Microcystis blooms have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in freshwater ecosystems, and the size of Microcystis colonies varies widely throughout the year. In the present study, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was applied to test the effect of this algaecide on Microcystis colonies of different sizes and to evaluate the colonies antioxidant strategy. The results showed that Microcystis populations collapsed under treatment with 5 mg/L H2O2 at colony sizes smaller than 25 μm. A dosage of 20 mg/L H2O2 was necessary to efficiently control Microcystis colonies larger than 25 μm. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of different colonies exhibited various strategies to mitigate oxidative stress. In small colonies, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was readily stimulated and operated with catalase (CAT) activity to eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS). In colonies larger than 25 μm, the antioxidant enzyme CAT and antioxidant substance glutathione (GSH) played major roles in mitigating oxidative
Microcystin YR from Microcystis aeruginosa chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of Microcystin YR from Microcystis aeruginosa 101064-48-6, What are the physical properties of Microcystin YR from Microcystis aeruginosa ect.
Worden, A. Z., Lee, J.-H., Mock, T., Rouzé, P., Simmons, M. P., Aerts, A. L., Allen, A. E., Cuvelier, M. L., Derelle, E., Everett, M. V., Foulon, E. Grimwood, J., Gundlach, H., Henrissat, B., Napoli, C., McDonald, S. M., Parker, M. S., Rombauts, S., Salamov, A., Von Dassow, P., Badger, J. H., Coutinho, P. M., Demir, E., Dubcha I., Gentemann, C., Eikrem, W., Gready, J. E., John, U., Lanier, W., Lindquist, E. A., Lucas, S., Mayer, K. F. X., Moreau, H., Not, F., Otillar, R., Panaud, O., Pangilinan, J., Paulsen, I., Piegu, B., Poliakov, A., Robbens, S., Schmutz, J., Toulza, E., Wyss, T., Zelensky, A., Zhou, K., Armbrust, E. V., Bhattacharya, D., Goodenough, U. W., Van de Peer, Y., Grigoriev, I. V. 2009 Green evolution and dynamic adaptations revealed by genomes of the Marine Picoeukaryotes Micromonas. Science, 324, 268-272 ...
The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis is a nuisance species. It forms large blooms on the water surface and overwhelmingly dominates the ecosystem through the formation of colonies from single cells surrounded by mucilage; however, the mechanism of colony formation is poorly understood. Two mechanisms of Microcystis colony formation have been proposed: cell-division, where cells remain attached after binary fission; and cell-adhesion, where single cells stick together. This paper examined the published literature on Microcystis colony formation to clarify the mechanism of colony formation and its relationship to environmental drivers. This meta-analysis showed that in laboratory experiments, colony formation by cell-division was mainly induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb2+ concentrations, the presence of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, heterotrophic bacteria, and low temperature and low light intensities. Alternatively, colony formation by cell-adhesion was mainly ...
Competition for light.Earlier laboratory studies revealed subtle differences in the light-dependent growth responses of various Microcystis strains (2, 13). Nevertheless, our results show that these subtle differences among Microcystis strains are sufficient to cause competitive replacement (Fig. 3 and 6). Competition theory predicts that, in well-mixed waters, the phytoplankton species with the lowest critical light intensity will be the best competitor for light (15, 50). This prediction is confirmed by a series of competition experiments (16, 26, 31). In our study, the critical light intensity of toxic strain V163 was higher than the critical light intensity of nontoxic strain V145. As predicted by the theory, the toxic strain V163 was indeed competitively displaced by the nontoxic strain V145 (Fig. 3). Competitive displacement took less than 2 weeks. The critical light intensities of strains CYA140 and CYA43 were very similar. Therefore, competition theory predicts that these two strains ...
In 1991 Oscillatoria simplicissima replaced Microcystis aeruginosa in the Vaal River, South Africa. This study explored the reason for this succession by looking at the photosynthetic performance of these two cyanoprokaryotes at different temperatures, light intensities and N:P ratios. Microcystis aeruginosa showed higher growth rates and chlorophyll a concentrations than O. simplicissima for most treatments, except the N-deficient treatments. It seems that M. aeruginosa can maintain growth under a range of different conditions and can keep forming mass occurrences, but has high light requirements for photosynthesis and maintenance and can tolerate a much higher light intensity without experiencing photo-inhibition. Oscillatoria simplicissima, on the other hand, is able to harvest available light more efficiently at 25 °C and 15 µmol m-2 s-1, experiences less damage or loss at antenna level and retains more of its electron transport capabilities than Microcystis, giving it a competitive edge ...
Lake Dianchi is a shallow and turbid lake, located in Southwest China. Since 1985, Lake Dianchi has experienced severe cyanabacterial blooms (dominated by Microcystis spp.). In extreme cases, the algal cell densities have exceeded three billion cells per liter. To predict and elucidate the population dynamics ofMicrocystis spp. in Lake Dianchi, a neural network based model was developed. The correlation coefficient (R 2) between the predicted algal concentrations by the model and the observed values was 0.911. Sensitivity analysis was performed to clarify the algal dynamics to the changes of environmental factors. The results of a sensitivity analysis of the neural network model suggested that small increases in pH could cause significantly reduced algal abundance. Further investigations on raw data showed that the response of Microcystis spp. concentration to pH increase was dependent on algal biomass and pH level. When Microcystis spp. population and pH were moderate or low, the response of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enantioselective syntheses and biological studies of aeruginosin 298-A and its analogs. T2 - Application of catalytic asymmetric phase-transfer reaction. AU - Fukuta, Yuhei. AU - Ohshima, Takashi. AU - Gnanadesikan, Vijay. AU - Shibuguchi, Tomoyuki. AU - Nemoto, Tetsuhiro. AU - Kisugi, Takaya. AU - Okino, Tatsufumi. AU - Shibasaki, Masakatsu. PY - 2004/4/13. Y1 - 2004/4/13. N2 - Aeruginosin 298-A was isolated from the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (NIES-298) and is an equipotent thrombin and trypsin inhibitor. A variety of analogs were synthesized to gain insight into the structure-activity relations. We developed a versatile synthetic process for aeruginosin 298-A as well as several attractive analogs, in which all stereocenters were controlled by catalytic asymmetric phase-transfer reaction promoted by two-center asymmetric catalysts and catalytic asymmetric epoxidation promoted by a lanthanide-BINOL complex. Furthermore, serine protease inhibitory activities ...
Microcystins form a large family of cyclic toxins characterized by a highly conserved chemical structure with an extensive amino acid composition at the two variable positions, two and four (Additional file 1: Figure S7 and Table S3). In this study, we detected rare [D-Leu1]MC variants from strains of the distantly related genera Microcystis, Nostoc, and Phormidium. Almost all microcystins reported in the literature contain D-Ala in position 1 [8]. Previously, microcystins containing D-Leu [27-31], Gly [35], and D-Ser [36, 37] have also been reported. The [D-Leu1]MC variant has previously been found from Microcystis aeruginosa NPLJ-4, Microcystis sp. RST 9501, and water blooms from Brazil and Canada dominated by Microcystis strains [27-31, 34]. The production of microcystins in lichen thalli by Nostoc symbionts has previously been reported [37, 38]. Nostoc strains isolated from lichen symbiosis produce a large variety of microcystins including the [D-Leu1]MC variant [31].. Microcystins are best ...
Micocystin (MC) exists in Microcystis cells in two different forms, free and protein-bound. We examined the dynamic change in extracellular free MCs, intracellular free MCs and protein-bound MCs in both batch cultures and semi-continuous cultures, using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blot. The results showed that the free MC per cell remained constant, while the quantity of protein-bound MCs increased with the growth of Microcystis cells in both kinds of culture. Significant changes in the dominant MC-bound proteins occurred in the late exponential growth phase of batch cultures, while the dominant MC-bound proteins in semi-continuous cultures remained the same. In field samples collected at different months in Lake Taihu, the dominant MC-bound proteins were shown to be similar, but the amount of protein-bound MC varied and correlated with the intracellular MC content. We identified MC-bound proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblots and mass spectrometry. The 60 kDa
Tanabe, Y., Hodoki, Y., Sano, T., Tada, K., Watanabe, MM. 2018a Adaptation of the freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to brackish water is driven by recent horizontal transfer of sucrose genes. Front. Microbiol., 9, 1150 (article ID ...
In 2009, unprecedented mammal mortality in the southern part of the Kruger National Park led to an investigation which implicated M. aeruginosa. The dead animals included grazers and browsers which preferred drinking from the leeward side of two dams, a natural point of accumulation for drifting Microcystis blooms. Mammals such as elephants and buffalo which usually wade into water before drinking, were unaffected, as were the resident crocodiles. The source of nutrients which supported the Microcystis growth was narrowed down to the dung and urine voided in the water by a large resident hippo population, unaffected by the bloom. The immediate problem was solved by breaching of the dam walls and draining of the water. M. aeruginosa is the most abundant cyanobacterial genus in South Africa, may be a toxic or a harmless strains.[10] Some South African water bodies are now highly contaminated, mostly from return flows out of dysfunctional waste water treatment works that discharge over 4 billion ...
East Lake,located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,is a major source of drinking water for local residents. However,the large increase of population density and the rapid development of industry has resulted in heavy eutrophication of East Lake over the past few decades. Microcystis aeruginosa is a well-known toxic algae-blooming cyanobacterial species (Carmichael W W,et al.,2001) and a major player in the cyanobacterial water blooming in East Lake. Cyanophages are considered to be a significant factor in preventing algal blooming by causing the death and regulating the abundance,clonal diversity,and composition of their cyanobacterial host populations (Suttle C A,et al.,1992; Tucker S,et al.,2005).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of algal organic matters of Microcystis aeruginosa. T2 - Biodegradability, DBP formation and membrane fouling potential. AU - Zhou, Shiqing. AU - Shao, Yisheng. AU - Gao, Naiyun. AU - Deng, Yang. AU - Li, Lei. AU - Deng, Jing. AU - Tan, Chaoqun. PY - 2014/4/1. Y1 - 2014/4/1. N2 - Algal organic matters (AOM), including extracellular organic matters (EOM) and intracellular organic matters (IOM), were comprehensively studied in terms of their biodegradability, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potentials and membrane fouling. EOM and IOM were fractionated into hydrophobic (HP), transphilic (TP) and hydrophilic (HL) constituents. The HP, TP and HL fractions of EOM and IOM were highly biodegradable with BDOC/DOC ranging from 52.5% to 67.4% and the DBP formation potentials followed the order of HP , TP , HL, except of IOM-HL. Biodegradable process proved very effective in removing the DBP formation potentials. Moreover, the AOM characteristics were also evaluated ...
Hu, L.,Kong, R.,Xu, X.. Autumnal increase in proportion of toxic Microcystis in Lake Taihu depends more on temperature adaptability than on effects of toxigenicity[J]. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY,2015,119(3):744-752 ...
Article Coagulation performance and floc properties of |italic|Microcystis aeruginosa|/italic| in the presence of humic acid. Coagulation removal of algae in raw water could be significantly affected by humic acid (HA). A series of jar-tests were con...
BACKGROUND: Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have become increasingly common in the surface waters of the world. Of the known toxins produced by cyanobacteria, the microcystins are the most significant threat to human and animal health. These cyclic peptides are potent inhibitors of eukaryotic protein phosphatases type 1 and 2A. Synthesized nonribosomally, the microcystins contain a number of unusual amino acid residues including the beta-amino polyketide moiety Adda (3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6, 8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-4,6-decadienoic acid). We have characterized the microcystin biosynthetic gene cluster from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806. RESULTS: A cluster spanning 55 kb, composed of 10 bidirectionally transcribed open reading frames arranged in two putative operons (mcyA-C and mcyD-J), has been correlated with microcystin formation by gene disruption and mutant analysis. Of the 48 sequential catalytic reactions involved in microcystin synthesis, 45 have been assigned to catalytic ...
Park SY, Jin ML, Kim YH, et al. Sanguinarine inhibits invasiveness and the MMP 9 and COX 2 expression in TPA-induced breast cancer cells by inducing HO-1 expression. Oncol Rep. 2014 Jan;31(1):497-504. PMID: 24220687.. Shao J, Liu D, Gong D, et al. Inhibitory effects of sanguinarine against the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843 and possible mechanisms of action. Aquat Toxicol. 2013 Oct 15;142-143:257-63. PMID: 24060579.. Dong XZ, Zhang M, Wang K, et al. Sanguinarine inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor release by generation of reactive oxygen species in MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:517698. PMID: 23762849.. Niu X, Fan T, Li W, et al. Protective effect of sanguinarine against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Mar 15;267(3):256-65. PMID: 23352506.. Foss MH, Eun YJ, Grove CI, et al. Inhibitors of bacterial tubulin target bacterial membranes in vivo. Medchemcomm. 2013 Jan 1;4(1):112-119. PMID: ...
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate.
为探究细菌群落组成对微囊藻水华腐败分解过程的响应,在太湖梅梁湾沿岸进行为期11d的原位围隔实验,模拟蓝藻水华聚集分解过程,并监测了此过程中水体环境因子和细菌群落组成.结果表明,水体理化因子和细菌群落组成在微囊藻水华分解的过程中发生了显著变化.冗余分析显示细菌的群落组成与水体氧化还原环境(溶解氧或氧化还原电位)、pH值、浮游植物生物量和营养盐浓度(总磷、硝态氮浓度)密切相关.研究还发现了某些与微囊藻水华分解密切相关的特殊细菌类群,其中隶属于黄杆菌科(拟杆菌门)的一个类群在微囊藻厌氧分解的阶段占据显著优势,其功能有待于进一步研究.;To explore the response of bacterial community composition (BCC) to the decomposition of Microcystis blooms, we conducted an eleven-day in situ enclosure experiment to simulate the aggregation and decomposition of cyanobacterial bloom near the shoreline of
Final results from a NCCOS sponsored research study shows the importance of N and P to the development of toxic cyanobacteria blooms in the U.S. Great Lakes. The study found that Microcystis possess great genetic flexibility to adapt to low levels of inorganic P and N. Using gene expression, Microcystis turns on dormant genes to utilize less abundant organic forms of N and P. Even in the absence of P, Microcystis can flourish using low levels of organic N.. That Microcystis adapts and flourishes in low P zones by using organic N suggests that management schemes that focus solely on reducing the delivery of P to, for example, western Lake Erie, may actually enhance the growth and dominance of Microcystis. This finding allowedthe U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to recently recommend dual control of both P and N.. Results of this study were reported on by project scientists Drs. Christopher Gobler and Matthew Harke at the Eighth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the United States, ...
Article PCR amplification and DNA sequence of |italic|mcy|/italic|A gene: The distribution profile of a toxigenic |italic|Microcystis aeruginosa|/italic| in the Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa. Using new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers, a onc...
Microcystis bloom, a cyanobacterial mass occurrence often found in eutrophicated water bodies, is one of the most serious threats to freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In nature, Microcystis forms aggregates or colonies that contain heterotrophic bacteria. The Microcystis-bacteria colonies were persistent even when they were maintained in lab culture for a long period. The relationship between Microcystis and the associated bacteria was investigated by a metagenomic approach in this study. We developed a visualization-guided method of binning for genome assembly after total colony DNA sequencing. We found that the method was effective in grouping sequences and it did not require reference genome sequence. Individual genomes of the colony bacteria were obtained and they provided valuable insights into microbial community structures. Analysis of metabolic pathways based on these genomes revealed that while all heterotrophic bacteria were dependent upon Microcystis for carbon and energy, Vitamin B12
Can catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP in the presence of single-stranded DNA, the ATP-dependent uptake of single-stranded DNA by duplex DNA, and the ATP-dependent hybridization of homologous single-stranded DNAs. It interacts with LexA causing its activation and leading to its autocatalytic cleavage.
The publication of the D. pulex genome [8] brings Daphnia research into a new era in which we face the challenging task of connecting genome structure, function and expression with variation in ecologically important traits. Recent studies have met various successes. For example, we know that genetically based dietary tolerance of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacteria allows D. galeata to persist in the face of eutrophication [18]. A candidate-gene study of D. magna identified three genes (of seven candidates) that were each upregulated 8-10-fold in individuals exposed to toxin-producing strains of Microcystis relative to those exposed to non-toxic strains [67]. These genes code for enzymes involved in glycolysis, protein catabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Notably, all three belong to expanded gene families that result from ancestral gene duplications [67].. With respect to trophic interactions between Daphnia and its predators, a number of morphological, behavioural and ...
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have become a global threat to human health and aquatic biota around the world. While the ecotoxicity of cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystins (MCs) has been studied extensively, the toxicity of non-toxin producing
Dense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a lake experiment where intermittent artificial mixing failed to control blooms of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis during the summer of 2003, one of the hottest summers ever recorded in Europe. To understand this failure, we develop a coupled biological-physical model investigating how competition for light between buoyant cyanobacteria, diatoms, and green algae in eutrophic lakes is affected by the meteorological conditions of this extreme summer heatwave. The model consists of a phytoplankton competition model coupled to a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model, driven by meteorological data. The model predicts that high temperatures favour cyanobacteria directly, through increased growth rates. Moreover, ...
Microcystin poisoning was diagnosed in a dog exposed to a Microcystis aeruginosa dominated freshwater harmful algal bloom at Milford Lake, Kansas, which occurred during the summer of 2011. Lake water microcystin ...
Refining District North Louisiana-Arkansas Refinery and Blender Net Production of Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (Thousand Barrels per Day ...
In 2019, Livestock Net Production in Republic of the Congo was 146169 Thousand US Dollars PPP = 2004-2006. Discover more data with NationMaster!
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria group; Cyanobacteria; Oscillatoriophycideae; Chroococcales; Microcystaceae; Microcystis; Microcystis ...
Concerning toxicity to aquatic algae there is on study using m-cresol as test substance available. The toxicity of m-cresol to the blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanaophyceae) was determined in a cell multiplication inhibition test according to the guideline DEV L9. Test conditions were as follows: continuous light, 27°C, with or without neutralization. The pH of the neutralized test solution was 7. For the endpoint biomass at the end of the test an 8 day-toxicity threshold value of 13 mg/l was obtained (nominal concentration). This toxicological threshold can also be regarded as a NOEC- or an EC3-value. For this reason the NOEC value can be given as 13 mg/l. ...
Video articles in JoVE about rna algal include Analyzing Gene Expression from Marine Microbial Communities using Environmental Transcriptomics, Molecular Probe Optimization to Determine Cell Mortality in a Photosynthetic Organism (Microcystis aeruginosa) Using Flow Cytometry, A Rapid Strategy for the Isolation of New Faustoviruses from Environmental Samples Using Vermamoeba vermiformis, The ITS2 Database, Unraveling the Unseen Players in the Ocean - A Field Guide to Water Chemistry and Marine Microbiology, Microfluidic Imaging Flow Cytometry by Asymmetric-detection Time-stretch Optical Microscopy (ATOM), Estimating Virus Production Rates in Aquatic Systems, A Small Volume Bioassay to Assess Bacterial/Phytoplankton Co-culture Using WATER-Pulse-Amplitude-Modulated (WATER-PAM) Fluorometry, Construction and Setup of a Bench-scale Algal Photosynthetic Bioreactor with Temperature, Light, and pH Monitoring for Kinetic Growth Tests, Optimize Flue Gas Settings to Promote Microalgae Growth in
Abstract from a paper by Ujvarosi et al. (2019), published in Chemospere : Microginins (MGs) are bioactive metabolites mainly produced by Microcystis spp., (Cyanobacteria) commonly found in eutrophic environments. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of four MG congeners (MG FR3, MG GH787, cyanostatin B, MGL 402) and a well characterized cyanobacterial extract…
Rural communities within low-income countries frequently rely on a range of drinking-water sources, and each water source varies in its potential for biological contamination. The extent and source of biological contamination in primary drinking sources within Kien Svay, Kandal, Cambodia, were determined by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements, 16S rDNA genetic markers for human and bovine fecal Bacteroides, presence of the bloom-forming Microcystis species, and the microcystin toxin mcyD gene marker. Thirteen wells, 11 rain barrels, 10 surface-water sites, and five sediment samples were examined during the dry and wet seasons. Surface water was commonly contaminated with FIB, with up to 1.02 × 105 Enterococcus sp., 6.13 × 104 E. coli, and 2.91 × 104 total coliforms per 100 mL of water. Human and bovine Bacteroides were detected in 100 and 90% of the surface water samples, respectively. Concentrations of FIB in rain-barrels varied by site, however 91% contained human Bacteroides. ...
The FAO indices of agricultural production show the relative level of the aggregate volume of agricultural production for each year in comparison with the base period 2004-2006. They are based on the sum of price-weighted quantities of different agricultural commodities produced after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed weighted in a similar manner. The resulting aggregate represents, therefore, disposable production for any use except as seed and feed.. ...
supplier high capacity flotation cell hydraulic_technical brief - World Health Organization and water suppliers determine when to take action and what actions to takecyanobacteria, such as Anabaena and Microcystis, may float upward when mixi
Superoxide (O2 2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2) concentrations ranging from 87 to 1120 pmol L21 and 5 to 107 nmol L21, respectively, were measured in samples of surface water from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon in the absence of photochemistry. Nonphotochemical, particle-associated net production rates of O2 2 ranging from 1 to 16 pmol L21 s 21 were also determined and calculated to be similar in magnitude to the likely abiotic photochemical O2 2 production rates in GBR surface waters. Manipulative experiments using 0.22-mm filtration and addition of biological inhibitors demonstrated that the majority of this particle-associated production was biological and likely driven by photosynthetic organisms. Pseudo-first-order O2 2 decay rate constants were very low at O2 2 concentrations , 1 nmol L21 (values in filtered samples ranged from 0.7 to 4.3 3 1022 s 21) but increased with increasing O2 2 concentration toward a value of , 0.2 s21 at O2 2 concentrations . 10 nmol L21. This was thought to occur
Visitors comment: Degradation of one molecule of glucose gives net production of four ATPs, eight NADHs and one FADH2. One NADH gives seven protons (four
Many freshwater phytoplankton species have the potential to form transient nuisance blooms that affect water quality and other aquatic biota. Heterotrophic bacteria can influence such blooms via nutrient regeneration but also via antagonism and other biotic interactions. We studied the composition of bacterial communities associated with three bloom-forming freshwater phytoplankton species, the diatom Aulacoseira granulata and the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Experimental cultures incubated with and without lake bacteria were sampled in three different growth phases and bacterial community composition was assessed by 454-Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Betaproteobacteria were dominant in all cultures inoculated with lake bacteria, but decreased during the experiment. In contrast, Alphaproteobacteria, which made up the second most abundant class of bacteria, increased overall during the course of the experiment. Other bacterial classes ...
Microcystin (MC) is a common and widespread toxin which represents a health hazard to humans and animals. MC toxin concentrations are monitored by various direct or proxy techniques (HPLC, LC-MS/MS, ELISA, PPIA), however, these techniques do not discriminate producing species from non-producing ones. In order to simultaneously provide the identity and activity of cyanotoxin producing species in freshwater lakes, we applied simple, and fully detailed, whole cell fluorescent in situ hybridization enhanced by tyramid signal amplification (TSA-FISH). DNA oligonucleotide probes MICR3 and MCYA were targeting 16S rRNA and mcyA-mRNA, respectively. The mcyA gene is coding for the MC synthetase enzyme involved in MC synthesis. Controls were acquired with the general eubacterial 16S rRNA probe EUB338, for TSA-FISH assay, and standard HPLC and LC-MS/MS as standard methods for the measurements of MC concentration. Results obtained from monoclonal strains and natural samples demonstrated a specific identification of
October 1996-August 1998. Project: Toxicity, ecological impact, monitoring, causes and public awareness of Microcystis blooms in Lake Erie. MTU PI for two-year, multi-institution project whose focus was understanding the causes and effects of toxic Microcystis blooms in the lower Great Lakes.. May 1991-October 1996. Project: Evaluating the impacts of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on Great Lakes water quality using satellite remotely sensed data ...
The overall project goal is to adapt and validate a rapid and accurate optical fiber-based technology for cyanoHAB cell detection and enumeration in both laboratory and field settings. Specific objectives are to: 1) design ribosomal RNA (rRNA) signal and capture probes for the three most important toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaena flos-aquae) using published sequences; 2) design and test a second probe pair for each species to incorporate redundancy into the array; 3) test these probes in the fiber-optic array format and determine detection limits, specificity, and dynamic range; 4) refine hybridization conditions to reduce processing time; 5) develop procedures to analyze multiple cyanoHAB species simultaneously using a single fiber bundle in a multiplexed format and validate it using mixed cultures and spiked and unspiked field samples; 6) work with individuals and agencies responsible for fresh- and brackish water management to determine ...
PubMed journal article: Contrasting microcystin production and cyanobacterial population dynamics in two Planktothrix-dominated freshwater lakes. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Abstract. In June 2016, massive cyanobacterial blooms occurred in the St. Lucie River in Florida, caused by nutrient and cyanobacterial-laden water releases fro
Unproductive lakes are one of few natural landscape compartments with net release of carbon to the atmosphere. Lakes also generally decrease the net terrestrial carbon uptake, since most of the CO2 production in unproductive lakes are derived from organic carbon produced on land (e.g. in forests). High latitude lakes are predicted to be particularly affected by the global climate change. The carbon cycling in these lakes and their role in the landscape are therefore important to study.. In this thesis, carbon turnover processes were studied in two lakes above the arctic circle (Lake Diktar-Erik and Lake Merasjärvi) in year 2004 and 2005. Both lakes were net heterotrophic, with large variations in CO2 concentrations both on shorter (30min) and longer (24h) time-scales. The pelagic habitat supported a major part of the net production of CO2, with larger dynamics in the CO2 production than the sediments. The CO2 variations of the surface water were related to respiration of allochthonous organic ...
In 2019, Agriculture Net Production Per Capita Index in Ukraine was 188 US Dollars PPP = 2004-2006. Discover more data with NationMaster!
Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Refinery Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur (Thousand Barrels ...
INTRODUCTION. Pollution and eutrophication lead to the presence of high concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds, which enhance phytoplankton (including Cyanophyceae) blooms and concomitantly decrease water quality (Venter et al., 2003; Heisler et al., 2008 and Li et al., 2011). The occurrence of these blooms in the source water for drinking water production is of critical importance to drinking water providers as phytoplank-ton can have both a physical impact (e.g. clogging of filters) and chemical impact (e.g. production of cyanotoxins, disinfection by-products and taste and odour compounds) on the treatment process (Du Preez et al., 2007; Merel et al., 2010).. Phytoplankton known to cause problems during drinking water treatment, include groups like Dinophyceae (Ceratium hirundinella), Cyanophyceae (Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena circinalis, Oscillatoria simplicissma and Cylindrospermopsis), Bacillariophyceae (Aulacoseira granu-lata) as well as the Chlorophcyeae (Cladophora). ...
Climate change may cause increased microbial growth in water sources and more knowledge is required on how this may affect the hygienic water quality, i.e., whether increased occurrence of cyanobacteria and algae may stimulate the growth rate of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate if the presence of the cyanobacteria Anabanea lemmermannii and Microcystis aeruginosa affected the survival and growth rate of the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the faecal indicators Escherichia coli and coliforms. Cyanobacteria were cultured in bottles containing the nutrient-poor medium O2. Sewage, A. hydrophila or P. aeruginosa was added to cyanobacterial cultures and the bacterial growth and survival was followed. E. coli and coliforms from sewage died within few days and the decay rate was not affected by the presence of cyanobacteria. The presence of Anabaena stimulated the growth rate of P. aeruginosa, ...
In a weight of evidence approach it can be shown that NOEC (EC3) and EC10 values for all cresol isomers are similar and range between 4.6 to 13 mg/L. The toxicity of o-cresol and m-cresol to the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) was determined in a cell multiplication inhibition test according to the guideline DEV L9 (Bringmann 1975, Bringmann and Kuehn 1976, 1978). The following test conditions were met: continuous light, 27°C, with or without neutralization, pH of the neutralized test solution was 7. The relevant nominal 8d-NOEC (EC3) for growth rate was 6.8 mg/L for o-cresol and 13 mg/L for m-cresol. The effects of p-cresol on the green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus was tested according to DIN 38412, part 9 (draft standard for cell multiplication inhibition). Based on nominal concentrations a 48 h-EC50 of 21 mg/L and an EC10 of 4.6 mg/L, both related to growth rate, were determined (Kuehn and Pattard 1990). ...
Mass populations of toxic cyanobacteria in recreational waters can present a serious risk to human health. Intelligence on the abundance and distribution of cyanobacteria is therefore needed to aid risk assessment and management activities. In this paper, we use data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager-2 (CASI-2) to monitor seasonal change in the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and the cyanobacterial biomarker pigment C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in a series of shallow lakes in the UK. The World Health Organization guidance levels for cyanobacteria in recreational waters were subsequently used to build a decision tree classification model for cyanobacterial risk assessment which was driven using Chl a and C-PC products derived from the CASI-2 data. The results demonstrate that remote sensing can be used to acquire intelligence on the distribution and abundance of cyanobacteria in inland waterbodies. It is argued the use of remote sensing reconnaissance, in conjunction with in situ ...
Media Advisory: Insecticides, Mercury, Toxic Cyanobacteria, Nitrate levels in the Pacific Northwest and Nationwide The National Water Quality Monitoring Councils E...
Other challenges identified in the monitoring of algal blooms using remote sensing data include viewing blooms in inland water regions, particularly in small bodies of water, and in highly turbid environments that block out easier views of algal growth. In fact, most papers in recent years have focused on inland regions, as open ocean areas have been seen to be better captured by low resolution systems such as MODIS and MERIS. Improvements in adjacency correction, inversion-based retrieval models and optical property measurements have, however, allowed advancements to be made in these inland areas in the last few years.[3]. Increased spatial and spectral range of hyperspectral sensors on airborne instruments, such as MASTER, HICO, and AVIRIS data, have also enabled better differentiation of algal species in smaller, inland bodies of water. One study in Pinto Lake California demonstrated that Aphanizomenon and Microcystis species could be separated using a spectral shape algorithm. Regular ...
Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the analysis of microcystin variants have been established. The qualitative method involves a unique fragment approach, specific for each variant in identifying microcystins, while the quantitative method involves the quantification of microcystins in cellular ma
Cyanobacteria blooms frequently disturb the functioning of freshwater ecosystems and their uses, due to the toxins dangerous to health that cyanobacteria are able to synthesize. Therefore, many countries have implemented monitoring programs aimed at reducing the risk of human exposure to these toxins. The main limitation is related to the heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of cyanobacteria. In the vertical dimension, these organisms can stay in different layers in the water column and in the horizontal scale, the cells may accumulate in some a rea of the water body, under the action of winds or currents. In an attempt to improve monitoring, many research projects have been undertaken in order to develop new tools, like buoys equipped with various underwater sensors. This tool is highly relevant but it does not allow assessing the horizontal distribution of cyanobacteria and its cost remains expensive. Moreover, if satellite remote sensing can be considered very
Ill take a shot at it.. Classical macroeconomic theory, including the Laws of Supply and Demand, deal with producers and consumers of a particular good or service, but dont really discuss speculators. As usual, it would help to begin with some definitions.. A player in a market can take on one or more roles. He can produce the good or service, adding it to the available pool to be consumed, which removes it from that pool. Some people act as both, but we normally only consider the net production/consumption in classifying a role. In the case of a service, which cant very well be produced ahead of the time its consumed, things are a bit hairy, but the big picture remains the same.. In the case of a distributor or retailer, arguably the original product is consumed in producing a derivative: I will not buy a shipping container full of Samsung monitors, but Micro Center did, and I bought two monitors from them. In this case, Micro Center consumed that shipping container and ...
Diabetic individuals are at considerable risk for invasive infection by Staphylococcus aureus, however, the mechanisms underlying this enhanced susceptibility to infection are unclear. We observed increased mortality following i.v. S. aureus infection in diabetic mice compared with nondiabetic controls, correlating with increased numbers of low-density neutrophils (LDNs) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). LDNs have been implicated in the inflammatory pathology of diseases such as lupus, given their release of large amounts of NETs. Our goal was to describe what drives LDN increases during S. aureus infection in the diabetic host and mechanisms that promote increased NET production by LDNs. LDN development is dependent on TGF-β, which we found to be more activated in the diabetic host. Neutralization of TGF-β, or the TGF-β-activating integrin αvβ8, reduced LDN numbers and improved survival during S. aureus infection. Targeting S. aureus directly with MEDI4893*, an α ...
Perhaps this generations greatest marksman, Matt Emmons proved it yet again Sunday with a season-opening victory and an Olympic quota in the Prone Rifle event at the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) World Cup in Changwon, South Korea. After shooting an almost impeccable qualification score of 632.0 points - just 0.3 points off the world record - the three-time Olympic medalist closed the deal with an equally strong final medal match securing the gold and a Rio 2016 Olympic Quota.. Winning Olympic quotas at these events are of utmost importance for the USA Shooting Team with limited opportunities to do so available throughout 2015. A quota spot is essentially the entry ticket necessary for a country to compete in Olympic competition in a particular discipline. USA Shooting athletes winning Olympic quotas will still have to earn the right to compete separately. The U.S. has now earned three quotas in the Rifle/Pistol events including Mens Air Rifle and Mens Air Pistol, with the ...
config.add_handler :TTIN do ,b, sig, cpu = ::Cgroup::CPU.new(b.name) cpu.cfs_quota_us = cpu.cfs_quota_us - 10000 if cpu.cfs_quota_us , 0 cpu.modify Haconiwa::Logger.info Changed cpu.cfs_quota_us = #{cpu.cfs_quota_us} end end config.add_handler :TTOU do ,b, sig, cpu = ::Cgroup::CPU.new(b.name) cpu.cfs_quota_us = cpu.cfs_quota_us + 10000 if cpu.cfs_quota_us ,= cpu.cfs_period_us cpu.modify Haconiwa::Logger.info Changed cpu.cfs_quota_us = #{cpu.cfs_quota_us} end end ...
Information for quota holdings about the Milk Quota Scheme, the types of quota available and what holders of milk quotas must do.
Quota calculations,Quota Calculations,Quota formulas,Quota distribution,Quota increases,Quota ratio,Consents to quota increases ...
Hi, I have a survey that has a couple of quotas. During the survey a respondent can be included in ... ? If so, how can this be achieved? Thanks.
Komárek J, Kaštovský J, Mareš J, Johansen JR (2014). Taxonomic classification of cyanoprokaryotes (cyanobacterial genera) 2014, using a polyphasic approach (PDF). Preslia. 86: 295-335 ...
The Greater Mohali Area Development Authority (GMADA) has decided to cancel as many as 150 plots under reserved categories of the Aerocity, the first residential urban estate, as the allottees have failed to submit their original documents despite several notices and hearings.The authorities have now fixed January 4 as the deadline, after which their plots would be cancelled and would be considered for the applicants in the waiting lists. ...