecules. It is unclear how antagomirization (the process by which an antagomir inhibits miRNA activity) operates, but it is believed to inhibit by irreversibly binding the miRNA. Blockmirs are designed to have a sequence that is complementary to an ...
In molecular biology miR-181 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA molecule. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are transcribed as ~70 nucleotide precursors and subsequently processed by the RNase-III type enzyme Dicer to give a ~22 nucleotide mature product. In this case the mature sequence comes from the 5 arm of the precursor. They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. This new class of genes has recently been shown to play a central role in malignant transformation. miRNA are downregulated in many tumors and thus appear to function as tumor suppressor genes. The mature products miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-181c or miR-181d are thought to have regulatory roles at posttranscriptional level, through complementarity to target mRNAs. miR-181 which has been predicted or experimentally confirmed in a wide number of vertebrate species as rat, zebrafish, and in the pufferfish (see below) (MIPF0000007). It has been shown that ...
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths in women. Lymph node near to the primary breast tumor have a high chance of developing a secondary tumor, representing one of the first signs of metastasis in breast cancer. Metastasis is promoted by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), process leaded by the transcription factors SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB and TWIST. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, whose expression has been demonstrated to be altered in different cancer types. Because of their ability to regulate large sets of genes involved in cancer growth and metastasis, microRNAs have emerged as candidate molecular biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets. The aim of this study is to identify microRNAs differentially expressed in breast tumors in relation to EMT-transcription factor expression and lymph node metastasis, and that are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. For this purpose, we used microRNA microarray data from 50 fresh frozen breast tumors with different ...
The impact of microRNAs (miRNAs) known to regulate numerous biologic processes on complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) was investigated in K562 cells. The C5b-9 complex is the executioner of CDC. Cells protect themselves from CDC by C5b-9 elimination, a process involving the mitochondrial chaperone mortalin/GRP75. Potential miR-200 (b and c) and miR-217 regulatory sites were identified in mortalin mRNA. Overexpression of miR-200b/c or miR-217 lowered the expression of mortalin mRNA. miRNA inhibitors for miR-200b, miR-200c, or miR-217 enhanced mortalin mRNA level. Unexpectedly, these miRNA modulators had no significant effect on mortalin protein level. Metabolic labeling analysis demonstrated that, to compensate for reduction in mortalin mRNA level, the cells increased the rate of synthesis of mortalin protein. Cells overexpressing miR-200b/c or miR-217 showed reduced sensitivity to CDC, whereas inhibition of miR-200c and miR-217 enhanced cell death. miR-200b/c overexpression reduced C5b-9 ...
Patient FR13 was an untreated HCV-infected male with a history of alcohol abuse. miRNAs can induce posttranscriptional down-regulation of target genes, i.e., genes which have in their 3′UTR sequences complementary to an miRNA seed sequence. We hypothesized that some down-regulated miRNAs are regulating ABC expression and that this is associated with HCC. Because most of the ABC genes were up-regulated in HCC samples we concentrated on the down-regulated miRNAs as potentially influencing ABC expression. Interestingly, from the 79 down-regulated miRNAs, 25 had predicted targets in up-regulated ABC genes. We therefore check details determined in silico miRNA target sequences in the 3′UTRs of the up-regulated ABC genes and. cross-analyzed these data with the down-regulated miRNAs (Tables S1, S2). Twenty-four cellular miRNAs were cloned in the expression vector pcDNA6.2 and Luc-ABC reporters. where the 3′UTR of the six ABC genes was cloned into the dual luciferase vector psiCheck-2 were made ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate the stability or translational efficiency of target messenger RNAs. Specific miRNAs are required for strict tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression. These miRNAs have roles in many human tumor malignancies and their expression is specifically regulated on each stage of oncogenic process. Therefore, miRNA expression profiling can be used as a new class of biomarker that indicates the development of cancer. Many recent studies indicated that cell exposure to ionizing radiation also induces various physiological responses including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, cell death and differentiation. In addition, some studies suggest that exposure to low dose radiation induces a favorable effect on cells. However, the functions of miRNAs related to the response of irradiated cells have not been well studied, especially after low dose radiation. In this study, expression profiles of miRNAs isolated from irradiated cells at ...
Because circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have drawn a great deal of attention as promising novel cancer diagnostics and prognostic biomarkers, we sought to identify serum miRNAs significantly associated with outcome in glioblastoma patients. To do this, we performed global miRNA profiling in serum samples from 106 primary glioblastoma patients. The study subjects were randomly divided into two sets: set one (n = 40) and set two (n = 66). Using a Cox regression model, 3 serum miRNAs (miR-106a-5p, miR-182, and miR-145-5p) and 5 serum miRNAs (miR-222-3p, miR-182, miR-20a-5p, miR-106a-5p, and miR-145-5p) were identified significantly associated with 2-year patient overall survival and disease-free survival (P | 0.05) in both sets and the combined set. We then created the miRNA risk scores to assess the total impact of the significant serum miRNAs on survival. The high risk scores were associated with poor patient survival (overall survival: HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.19, 10.23, and disease-free survival: HR = 2.03,
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis during brain development. MiR-3099 is highly expressed throughout embryogenesis, especially in the developing central nervous system. Moreover, miR-3099 is also expressed at a higher level in differentiating neurons in vitro, suggesting that it is a potential regulator during neuronal cell development. This study aimed to predict the target genes of miR-3099 via in-silico analysis using four independent prediction algorithms (miRDB, miRanda, TargetScan, and DIANA-micro-T-CDS) with emphasis on target genes related to brain development and function. Based on the analysis, a total of 3,174 miR-3099 target genes were predicted. Those predicted by at least three algorithms (324 genes) were subjected to DAVID bioinformatics analysis to understand their overall functional themes and representation. The analysis revealed that nearly 70% of the target genes were expressed in the nervous ...
In molecular biology miR-181 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA molecule. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are transcribed as ~70 nucleotide precursors and subsequently processed by the RNase-III type enzyme Dicer to give a ~22 nucleotide mature product. In this case the mature sequence comes from the 5 arm of the precursor. They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. This new class of genes has recently been shown to play a central role in malignant transformation. miRNA are downregulated in many tumors and thus appear to function as tumor suppressor genes. The mature products miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-181c or miR-181d are thought to have regulatory roles at posttranscriptional level, through complementarity to target mRNAs. miR-181 which has been predicted or experimentally confirmed in a wide number of vertebrate species as rat, zebrafish, and in the pufferfish (see below) (MIPF0000007). ...
Vessel maturation involves recruitment of mural cells. Laminar shear stress is a major trigger for vessel maturation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which shear stress affects recruitment of pericytes are unclear. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression. Since shear stress regulates various miRs, we hypothesize that flow-induced miRs inhibit repulsive cues and facilitate mural cell coverage.. Laminar shear stress for 72h induces the up-regulation of miR-27b (2.8±0.24-fold vs static, p,0.05) in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and in mouse femoral artery segments that were exposed to physiological shear stress ex vivo (1.5±0.14-fold vs no flow, p,0.05). Predicted targets for miR-27b include members of the semaphorin (SEMA) family (known to regulate repulsive signaling) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), which causes vessel destabilization. MiR-27b overexpression reduces SEMA6A (63.5±13.5%), SEMA6D (58±26%), and Ang2 (51.5±11%) ...
Health,Molecules of microRNAs may be responsible for birth defects cancer an...The researchers of UF Genetics Institute have used genetically mod...MicroRNA (miRNA) are small RNA molecules that control the level of p...The new study will open new ways of exploring the exact reasons of b...The researcher also showed that it is possible to eliminate microRNA...,MicroRNA,provides,new,insight,into,birth,defects,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a major cause of adverse outcome in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high incidence (20-50%). A novel, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict for prevalence and severity would enable improved prophylaxis and reduce morbidity. Circulatory microRNAs miR-423, miR-199, miR-93* and miR-377 have previously been associated with aGvHD in post-HSCT patient plasma, but validation is lacking and their expression within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has not been explored. This study replicated elevated serum expression of miR-423 (p
TY - JOUR. T1 - A miRNA expression signature in breast tumor tissue is associated with risk of distant metastasis. AU - Rohan, Thomas E.. AU - Wang, Tao. AU - Weinmann, Sheila. AU - Wang, Yihong. AU - Lin, Juan. AU - Ginsberg, Mindy. AU - Loudig, Olivier D.. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - Dysregulation of miRNA expression may influence breast cancer progression, and experimental evidence suggests that miRNA silencing might suppress breast cancer metastasis. However, the relationship between miRNA and metastasis must be confirmed before this approach can be applied in the clinic. To this end, we conducted a two-stage study in a cohort of 3,760 patients with breast cancer to first identify and then validate the association between miRNA expression and risk of distant metastasis. The first stage (discovery) entailed miRNA sequencing of 126 case-control pairs; qPCR was used to validate the findings in a separate set of 80 case-control pairs. The 13 miRNAs most differentially expressed between ...
NF-κB is one of the best-characterized transcription factors, providing the link between early membrane-proximal signaling events and changes in many inflammatory genes. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, we evaluated the role of miR-26b in the LPS-induced inflammatory response in bovine alveolar macrophages (bAMs). LPS stimulation of bAMs upregulated miR-26b at 1 h and downregulated it at 6 and 36 h. Overexpression of miR-26b in bAMs enhanced the LPS-induced mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10, but it directly inhibited that of IL-6. A similar trend was observed for the release of these cytokines and chemokines from bAMs. miR-26b directly bound the 3′-untranslated region of PTEN, leading to the reduction of PTEN protein in bAMs. miR-26b also enhanced the LPS-induced NF-κB signaling pathway, as revealed by increased NF-κB transcriptional activity ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of endogenous small RNA molecules. They regulate gene expression as part of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) at the post-transcriptional level by binding to the mRNA of target genes in a sequence specific manner [1, 2]. Most mature miRNAs are 20-22 nt in length, and while some miRNAs are highly conserved from species to species, other miRNAs seems to be species specific [3-5]. They are often expressed in a tissue-specific manner and play important roles in multiple biological processes by regulating genes that control developmental timing, growth, stem cell division and apoptosis [6-9]. Failure in miRNA expression or failure in target gene recognition may result in genetic disease. There are e.g. more than 160 diseases reported in the miR2Disease database that are associated with dysfunction of miRNA genes or miRNA/target gene-interaction [10]. Dysfunctional miRNA/target gene interaction may also contribute to development of cancer when miRNAs ...
Tryndyak, V. P., Ross, S. A., Beland, F. A. and Pogribny, I. P. (2009), Down-regulation of the microRNAs miR-34a, miR-127, and miR-200b in rat liver during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by a methyl-deficient diet. Mol. Carcinog., 48: 479-487. doi: 10.1002/mc.20484 ...
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that suppress gene expression through target mRNA degradation or translation repression. Recent studies suggest that miRNA plays an important role in multiple physiological and pathological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical implications of microRNAs in human glioblastoma. AU - Mizoguchi, Masahiro. AU - Guan, Yanlei. AU - Yoshimoto, Koji. AU - Hata, Nobuhiro. AU - Amano, Toshiyuki. AU - Nakamizo, Akira. AU - Sasaki, Tomio. PY - 2013/12/24. Y1 - 2013/12/24. N2 - Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and dismal brain tumors in adults. Further elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of GBM is mandatory to improve the overall survival of patients. A novel small non-coding RNA molecule, microRNA (miRNA), appears to represent one of the most attractive target molecules contributing to the pathogenesis of various types of tumors. Recent global analyses have revealed that several miRNAs are clinically implicated in GBM, with some reports indicating the association of miRNA dysregulation with acquired temozolomide (TMZ) resistance. More recent studies have revealed that miRNAs could play a role in cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, contributing to treatment resistance. In addition, greater ...
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with a five-year survival rate under 5%. Given the diseases deadliness, increasing our understanding of the molecular nature of the pancreatic cancer is key to developing more effective preventive measures and treatments. Dietary energy restriction (DER) has been shown to have potent anticancer effects in pancreatic cancer, but the mechanism of action has yet to be completely elucidated. Here we investigate the potential of altered microRNA expression as a mechanism by which DER exerts its anticancer effect. Using the Exiqon microRNA Array, we identified several microRNAs of interest for further study. This includes microRNA (mir) 669c, a known regulator of glutathione-S transferases (linked to carcinogen metabolism and oxidative stress) that increases with age. To our knowledge, this is the first exploration of the effects of DER (which is known to suppress oxidative stress and other processes associated with ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level and are emerging as potentially important biomarkers for various disease states, including pancreatic cancer. In silico-based functional analysis of miRNAs usually consists of miRNA target prediction and functional enrichment analysis of miRNA targets. Since miRNA target prediction methods generate a large number of false positive target genes, further validation to narrow down interesting candidate miRNA targets is needed. One commonly used method correlates miRNA and mRNA expression to assess the regulatory effect of a particular miRNA. The aim of this study was to build a bioinformatics pipeline in R for miRNA functional analysis including correlation analyses between miRNA expression levels and its targets on mRNA and protein expression levels available from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and the cancer proteome atlas (TCPA). TCGA-derived expression data of specific mature miRNA isoforms from pancreatic
Utility of Potent Anti-viral MicroRNAs in Emerging Infectious Diseases. By Zhabiz Golkar, Donald G. Pace and Omar Bagasra. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNA provides intracellular immune defense when the body is faced with challenges from transgenes, viruses, transposons, and aberrant mRNAs. miRNA molecules trigger gene silencing in eukaryotic cells. To date, more than 3,000 different human miRNAs (hsa-miRs) have been identified, and it is generally agreed that cellular gene regulation is significantly impacted by the presence of miRNAs. A single miRNA has the complex capacity to target multiple genes simultaneously. In a viral infection context, miRNAs have been connected with the interplay between host and pathogen, and occupy a major role in the host-parasite interaction and pathogenesis. While numerous viral miRNAs from DNA viruses have been identified, characterization of functional ...
Highlights: •We do bio-informatics websites to analysis of Six2 3′UTR. •MiR181b is a putative miRNA which can targets Six2 3′UTR. •MiR-181b binding site in the 3′UTR of Six2 is functional. •MiR-181b suppresses MK3 cells cell proliferation by targeting Six2. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by binding to target mRNA for cleavage or translational repression, and play important regulatory roles in renal development. Despite increasing genes have been predicted to be miRNA targets by bioinformatic analysis during kidney development, few of them have been verified by experiment. The objective of our study is to identify the miRNAs targeting Six2, a critical transcription factor that maintains the mesenchymal progenitor pool via self-renewal (proliferation) during renal development. We initially analyzed the 3′UTR of Six2 and found 37 binding sites targeted by 50 putative miRNAs in the 3′UTR of Six2. Among the 50 miRNAs, ...
MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs involved in regulation of gene expression. Certain microRNAs, including miR-122, seem to have ideal properties as biomarkers due to good stability, high tissue specificity, and ease of detection across multiple species. Recent reports have indicated that miR-122 is a highly liver-specific marker detectable in serum after liver injury. The purpose of the current study was to assess the performance of miR-122 as a serum biomarker for hepatotoxicity in short-term (5-28 days) repeat-dose rat toxicology studies when benchmarked against routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. A total of 23 studies with multiple dose levels of experimental compounds were examined, and they included animals with or without liver injury and with various hepatic histopathologic changes. Serum miR-122 levels were quantified by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Increases in circulating miR-122 levels highly correlated with serum elevations of liver enzymes, such
Bioneer은 microRNA 기능 연구 및 Human mature microRNA연구에 사용 가능하도록 설계된 AccuTarget™ miRNA mimic 및 inhibitor를 제공합니다
Project Abstract = miRNAs were found to be key regulators in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, hematopoesis and oncogenesis. Different cell types have unique and dynamic miRNA expression profiles that could be used to discriminate between those cell types and even between cellular stages. The iGEM Team Heidelberg 2010 will create miRNA binding site patterns enabling the control of any target gene of choice according to the cellular miRNA expression profile. Therefore, we will apply evolutionary methods for creating large miRNA binding site pattern libraries and we will develop two new and powerful methods for miRNA binding site pattern library screening. In parallel, computational modeling will be used for getting information on natural binding site pattern structure in order to enable rational design of complex binding site patterns recognizing certain cellular miRNA expression profiles in the future. ---- ,br /> Sponsors ,br /> ,br /> [[Image:febit_logo.jpg,150px,left]] ...
miRNAs were found to be key regulators in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, hematopoesis and oncogenesis. Different cell types have unique and dynamic miRNA expression profiles that could be used to discriminate between those cell types and even between cellular stages. The iGEM Team Heidelberg 2010 will create miRNA binding site patterns enabling the control of any target gene of choice according to the cellular miRNA expression profile. Therefore, we will apply evolutionary methods for creating large miRNA binding site pattern libraries and we will develop two new and powerful methods for miRNA binding site pattern library screening. In parallel, computational modeling will be used for getting information on natural binding site pattern structure in order to enable rational design of complex binding site patterns recognizing certain cellular miRNA expression profiles in the future. ...
MicroRNAs (miRNA) have tumor suppressive and oncogenic potential in human cancer, but whether and how miRNAs control cell cycle progression is not understood. To address this question, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression during serum stimulation of quiescent human cells. Time course analyses revealed that four miRNAs are up-regulated and |100 miRNAs are down-regulated, as cells progress beyond the G(1)-S phase transition. We analyzed the function of two up-regulated miRNAs (miR-221 and miR-222) that are both predicted to target the cell growth suppressive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 and p57. Our results show that miR-221 and miR-222 both directly target the 3 untranslated regions of p27 and p57 mRNAs to reduce reporter gene expression, as well as diminish p27 and p57 protein levels. Functional studies show that miR-221 and miR-222 prevent quiescence when elevated during growth factor deprivation and induce precocious S-phase entry, thereby triggering cell death. Thus,
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are short non-coding RNAs that affect the expression of genes involved in normal physiology, but that also become dysregulated in cancer development. In the latter context, studies to date have focused on high-abundance miRNAs and their targets. We hypothesized that among the pool of low-abundance miRNAs are some with the potential to impact crucial oncogenic signaling networks in colon cancer. Unbiased screening of over 650 miRNAs identified miR-206, a low-abundance miRNA, as the most significantly altered miRNA in carcinogen-induced rat colon tumors. Computational modeling highlighted the stem-cell marker Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a potential target of miR-206. In a panel of primary human colon cancers, target validation at the mRNA and protein level confirmed a significant inverse relationship between miR-206 and KLF4, which was further supported by miR-206 knockdown and ectopic upregulation in human colon cancer cells. Forced expression of miR-206 resulted in
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered family of endogenous, noncoding RNA molecules approximately 22 nt in length. miRNAs modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complemen
Active Motif LightSwitch miRNA Mimics and miRNA Inhibitors for hsa-mIR-400 to hsa-mIR-499 to validate 3´UTR-miRNA target binding, to study the effects of miRNA over-expression and to knock down the expression of endogenous miRNAs in living cells.
It has been well established that a genetic component to voluntary physical activity levels exists and is independent of environment. However, voluntary physical activity is a complex phenotype, with evidence of regulation from both central and peripheral mechanisms (e.g. (Ferguson et al. 2014; Kelly et al. 2012)), making elucidation of the responsible mechanisms difficult. This project has shown that differential miRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens, soleus, and EDL is associated with differing inherent levels of physical activity. Specifically, miRNA microarray analysis identified 13 miRNAs in nucleus accumbens, eight in EDL, and 20 in soleus to be differentially expressed between high‐ and low‐active strains of mice. Furthermore, miR‐342‐5p and miR‐466 in the nucleus accumbens, and miR‐466 in soleus were validated by qRT‐PCR to be differentially expressed between the high‐ and low‐active mice. These differential miRNA expression patterns may be contributors to ...
Hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) proliferate and differentiate to generate new neurons across the life span of most mammals, including humans. This process takes place within a characteristic local microenvironment where NSPCs interact with a variety of other cell types and encounter systemic regulatory factors. Within this microenvironment, cell intrinsic gene expression programs are modulated by cell extrinsic signals through complex interactions, in many cases involving short non-coding RNA molecules, such as miRNAs. Here we review the regulation of gene expression in NSPCs by miRNAs and its possible implications for epilepsy, which has been linked to alterations in adult hippocampal neurogenesis ...
Elevated levels of CO2 and temperature can both affect plant growth and development, but the signalling pathways regulating these processes are still obscure. MicroRNAs function to silence gene expression, and environmental stresses can alter their expressions. Here we identify, using the small RNA-sequencing method, microRNAs that change significantly in expression by either doubling the atmospheric CO2 concentration or by increasing temperature 3-6 degrees C. Notably, nearly all CO2-influenced microRNAs are affected inversely by elevated temperature. Using the RNA-sequencing method, we determine strongly correlated expression changes between miR156/157 and miR172, and their target transcription factors under elevated CO2 concentration. Similar correlations are also found for microRNAs acting in auxin-signalling, stress responses and potential cell wall carbohydrate synthesis. Our results demonstrate that both CO2 and temperature alter microRNA expression to affect Arabidopsis growth and ...
The aim of this study is to develop a first trimester predictor test for identifying pregnant women at high risks of various pregnancy complications. These complications include high blood pressure in pregnancy (known as pre-eclampsia), miscarriage (pregnancy loss) and spontaneous pre-term birth (premature delivery from 24 to 36 weeks of pregnancy). This predictor test will measure the levels of specific microRNAs from a blood test. microRNAs are small molecules which contain genetic material that is essential for all known forms of life. They control gene expression and regulate many proteins. High levels of miRNAs have been shown to decrease certain gene expression pathways believed to play a role in the development of a healthy pregnancy. This study may help to identify pregnant women who are at high risk of developing pregnancy complications. The outcome of this study may alter the management of future pregnant women deemed to be at risk of developing these adverse outcomes ...
Abstract. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play a crucial role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Over two thousand miRNAs have been identified in humans, and many of them are conserved in other species. miRNAs are implicated in fundamental cellular functions, including development and disease. In the last decade, there has been an overwhelming amount of data contributing to the understanding of miRNA biogenesis and their target genes. Moreover, a significant amount of work has been carried out in developing miRNA biomarkers and therapeutics for various disease conditions. RNA-based markers and therapeutics have been proven to have a clinical impact, and many of these miRNA-based therapies are at various stages of human clinical trials and clinical applications. Notably, miRNAs are also found in exosomes, and are considered to impart intercellular communication and function via several different modalities, including tunneling nanotubes. In spite of our understanding of ...
Whereas enlargement of the heart during mammalian development relies on cardiomyocyte proliferation, at birth cardiomyocytes stop dividing and further growth occurs through hypertrophy. As a consequence, repair of cardiac damage through myocardial regeneration is limited.. By high-content, fluorescence microscopy-based high-throughput screening in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes using a library of microRNA mimics corresponding to all the annotated microRNAs (~1000 microRNAs), we have recently identified 40 microRNAs able to increase cardiomyocyte proliferation, as evaluated by analyzing EdU incorporation (DNA synthesis), G2/M phase of the cell cycle (phospho-H3 positivity) and karyokinesis (Aurora B staining in midbodies). Deep sequencing of endogenous microRNAs revealed that several of the identified microRNAs were expressed in neonatal, replicating cardiomyocytes but not in adult cardiomyocytes. Two of these microRNAs were tested in vivo by injecting either the synthetic microRNA or the ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other classes of short non-coding RNAs regulate essential processes in the development and function of the nervous system. Regulation of miRNAs by neural activity has also been reported. Recently, instances of piwi interacting RNA (piRNA) and endogenous short interfering RNA (esiRNA) mediated modulation of neural physiology have been reported. To better understand the role of miRNAs and other classes of short non-coding RNAs in long term memory (LTM) formation, we have conducted high throughput sequencing on 15-35nt RNAs isolated from heads of Drosophila that have been subjected to aversive olfactory conditioning. We developed genome wide profiles of miRNA, piRNA, and esiRNA, and tested for differential expression following conditioning. We find that 5 miRNAs exhibit significant regulation in the conditioned group. We identify several esiRNA generating loci within genes required for olfactory LTM formation. Our data reveal that an intron of the multiple wing hairs (mwh) ...
Our knowledge in the role of small non-coding RNA molecules in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and disease in the cardiovascular system is steadily growing. Among this group of RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs) fulfill important functions in cellular behavior of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages by influencing the protein output levels of a high variety of genes with crucial outcomes in the atherosclerotic setting. For example, miR- 155 can intensify early stages of atherosclerosis by increasing inflammatory activation and inefficient lipid handling in macrophages. However, miRNAs display also important atheroprotective roles as demonstrated for the complementary strands of miR-126, which form a dual system sustaining the endothelial proliferative reserve and promoting endothelial regeneration to counteract atherogenic effects of disturbed flow and hyperlipidemia.. Excitingly, miRNA functions are not restricted to the producing cells but can be transferred to ...