In order to investigate FeSO4, ZnSO4 (the two of main metal compositions of Shanghai PM2.5 (particle matter with those aerodynamical diameter |2.5 mu m)) effects on acute lung injury, six solutions contained PM2.5 aerosol particles, FeSO4, ZnSO4 and their mixtures were instilled intratracheally into mouse lungs for experiment. By 2 days. after instillation, the live mice were checked in vivo by synchrotron refractive index microradiography. In addition after extracted and examined by dissection, the right lobes of lung were fixed by formalin, then imaged by synchrotron microradiography again. Corresponding parts of those lung tissues were embedded in paraffin for histopathologic study. The synchrotron X-ray microradiographs of live mouse lung showed different lung texture changes after instilled with different toxic solutions. Hemorrhage points in lung were observed more from those mice instilled by FeSO4 contained toxin solutions groups. Bronchial epithelial hyperplasia can be observed in ZnSO4
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimation of the enamel and dentin mineral content from the refractive index. AU - Hariri, I.. AU - Sadr, A.. AU - Nakashima, S.. AU - Shimada, Yasushi. AU - Tagami, J.. AU - Sumi, Y.. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Recent advances in the field of optics have enabled accurate and localized measurement of optical properties of biological substrates. This work aimed to elucidate the relationship between the local refractive index (n) and mineral content (MC) of enamel and dentin. De-and remineralized lesions in bovine enamel and dentin blocks were sectioned into 300-to 400-μm-thick slices, and placed on a metal plate to capture images of sound, de-and remineralized regions transversely by optical coherence tomography. Mean n at each depth level of the lesion (20-or 40-μm steps for enamel or dentin) was measured by the optical path length-matching method and used to plot n through lesion depth. The specimens were further polished and processed for transverse microradiography for ...
Dr. Irving Dardik M.D. originally described the mechanism to health involved getting more waves superposed in the Heart The Origin of Disease and Health Heart Waves The Single Solution to Heart Rate Variability .m. The words he used are useful. Super-LOOPING or NESTING.. describe the way the heart BEAT as a wave, must survive or non-destructively NEST inside the heart RATE as a wave, which must NEST inside the BREATH (& HRV!) as a wave, which must NEST non-destructively inside your DAY as a WAVE. In fact by downloading your day as a heart RATE curve from your special wristwatch, to your computer, he was able to RETUNE peoples daily living pattern by proposing life style changes to affect HEART RATE FRACTALITY. In so doing, he healed enough diseases to upset the American Medical Association.. The point is that even having 1 coherent peak inside the HRV (Heart Rate Variability) is not the solution (as the simple operation of breathing in a single frequency is about the extent of what you learn ...
Twelve rhesus monkeys, in four groups of three each, were implanted with resorbable calcium aluminate ceramic femur sections. Each group contained a ceramic of different chemical composition and crystallographic structure. Four other rhesus monkeys underwent surgery for the removal and immediate replacement of a segment of their femur and were used as controls. One animal in each group was sacrificed after 60, 120, and 180 days. Radiographic observations and biochemical serum and urine analysis was performed throughout the implant periods. Scanning electron microscopy, reflected light microscopy, microradiography, histology, and electron-microprobe analysis were performed on ceramic-bone samples after sacrifice. These observations are compared with the microstructural analysis of the four different types of ceramics prior to implanting. A detailed comparison of the four different ceramics relative to one another and to the control samples is also given. It was concluded that: (a) The ceramics
We are intensively studying MR imaging techniques to visualize the morphological changes of cancer lesions by using various animal models and a 9.4 tesla ultra-high field MR scanner. The MR scanner can acquire very high-resolution MR images (approximately 70 micron in pixel size), thereby detecting tiny changes in cancer lesions. Moreover, MR imaging is definitely non-invasive technique, so you can actually observe the interior of experimental cancer lesions non-destructively and longitudinally during a long period.. ...
The Heart Beat Earth Project for global coherence is a dream which Dan believes can teach self awareness using the internet as a tool. Through the use of a biofeedback devise connected to a home computer, the heartbeat at the moment of compassion registers a specific frequency signature that possesses very special properties. This frequency, or wave, can add and multiply itself infinitely and non-destructively, and can be experienced outside oneself. His experiments with humans sending love to trees have shown that the trees respond at a distance by entraining and aligning in phase to the heart, capacitively, at moments of peak emotion. This indeed tends to confirm that our choices to FEEL coherently may be our best leverage on fabricating ecoystems, perhaps ultimately surpassing the strength of bulldozers in shaping our world ...
Message #1 Posted by Michael de Estrada on 11 Sept 2009, 1:39 p.m.. I just acquired a functionally perfect HP-27 Woodstock, which has one very annoying cosmetic flaw. The previous owner chose to engrave his last name into the bottom of the red transparent LED cover in the front of the calculator. I have a spare broken Woodstock with a clean cover, and wondered if it is possible to non-destructively remove its red LED cover and re-implant it in the good calculator. I have done this with several Spice calculators, which have LED covers that are simply snapped in place, and are easily removed. However, from what I can tell the Woodstock cover is not removable without being damaged. Perhaps one of you knows otherwise?. Thanks,. Michael ...
Researchers have found a way to read ferroelectric memory non-destructively, overcoming a major problem with the platform. Could this clear ...
41 siglec7 TaqMan 5-nuclease assay chemistry provides a fast and simple way to get single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping results.
We present a spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) system that incorporates: 1) a spectrometer configured with a single line-scan camera for spectral interferogram detection, 2) a reference delay line assembly that provides a fixed optical pathlength delay between the lights of two orthogonal polarization states, and 3) a moving reference mirror that introduces a constant modulation frequency in the spatial spectral interferograms while the probe beam is scanned over the sample. The system utilizes the full range of complex Fourier plane for polarization sensitive imaging, where OCT images formed by the vertical and horizontal polarization beam components appear adjacent to each other. It is able to provide imaging of retardation, fast optic axis and backscattered intensity of the interrogated biological tissue. The system is experimentally demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo with an imaging rate at 10,000 A scans per second.. ©2007 Optical Society of ...
We present a new ultra high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system based on polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. The method transfers the principles of our previous bulk optic PS-OCT systems to a fiberized setup. The phase shift between the orthogonal polarization states travelling in the two orthogonal modes of the PM fiber is compensated by software in post processing. Thereby, the main advantage of our bulk optics setups, i.e. the use of only a single input polarization state to simultaneously acquire reflectivity, retardation, optic axis orientation, and Stokes vector, is maintained. The use of a broadband light source of 110 nm bandwidth provides improved depth resolution and smaller speckle size. The latter is important for improved resolution of depolarization imaging. We demonstrate our instrument for high-resolution PS-OCT imaging of the healthy human retina.. ©2009 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance. Alternatively, the autoradiograph is also available as a digital image (digital autoradiography), due to the recent development of scintillation gas detectors or rare earth phosphorimaging systems. The film or emulsion is apposed to the labeled tissue section to obtain the autoradiograph (also called an autoradiogram). The auto- prefix indicates that the radioactive substance is within the sample, as distinguished from the case of historadiography or microradiography, in which the sample is X-rayed using an external source. Some autoradiographs can be examined microscopically for localization of silver grains (such as on the interiors or exteriors of cells or organelles) in which the process is termed micro-autoradiography. For example, micro-autoradiography was used to examine whether atrazine was being ...
Non-destructive, quantitative evaluation of cell numbers in epithelial monolayers is necessary to monitor their proliferative rate in a single culture over a time period. Imaging using phase contrast microscopy is non-invasive and creates contrast in optically transparent cells; however intrinsic image artefacts mean that thresholding-based segmentation methods alone are insufficient to identify cells. The method described uses mathematical morphology to assign contrast to cells in a way that enables approximate segmentation by applying a threshold value. Kmeans clustering is subsequently applied to improve enumeration accuracy by removing segmentation artefacts. Cell numbers in images over multiple time-points may then be used to non-destructively generate growth curves. To validate this method we demonstrate a dose dependent relationship between H400 keratinocyte proliferation and concentration of foetal calf serum ...
Weta motels were used to non-destructively sample cavity-dwelling species to provide a snapshot of forest diversity and health. Another non-destructive sampling method uses wooden discs as facsimiles for natural fallen logs to sample large soil-dwelling i ...
Computed Tomography (CT) is a very useful technique for non-destructively examining the interior of museum objects in three dimensions. A regular X-radiograph provides a picture of the interior of an object projected onto a flat plane (the film, phosphor plate, or digital detector). These projection X-radiographs can be difficult to interpret, particularly when the object is made of many pieces with similar x-ray attenuation or when features in the object overlap. Compu
A miniature meanderline sensor coil which extends the capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to provide analysis of thin planar samples and surface layer geometries. The sensor coil allows standard NMR techniques to be used to examine thin planar (or curved) layers, extending NMRs utility to many problems of modern interest. This technique can be used to examine contact layers, non-destructively depth profile into films, or image multiple layers in a 3-dimensional sense. It lends itself to high resolution NMR techniques of magic angle spinning and thus can be used to examine the bonding and electronic structure in layered materials or to observe the chemistry associated with aging coatings. Coupling this sensor coil technology with an arrangement of small magnets will produce a penetrator probe for remote in-situ chemical analysis of groundwater or contaminant sediments. Alternatively, the sensor coil can be further miniaturized to provide sub-micron depth resolution within thin films or to
In this work we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the capability to reduce the readout noise of an optical and X-ray photon detector based on the semiconductor DEPFET device below a level of only 0.3e- ENC (equivalent noise charge). The readout method used is called "repetitive non destructive readout" (RNDR) and was realized by placing two single DEPFET-devices next to each other and by coupling their charge storing region by an additional gate. By transferring the stored charge from one DEPFET to the other and vice versa the same charge can be measured non-destructively and arbitrarily often. Taking the average value of a large number n of these measurements, the noise is reduced by 1/radicn. The main advantage of such a detector is to greatly reduce the contribution of the 1/f noise to the readout noise. The theoretically and experimentally achievable resolution for different operating parameters (leakage current, readout noise, number and duration of readouts) was investigated by ...
Citation: Tatineni, S., Mcmechan, A., Hein, G., French, R.C. 2011. Efficient and stable expression of GFP through Wheat streak mosaic virus-based vectors in cereal hosts using a range of cleavage sites: Formation of dense fluorescent aggregates for sensitive virus tracking. Virology. 410:268-281, doi:10.1016/j.virol.2010.10.043. Interpretive Summary: In this study, we inserted a GFP cistron into the WSMV genome with a range of cleavage peptides to release GFP from the viral polyprotein. The cleavage peptides from WSMV failed to release GFP from the viral polyprotein and formed a fusion protein of GFP:HC-Pro, which was expressed as dense aggregate-like fluorescent structures for sensitive tracking of the virus in cereal hosts. The availability of GFP-tagged WSMV greatly improved the ability to non-destructively trace the spread of the virus within plant tissues during the infection, and opened new research avenues examining the WSMV movement, trafficking, and virus-host interactions in cereal ...
Cavity formation / Tooth demineralization explained. | What role do bacteria, dental plaque, sugar and acid play? | How to use this info to prevent decay.
Hi everyone, I have been having pain in my hips, groin, lower back and pelvic area for a about 5 months now. I was recently sent for a lumbar spinal x-ray and just got the results back. I'm a bit confused though. Here's what the lab paper says: [*]5 lumbar vertebral bodies are well aligned without signs of
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites ...
Galeaspids somewhat resemble the Osteostraci in having a massive headshield, in which both the endo- and exoskeleton are ossified. The endoskeletal skull is a single mass of cartilage lined with a thin layer of perichondral bone and calcified cartilage. The exoskeleton contains no dentine and is made up by a thick layer of acellular bone (aspidine), as in anaspids. The tubercles of the dermal ornamentation are capped with an enamel-like tissue. The body is covered with minute scales arranged in oblique rows. Galeaspids possess no paired fins and no dorsal and anal fins. The caudal fin is poorly known, but seems to have been pad-shaped or slightly hypocercal, as in the Thelodonti.. The endoskeletal headshield contains cavities and canals for the brain, eyes, labyrinth, nerves, and blood vessels. It is hollowed ventrally by a large cavity, the oralobranchial cavity, which contained the gills and pharynx. The mouth is ventral and opens along the anterior rim of the oralobranchial cavity, and the ...
Galeaspids somewhat resemble the Osteostraci in having a massive headshield, in which both the endo- and exoskeleton are ossified. The endoskeletal skull is a single mass of cartilage lined with a thin layer of perichondral bone and calcified cartilage. The exoskeleton contains no dentine and is made up by a thick layer of acellular bone (aspidine), as in anaspids. The tubercles of the dermal ornamentation are capped with an enamel-like tissue. The body is covered with minute scales arranged in oblique rows. Galeaspids possess no paired fins and no dorsal and anal fins. The caudal fin is poorly known, but seems to have been pad-shaped or slightly hypocercal, as in the Thelodonti.. The endoskeletal headshield contains cavities and canals for the brain, eyes, labyrinth, nerves, and blood vessels. It is hollowed ventrally by a large cavity, the oralobranchial cavity, which contained the gills and pharynx. The mouth is ventral and opens along the anterior rim of the oralobranchial cavity, and the ...
Since 1993, The Medieval Review (TMR; formerly the Bryn Mawr Medieval Review) has been publishing reviews of current work in all areas of Medieval Studies.
Purpose: Retinitis pigmentosa(RP) is a clinical and genetic heterogenic group of retinal diseases affecting rods and cones. Molecular investigations have shown that some of the responsible genes for RP are expressed in the photoreceptors and some in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). RPE and photoreceptors were analyzed by PS-OCT which is specially suited to reveal the integrity of the RPE. Thereby we expect to get further insight into pathomorphology and -physiology.. Methods: Twelve eyes of six patients with RP were imaged using a prototype of a PS OCT device. After obtaining best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the integrity of the RPE was evaluated using autofluorescence angiography (AFA), spectral domain OCT (Spectralis HRA+OCT) and PS-OCT.. Results: Some patients showed a hyperautofluorescent ring in AFA. In all patients of this group the outer layers representing the photoreceptors (inner-outer segment line, outer nuclear layer) were found in the foveal center. In SD OCT the ...
A fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system uses a new polarization diversity detection (PDD) scheme and requires no active polarization modulating components. Retardation of the sample can be determined from amplitudes of arbitrarily-oriented x- and y-components of the reflected light. A hybrid custom 50/50 coupler with single-mode fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber outputs combines light from sample and reference arms of an interferometer. Another embodiment ...
Cleared leaf and X-ray images of leaf samples from specimens of the Senckenberg herbaria FR and GLM; X-ray images were produced using 2D contact microradiography and 3D X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT). For images of leaf fragments, the lowest visible vein order is indicated as reference vein (see comment); for each of these fragments, there is usually an associated image of the entire leaf in this collection. All specimens with a herbarium ID or barcode (e.g. FR-0012813) can usually be searched in the Senckenberg Collection Management System to retrieve more detailed specimen data (e.g. locality, date of collection, digital herbarium specimen etc.) together with the leaf venation images. Due to the use of different image processing standards, multiple 2D X-ray images may be available for a specimen. For part of the specimens, leaf venation data (e.g. vein density) were incorporated in the TRY database (www.try-db.org). Leaf samples of Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Quercus faginea ...
Cleared leaf and X-ray images of leaf samples from specimens of the Senckenberg herbaria FR and GLM; X-ray images were produced using 2D contact microradiography and 3D X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT). For images of leaf fragments, the lowest visible vein order is indicated as reference vein (see comment); for each of these fragments, there is usually an associated image of the entire leaf in this collection. All specimens with a herbarium ID or barcode (e.g. FR-0012813) can usually be searched in the Senckenberg Collection Management System to retrieve more detailed specimen data (e.g. locality, date of collection, digital herbarium specimen etc.) together with the leaf venation images. Due to the use of different image processing standards, multiple 2D X-ray images may be available for a specimen. For part of the specimens, leaf venation data (e.g. vein density) were incorporated in the TRY database (www.try-db.org). Leaf samples of Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Quercus faginea ...
A model that describes the concentration of photothermal (light-to-heat converters) compounds as a function of depth in a turbid medium is developed. The system consists of a pump laser (808 nm modulated at 400 Hz), which heats a photothermal compound, and a phase sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system, which detects the changes in the optical path length of the sample induced by the temperature increase. The model is theoretically derived and the coefficients are empirically determined using solid homogeneous gel phantoms. The model is validated by reconstructing the concentration of a photothermal compound in thick single and double layer solid phantoms ...
The SSNMR characteristics of healthy vertebrate bone are strongly conserved between anatomical location, species and age group. Thus, the 13C spectrum and 13C{31P} REDOR responses of trout bone are virtually indistinguishable from those of mammalian bone [4,8]. In contrast, the spectra of the two brachiopod materials are strikingly different from each other (except for the chitin components). Most of the differences relate to protein signals, which supports previous work demonstrating differing amino acid composition of the shells [22,23]. Unfortunately, in complex materials such as these it is very difficult to understand more about the protein constituents beyond the fact that they must differ significantly. Nevertheless, SSNMR provides a rapid spectral fingerprint by which qualitative differences between shell materials can be ascertained non-destructively. On the other hand, the fluoroapatitic mineral phases of each shell give XRPD patterns, and 31P SSNMR spectra (data not shown), which ...
Body mass reconstructions of extinct vertebrates are most robust when complete to near-complete skeletons allow the reconstruction of either physical or digital models. Digital models are most efficient in terms of time and cost, and provide the facility to infinitely modify model properties non-destructively, such that sensitivity analyses can be conducted to quantify the effect of the many unknown parameters involved in reconstructions of extinct animals. In this study we use laser scanning (LiDAR) and computer modelling methods to create a range of 3D mass models of five specimens of non-avian dinosaur; two near-complete specimens of Tyrannosaurus rex, the most complete specimens of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and Strutiomimum sedens, and a near-complete skeleton of a sub-adult Edmontosaurus annectens. LiDAR scanning allows a full mounted skeleton to be imaged resulting in a detailed 3D model in which each bone retains its spatial position and articulation. This provides a high resolution skeletal
Ex vivo microscopy is an emerging set of imaging modalities intended to enable histological imaging of whole tissue specimens at the point-of-procedure. Ex vivo microscopy holds much promise for enabling rapid verification of cancer biospecimen quantity and quality at the time of specimen acquisition. Two areas in which such technologies would be extremely helpful to pathologists are in 1) screening of biopsies collected during a biopsy procedure with the aim of providing guidance for collection of additional tissues, and 2) non-destructively assessing and verifying cancer content in biospecimens collected for banking and downstream molecular analysis. In prostate cancer diagnosis, for example, 70-80% of the 1 million biopsies collected for diagnosis each year are ultimately found to be benign on permanent histopathology review. For tissue banking, the major limiting pre- analytical factor for downstream molecular and genetic analysis is the amount of cancerous tissue present in the banked ...
Research areas such as proteomics and metabolomics are driving the demand for mass spectrometers that have high performance but modest power requirements, size, and cost. This paper describes such an instrument, the Orbitrap, based on a new type of mass analyzer invented by Makarov. The Orbitrap operates by radially trapping ions about a central spindle electrode. An outer barrel-like electrode is coaxial with the inner spindlelike electrode and mass/charge values are measured from the frequency of harmonic ion oscillations, along the axis of the electric field, undergone by the orbitally trapped ions. This axial frequency is independent of the energy and spatial spread of the ions. Ion frequencies are measured non-destructively by acquisition of time-domain image current transients, with subsequent fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) being used to obtain the mass spectra.. In addition to describing the Orbitrap mass analyzer, this paper also describes a complete Orbitrap-based mass spectrometer, ...
ICPA presents Wet Mouth saliva substitute to moisten and relieve the discomfort from chronic dry mouth (xerostomia). Visit the page for more details.
We report on a case of focal haematopoietic hyperplasia occurring in the haematopoietic marrow in a lumbar vertebral body, of a young man. The PET scan performed showed h..
Muscles are connected to tendons to power animal movements such as running, swimming or flying. During development, these muscle-tendon attachments must be established such that they resist high mechanical forces for the entire life of the animal. An international research team from Marseille (France), Münster and Munich (both Germany) shows now in fruit flies how a protein controls mechanical stress on muscle-tendon connections. The study has been published in the journal PLOS Biology.
Learn about the potential side effects of Biotene Moisturizing Mouth Spray (saliva substitutes). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
TY - GEN. T1 - Medical applications of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. AU - Kim, Beop Min. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. KW - Birefringence. KW - Collagen fibers. KW - Optical diagnosis. KW - Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). KW - Scattering measurements. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=58049180565&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=58049180565&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1109/LEOS.2008.4688507. DO - 10.1109/LEOS.2008.4688507. M3 - Conference contribution. AN - SCOPUS:58049180565. SN - 9781424419326. T3 - Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS. SP - 99. EP - 100. BT - 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2008. T2 - 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2008. Y2 - 9 November 2008 through 13 November 2008. ER - ...
In vivo wide-field reflectance/fluorescence imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of human oral cavity with a forward-viewing probe
Previous studies have shown that near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum near-IR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using near-IR reflectance and near-IR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1500 - 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for comparison. The highest contrast for near- IR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 - 1700 nm. These near-IR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either co-polarization or crosspolarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500-1700-nm yielded the ...
ORCID: 0000-0002-7970-4208 (2009) Preparation and characterisation of a novel fire retardant PET/α-zirconium phosphate nanocomposite. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 94 (4). pp. 544-549. ISSN 01413910 ...
A miniature optical imaging probe based on a high-fill-factor MEMS mirror has been developed for nondestructive diagnosis of articular joint diseases and i
The |i|Journal of Biomedical Optics|/i| (JBO) publishes peer-reviewed papers on the use of novel optical systems and techniques for improved health care and biomedical research.
CRAIC Technologies has developed a new solution for the semiconductor industry: the 20/20 XL™ Film Thickness Measurement Tool. The 20/20 XL™ is a microspectrophotometer is designed to non-destructively analyze microscopic areas of very large samples. This system offers the ability to measure the thickness of thin films in both transmission and reflectance.
It has long been non-destructively evaluated on weld joints of various pipes which are indispensable to most of industrial structures. Ultrasound evaluation has been used to detect flaws in welding joints, but some technical deficiencies still remain. Especially, ultrasound imaging on weld of elbow pipes has many challenging issues due to varying surface along circumferential direction. Conventional ultrasound imaging has particularly focused on ultrasonic wave propagation based on ray theory. This confines the incident angle and the position of an array transducer as well. Total focusing method (TFM), however, can provide not only high resolution images but also flexibility that enables to use ultrasonic waves to every direction that they can reach. This leads us to develop a method to get images of weld zone from an elbow part that curves. It is inevitable of each ultrasonic wave from the array transducer to transmit through different media and to be reflected from the boundary with angles ...
DIAGNOSTIC METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVELY OBSERVING LATCH DATA - The invention provides a circuit that can observe data within shift registers without altering the data. The circuit includes selectors connected to the inputs and outputs of the shift registers. The selectors selectively connect the input with the output of a selected shift register to form a wiring loop for the selected shift register. A control device connected to the wiring loop uses the wiring loop to cause the data to be continually transferred from the output of the selected shift register to the input of the selected shift register and back through the selected shift register in a circular manner. The control device includes a counter used for determining the length of a selected shift register and a set of registers to store, for future use when rotating data in the shift registers, the length of each shift register. The control device also includes a data output accessible from outside the circuit. An ...
Many phenomena depend on the features of the fine-scale structure of turbulence, including its intermittency. This article discusses the problem of the turbulent "shear" in biotechnology including the effect of the shear stress on particles (cells, flocs, cells immobilized on microcarriers). Traditionally, the effect of intermittency has not been taken into account in the shear problem and the theory of isotropic turbulence introduced by Kolmogorov (1941) based on average values of the rate of kinetic energy dissipation, velocity fluctuactions, rates of strain, turbulent stresses etc. has been applied. In this paper a multifractal formalism is employed to describe intermittency; the results of multifractal approach are then compared with predictions of other models of intermittent and non-intermittent turbulence. The multifractal model of intermittent turbulence has been used to derive equations describing flow-particle interactions, including: equations describing turbulent stresses acting upon ...
There is straightening of the dorsal lordosis. The inferior-most thoracic and superior-most lumbar vertebral bodies show an abnormal shape with anterior notches on either the superior or mid-thirds, as well as a degree of inferior beaking. The interpedicular distance is preserved. ...
In the present study, several Galla Chinensis extracts with different main ingredients were obtained and determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The antibacterial capacity was determined using the polymicrobial biofilms model, which can generate reproducible plaque-like biofilms that occur in vivo. The effect of inhibiting tooth demineralization was tested using an in vitro pH-cycling regime, which mimicked the periodic pH change in mouth ...
Ive talked at length on my site about DAVIS LAW of TISSUE DEFORMATION (HERE as well). H.G. Davis was a renowned Civil War-era surgeon who rightly realized, like Dr. Wolf did with bones before him (see links on Davis for info on Wolf), that soft tissues would remodel themselves in response to mechanical stresses put upon them. The problem is, if there arent enough of these mechanical stresses running around (or if the stresses never really change), then the tissues will inevitably shorten --- a common phenomenon that I refer to in my clinic as "TETHERING". What else do we know? If you are putting the kinds of mechanical stresses on MUSCLES and other connective tissues that Donnie and his crew are on a regular basis (LIGAMENTS, FASCIA, TENDONS, etc), said tissues are forced to adapt --- they have no choice. These adaptations are not anything novel and arent much different than the physical adaptations that occur from lifting weights or engaging in other forms of training (its known as getting ...