Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to have a protective function in attenuating hepatic injury during endotoxemia or sepsis. As a result, the role of NO in attenuating the hepatic microcirculatory alterations associated with endotoxemia was investigated in mice by in vivo microscopy. The livers were examined 2 h after intravenous injection of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination with inhibitors of the synthesis of NO, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. In the animals treated with the combination of NO synthase inhibitors and LPS, leukocyte adherence was increased threefold above that in animals treated with LPS alone. This was accompanied by a 33% reduction in sinusoidal blood flow. Simultaneous administration of L-arginine, but not D-arginine, eliminated these microcirculatory disturbances. The results demonstrate that inhibition of LPS-stimulated NO production results in an early hepatic microvascular inflammatory response to a dose of
Background: In humans, there is a significant decrease in myocardial contractile function post arrest evidenced by decreased cardiac output and ejection fraction. This decreased function is also associated with impaired myocardial microcirculatory function in swine. In ischemic models, the endogenous incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has demonstrated benefits in myocardial infarct size reduction and improvement of left ventricular (LV) function, however treatment with this agent has not been evaluated following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that post resuscitation administration of GLP-1 would improve myocardial microcirculatory function.. Methods: Domestic swine (n=20; 30-35 kg) were electrically fibrillated and left untreated for 8 minutes. Aggressive ACLS was performed to restore spontaneous circulation. Animals were then blindly randomized to post resuscitation infusions of either human rGLP-1 (American Peptide, 10 pM/kg/min) or equal volume saline for 4 ...
Hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction is a severe and early complication in endotoxemia (18). It has been suggested that ET-1 plays a significant role in mediating hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in endotoxemia (17, 21, 29). The study by Pannen et al. (22) showed that portal venous contractile response to ET-1 was significantly enhanced in the rat liver following the pretreatment with endotoxin. The sinusoids constricted with a greater magnitude in response to ET-1, which contributed to a dramatic decrease in the sinusoidal flow in LPS-primed animals compared with control animals. Our recent studies have also demonstrated that the enhanced response of the portal vascular system to ET-1 results in functional impairment in oxygen delivery, which causes focal areas of hypoxia in the liver, leading to local mismatches between the oxygen delivery and metabolic demands (4). Although the deleterious effect induced by the enhanced response to ET-1 on the hepatic microcirculation during endotoxemia ...
Background: Microcirculatory dysfunction is associated with multiple organ failure and unfavorable patient outcome. We investigated whether therapeutically targeting the endothelial angiopoietin/Tie2 system preserves microvascular integrity during hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Rats were treated with the angiopoietin-1 mimetic vasculotide and subjected to hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation. Microcirculatory perfusion and leakage were assessed with intravital microscopy (n = 7 per group) and Evans blue dye extravasation (n = 8 per group), respectively. The angiopoietin/Tie2 system was studied at protein and RNA level in plasma, kidneys, and lungs. Results: Hemorrhagic shock significantly reduced continuously perfused capillaries (7 ± 2 vs. 11 ± 2) and increased nonperfused vessels (9 ± 3 vs. 5 ± 2) during hemorrhagic shock, which could not be restored by fluid resuscitation. Hemorrhagic shock increased circulating angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie2 significantly, which associated with ...
Microcirculatory dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis and septic shock; hence, microcirculation blood flow monitoring has gained increasing attention. However, microcirculatory imaging is still investigational in human sepsis and has not yet been incorporated into routine clinical practice for several reasons, including the difficult interpretation of microcirculation imaging data, difficulty to draw a parallel between sublingual microcirculation imaging and organ microcirculation dysfunction, as well as the absence of microvessel dysfunction parameters defining sequential microcirculatory changes from the early to late stages of the disease, which could aid in the context of therapeutic approaches and of prognostic parameters. the purpose of this review was to bridge the experimental abdominal organ microvascular derangement kinetics and clinical aspects of microcirculatory findings in the early phase of severe sepsis/septic shock ...
View more ,Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by stenosis and occlusion of the lower limb arteries. Although leg blood flow is limited in PAD, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion is affected. We compared whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion after cuff occlusion and submaximal leg exercise between patients with PAD (n = 12, 69 ± 9 yr) and healthy age-matched control participants (n = 12, 68 ± 7 yr). Microvascular blood flow (microvascular volume × flow velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured before and immediately after the following: 1) 5 min of thigh-cuff occlusion, and 2) a 5-min bout of intermittent isometric plantar-flexion exercise (400 N) using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Whole leg blood flow was measured after thigh-cuff occlusion and during submaximal plantar-flexion exercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. Postocclusion whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion ...
Endothelial function plays an important role in the extrauterine adaptation of newborn infants. Endothelium produces different biologically active mediators, which play the central role in physiological and pathological processes and also in the extrauterine adaptation of newborn infants. The imbalance between vasoconstrictive and vasodilatation factors results in impaired cardiovascular adaptation and microcirculation and also brain injury. Microcirculatory disturbances are observed very often in preterm babies, who have a serious risk for perinatal brain injury and further neurodevelopment disabilities. Present chapter presents the pathogenetic role of vascular tone regulators of endothelial genesis in the formation of microcirculatory changes in preterm babies with a high risk of perinatal hypoxic encephalopathy.
Chronic venous insufficiency, a common cardiovascular problem in the elderly, causes changes in the skin microcirculation. The influence of normal aging on skin microcirculation in the absence of disease remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of age and activity patterns on non-invasive measures of skin microcirculation in the lower extremities of healthy adults. We hypothesized the following: 1) skin temperature (Ts), skin oxygen (PtcO2), and skin blood flow (laser Doppler flux (LDF)) would be lower while skin carbon dioxide (PtcCO2) would be higher in middle-aged compared to young adults, and 2) there would be a positive relationship between the amount of time spent exercising and PtcO2 and LDF. 56 young (23.6±4.1 yrs) and 54 middle-aged (57.4±6.4 yrs) healthy adults with no history of anemia, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune, cardiovascular, peripheral vascular, pulmonary, or renal disease participated. Ts and heated (44°C) PtcO2/PtcCO2 and heated (44°C) LDF sensors were placed ...
Background. In adults severely disturbed microcirculatory flow can be observed by Orthogonal Polarized Spectral (OPS) imaging techniques during sepsis. Therefore we set out to assess for microcirculatory changes in term newborns with suspected early
TY - JOUR. T1 - An intravital model to monitor steps of metastatic tumor cell adhesion within the hepatic microcirculation. AU - Haier, Jörg. AU - Korb, Timo. AU - Hotz, Birgit. AU - Spiegel, Hans Ullrich. AU - Senninger, Norbert. AU - Sarr, Michael G.. AU - Stelzner, Mathias G.. AU - Behrns, Kevin E.. AU - Adams, Reid B.. PY - 2003/5. Y1 - 2003/5. N2 - Organ-specific tumor cell adhesion within the microcirculation of host organs is an important step in the metastatic cascade. Circulating tumor cells have to adhere within the microcirculatory vessels, quickly stabilize their adhesion and probably leave the circulation to avoid toxic effects of hydrodynamic shear forces of circulating blood. Using intravital fluorescence microscopy we established a new model for the intravital observation of colon carcinoma cell adhesion within the hepatic microcirculation. HT-29 (human) and CC531 (rat) colon carcinoma cells were fluorescence labeled using CalceinAM. Single cell suspensions were injected ...
Purpose : Bezafibrate (BZF) is a fibrate drug used as a lipid-lowering agent to treat hyperlipidemia. The results of randomized clinical trial have shown the beneficial effects of systemic fenofibrate therapy in reducing the progression of diabetic retinopathy independently of serum lipid levels. BZF is a pan-agonist for all subtypes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) such as PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ. It has been reported PPARs play a key role in microvascular inflammation or angiogenesis. However, the effects of BZF in retinal cells remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of BZF on retinal microvascular inflammation. Methods : The primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) were cultured. First, cytotoxicity and cell viability of BZF were assessed by CCK-8 assay and LDH activity assay. Next, we analyzed the effect of BZF(0,30,100μM) treatment on the expression of TNF-α-induced monocyte ...
BACKGROUND Recurrent angina (RA) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains a challenging problem that confronts cardiologists in routine clinical practice. In patients without epicardial coronary causes, RA is commonly speculated as resulting from coronary microvascular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the coronary microvascular function in patients with RA late after successful PCI and without epicardial stenosis at the time of repeat angiography. METHODS We studied 39 consecutive patients with RA in whom PCI was successfully performed 6 to 12 months previously because of angina and single-vessel disease and without restenosis and disease progression at the time of repeat angiography. Twelve subjects without RA were recruited as the control group. Thermodilution-derived coronary flow reserve (CFR) and index of microvascular resistance (IMR) were measured using a pressure-temperature sensor-tipped coronary wire. The exercise treadmill test was performed according to
A total of 405 men and 813 women were included in the present study. Women were slightly older, and more likely to be Hispanic and nonwhite than men. Compared to men, women were also more frequently obese and hypertensive. However, women were less likely to use tobacco. Chest pain and dyspnea were also more frequent in women than men. The pretest clinical risk based on the gender-neutral modified Duke clinical risk score was higher among women than men (35% vs. 29%, respectively, p = 0.007). Left ventricular ejection fractions were slightly higher among women, although they were normal in both genders. Coronary microvascular dysfunction was highly prevalent both in men and women (51% and 54%, respectively; P [Fisher exact test] = 0.39; P [equivalence] = 0.0002). Regardless of gender, coronary flow reserve was a powerful incremental predictor of MACE (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% confidence interval, 0.75-086] per 10% increase in coronary flow reserve; p < 0.0001), and resulted in favorable net ...
Recently, coronary microvascular function was documented to be impaired even in patients with prehypertension. However, the impact of antihypertensive level on improvement of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive patients remains to be established. We investigated the optimal blood pres
The major research objectives of the Dokken Laboratory are to develop effective treatments for coronary microvascular dysfunction associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and underlying coronary artery disease. Unlike obstructive coronary artery disease which can be treated with surgery or mechanical reperfusion procedures, coronary microvascular dysfunction, defined as defective regulation of blood flow through the small blood vessels in the heart, causes chronic myocardial ischemia, for which there is no effective treatment. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is most common among women,and particularly those with the metabolic syndrome, type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. The chronic angina of coronary microvascular dysfunction is frequently so debilitating that patients who suffer from this condition are unable to work, exercise, or enjoy life, due to pain and weakness. Our studies seek to explain the relationship between diabetes and coronary microvascular dysfunction, and to ...
Hamster Small Intestinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from small intestine of pathogen-free laboratory mice. Hamster Small Intestinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods ...
Background Patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc) develop functional and structural microcirculatory dysfunction, which leads to skin fibrosis initially affecting distal extremity. Recent studies have tested the possibility of evaluating the skin microcirculation of the entire hand and its spatial heterogeneity by means of optical Near-Infrared Spectroscopic (NIRS) of blood HbO2 saturation (stO2). The NIRS-sensitive camera is a non-invasive tissue oxygenation measurement system based on near infrared light. The camera reports and approximates value of stO2 in superficial tissue. Processing software of the NIRS-camera generates 2D imaging maps automatically in real time. ...
Microcirculation accounts for about 99% of blood vessels in adults and mediates between the arterial and venous parts of the cardiovascular system, both structurally and functionally. Skin microcirculation consists of two vascular plexuses: superficial and deep. Microcirculation includes vessels...
Regular walking exercise attenuates lower-limb cutaneous microvascular endothelial dysfunction in post-surgical varicose-vein patients. This study assessed the effects of upper-limb exercise training on lower-limb cutaneous microvascular function in this patient group. Six post-surgical (4-5 weeks) varicose-vein patients completed an 8-week arm-crank exercise training programme. Changes in cutaneous microvascular function of the lower leg were assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry and iontophoretic administration of endothelial-dependent and -independent agonists [acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively]. At 8 weeks, median lower-limb cutaneous vasodilator responsives to ACh and SNP remained unchanged relative to baseline (e.g. 6 mC: 37 (interquartile range 24-63) vs. 40 (20-71) PU and 35 (23-48) vs. 38 (21-64) PU, respectively for the supine position). Upper-limb exercise appears ineffective for improving lower-limb cutaneous microvascular function in post-surgical ...
Clinically, hepatic I/R occurs during liver transplantation and in hepatic surgery with temporal blood occlusion. This imbalanced ratio between demand and supply of oxygen by I/R injury is known to result in microcirculatory dysfunction in endothelial cells. Usually, the major factors of I/R injury include direct cellular damage due to the ischemic insult as well as a prolonged malfunction resulting from activation of the liver inflammatory pathways. Also, the proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mainly produced during the reperfusion period, may play a critical role in the initiation of I/R-mediated parenchymal and nonparenchymal cell damage. In addition to I/R damage, an imbalance between NO and ET production could cause microcirculatory disturbances in liver, which consequently incur damage to its structure and function. Moreover, several studies have shown that NO may be involved in ROS-mediated reactions, thereby modulating the inflammatory response (9, 16) ...
Precise regulation of microvascular tone and barrier function is essential for proper coronary perfusion and performance. Agonist-induced alterations in either or both of these functions ultimately lead to microcirculatory dysfunction and cardiac insufficiency. Two important pathways involved in r...
We tested the hypothesis that transmural differences in coronary microvascular pressures may be greater in the setting of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Epicardial and endocardial microvascular pressures were measured in isolated lidocaine-arrested hearts during adenosine vasodilation. In both normotensive (n = 19) and hypertensive (one clip, one kidney, n = 10) dogs, microvascular pressures in endocardial arterioles at 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 mm Hg of left main coronary perfusion pressures were lower than in epicardial arterioles (p less than 0.05 at all perfusion pressures). The pressures in epicardial arterioles as a percentage of the left main coronary perfusion pressure were similar in normotensive versus hypertensive hearts at all perfusion pressures. In contrast, the pressures in endocardium at 90 and 100 mm Hg of perfusion pressure were significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in dogs with hypertension and hypertrophy than in the controls (41 +/- 4 versus 50 +/- 2 and 40 ...
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD) is often suggested in patients with typical chest pain and abnormal stress test results that are indicative of myocardial ischemia, in who coronary angiography fails to show fixed stenosis in epicardial coron
Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction, Left Ventricular Remodeling and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Impairment. Circulation. 2019 Nov 29;: Authors: Bajaj N, Singh A, Zhou W, Gupta A, Fujikura K, Byrne C, Harms HJ, Osborne MT, Bravo P, Andrikopoulou E, Divakaran S, Bibbo CF, Hainer J, Skali H, Taqueti V, Steigner M, Dorbala S, Charytan DM, Prabhu SD, Blankstein R, Deo...
China Microcirculation Microscope (TR8000B Laptop type), Find details about China Microcirculation Microscope, Microcirculation Analyzer from Microcirculation Microscope (TR8000B Laptop type) - Jiangsu TONGREN Medical Electronic Technology Co., Ltd.
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It is widely known that stress conditioning can protect microcirculation and induce the release of vasoactive factors for a period of several hours. Little, however, is known about the long-term effects of stress conditioning on microcirculation, especially on the microcirculation of the periosteum of the calvaria. For this reason, we used intravital fluorescence microscopy to investigate the effects of heat shock priming on the microcirculation of the periosteum over a period of several days. Fifty-two Lewis rats were randomized into eight groups. Six groups underwent heat shock priming of the periosteum of the calvaria at 42.5°C, two of them (n = 8) for 15 minutes, two (n = 8) for 25 minutes and two (n = 8) for 35 minutes. After 24 hours, a periosteal chamber was implanted into the heads of the animals of one of each of the two groups mentioned above. Microcirculation and inflammatory responses were studied repeatedly over a period of 14 days using intravital fluorescence microscopy. The expression
article{146b1beb-2c74-4742-b2c4-22637b9471e5, abstract = {1 The endocannabinoid anandamide is an emerging potential signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system. Anandamide causes vasodilatation, bradycardia and hypotension in animals and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxic, haemorrhagic and cardiogenic shock, but its vascular effects have not been studied in man. 2 Human forearm blood flow and skin microcirculatory flow were recorded using venous occlusion plethysmography and laser-Doppler perfusion imaging ( LDPI), respectively. Each test drug was infused into the brachial artery or applied topically on the skin followed by a standardized pin-prick to disrupt the epidermal barrier. 3 Anandamide failed to affect forearm blood flow when administered intra-arterially at infusion rates of 0.3-300 nmol min(-1). The highest infusion rate led to an anandamide concentration of approximately 1 mu M in venous blood as measured by mass spectrometry. 4 Dermal application of ...
Actual Environmental Problems: the proceedings of the VI-th International scientific conference for young scientists, PhD students, Masters degree students and students (in English), Minsk, November 24-25, 2016/ ISEI BSU; edited by S. A. Maskevitch, S. S. Poznjak. - Minsk: 2016. - Pp. 76-77 ...
Background. Sepsis is a highly heterogeneous disease state brought about by a dysregulated host response to systemic infection, with uncontrolled pro- and anti-inflammatory processes leading to collateral tissue injury and immune suppression.. Sepsis poses a significant health burden worldwide, with deaths attributed in the UK estimated at approximately 44,000 per annum. Prompt treatment directed by internationally agreed management guidelines improves outcomes in sepsis. However early diagnosis of sepsis remains difficult, with current diagnostic criteria relying on the presence of organ dysfunction and derangement of macro haemodynamic variables. At the point of diagnosis, mortality is in excess of 10%. At present there are no specific criteria in the diagnosis of sepsis based on the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities, specifically on assessment of the microcirculation.. The microcirculation in sepsis. The microcirculation consists of a dense network of arterioles, capillaries and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microcirculation and intracellular free calcium changes in the pregnant uterine muscle. AU - Ruttner, Z.. AU - Ivanics, T.. AU - Kozma, F.. AU - Slaaf, D. W.. AU - Reneman, R. S.. AU - Ligeti, L.. AU - Tóth, A.. PY - 1998/3/20. Y1 - 1998/3/20. N2 - The quality of the microcirculation of the uterus is a key factor for the condition of the fetus. Presently, no model is available to study directly the in vivo microciculation of the myometrium under physiological and pathophysiological circumstances. Therefore, we present a novel model to study the microcirculation and intracellular processes in the myometrium of the close to term pregnant anesthetized rats. Pups are removed from the uterus, and a small strip of uterus is prepared free, flipped over and mounted in a superfusion chamber, leaving the radix and thereby the circulation intact. Patency of the preparation was verified with RBC velocity measurements. For fluorescence ratio measurements, Indo-1 AM was used. Fluorescence ...
Background/aims: Many clinical conditions that affect the microcirculation of the skin are still diagnosed and followed up by observational methods alone in spite of the fact that non-invasive, more user-independent and objective methods are available today. Limited portability, high cost, lack of robustness and non-specificity of findings are among the factors that have hampered the implementation of these methods in a clinical setting. The aim of this study is to present and evaluate a new, portable and easy-to-use imaging technology for investigation of the red blood cell (RBC) concentration in the skin microvasculature based on the method of polarization light spectroscopy using modified standard digital camera technology.. Methods: The use of orthogonal linear polarization filters over both the flash source and the detector array removes the polarization-retaining light reflected from the epidermal layer. Only the depolarized light backscattered from the papillary dermal matrix reaches the ...
Dr. Maniscalco studies pulmonary microvascular development in lung injury. Using various animal models, including a non-human primate model of BPD, this work examines the effects of oxygen and ventilation of immature lung on the development of alveolar capillaries. The major goals of the research are to characterize microvascular development in lung injury and investigate angiogenic and angiostatic regulators in normal and injured lung. Recent work has linked expression of inflammatory CXC chemokine mediators, which regulate angiogenesis and are part of the pathophysiology of BPD, to impaired lung microangiogenesis. ...
Dr. Maniscalco studies pulmonary microvascular development in lung injury. Using various animal models, including a non-human primate model of BPD, this work examines the effects of oxygen and ventilation of immature lung on the development of alveolar capillaries. The major goals of the research are to characterize microvascular development in lung injury and investigate angiogenic and angiostatic regulators in normal and injured lung. Recent work has linked expression of inflammatory CXC chemokine mediators, which regulate angiogenesis and are part of the pathophysiology of BPD, to impaired lung microangiogenesis. ...
Baseline characteristics were not different between cases and controls, except for beta-blocker use and which was higher in cases, and mean (SD) CFR which was lower in cases [1.19 (0.23) and 2.78 (0.78) in cases and controls respectively; p < 0.01]. We identified 5345 peptides corresponding to 209 proteins, and identified 197 proteins by peptides with suitable properties to infer relative quantitation values. While the calculated values for some proteins (e.g. vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, apolipoprotein C and Von Willebrand Factor) indicate fold-differences between groups, these are most likely a result of high values in only 1-2 patients and are not statistically significant ...
ATP is an essential energy substrate for cellular metabolism, but it can also influence many biological processes when released into the extracellular milieu. Research has established that extracellular ATP acts as an autocrine/paracrine factor that regulates many physiological functions. Alternatively, excessive extracellular ATP levels contribute to pathophysiological processes, such as inflammation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and atherosclerosis. Renal P2 receptors are widely distributed throughout glomeruli, vasculature, and tubular segments and participate in controlling renal vascular resistance, mediating renal autoregulation, and regulating tubular transport function. This review will focus on the role of ATP-P2 receptor signaling in regulating renal microvascular function and autoregulation, recent advances on the role of ATP-P2 signaling in hypertension-associated renal vascular injury, and emerging new directions.. ...
Data were analyzed offline by means of a commercially available dedicated software tool (Dynamic Signal Analysis, Argus, Siemens Medical Solutions) at our CMR core laboratory by 1 experienced cardiologist (J.H.A) and 1 experienced radiologist (S.M.K), who were blinded to the clinical information of the patients. For functional analysis, LV contours were drawn manually on the short-axis images at the end of diastole and of systole, and the contours were propagated automatically to other images for the rest of the cardiac cycle. Then, manual correction of the automatically rendered endocardial and epicardial contours was performed for all datasets, and papillary muscles as well as myocardial trabeculations were included in the ventricular cavity. On the basis of these data, the following parameters were calculated: LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), LVEF, LV mass, stroke volume (SV), right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), right ventricular end-systolic volume ...
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the changes in intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation induced by acute normovolemic HD. Our results show that severe HD is associated with redistribution of O2 delivery away from the intestines and also shunting of the residual O2 within the intestines itself. The correlation between mucosal μHbO2 and μPo2 during reduction of intestinal microvascular oxygenation indicates that impaired erythrocyte O2 off-loading is not the key mechanism responsible for the decreased microcirculatory mucosal oxygenation. Thus O2 shunting bypassing the microcirculation to the venous compartment appears to be the main factor. Herein, rheological alterations may contribute, and a potential candidate is the observed erythrocyte rigidification during ANH.. In HD pigs, mucosal μHbO2 was well preserved during mild ANH but finally progressively declined. This finding of a two-phase response of intestinal microvascular oxygenation (maintained oxygenation during ...
Study Flashcards On SFOS Test II 18 Microcirculation at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
The present meta-analysis provides a number of important observations. First, our meta-analyses shows an effect size of the association between diabetes mellitus and microvascular dysfunction as assessed by LTH response that can be considered to be nearly large according to Cohens effect size index [35]. Secondly, subgroup analysis showed a difference in effect size between locations of measurement. The fact that the response reported in studies conducted in the quadriceps muscle was more reduced than in the forearm or pretibial surface could suggest that assessment of dermal microvascular function at the quadriceps would be the preferred choice to discriminate healthy from diabetic subjects. However, these findings are limited by the small subgroup size for the quadriceps (n = 40) and being conducted by only one research group [44, 45]. The relatively small standard deviation reported by this group affects the SMD size effect [44, 45] and could either represent the excellence of measurement or ...
We could demonstrate that the implant material CoCrMo has a marked impact on local microvascular parameters. While the Ti-alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb induced an only transient and moderate inflammatory response, the implantation of a CoCrMo sample led to a distinct and persistent activation of leukocytes combined with disruption of the microvascular endothelial integrity and marked leukocyte extravasation. Animals with Ti-alloys showed a clear tendency of recuperation, while in all but one CoCrMo-treated animals a breakdown of microcirculation prior to the scheduled end of the experiment was observed. Overall the alloy Ti-6Al-7Nb was tolerated slightly better than Ti-6Al-4V under the chosen test conditions, though this discrepancy was not statistically significant. ...
Bingol, F., Yoruk, O., Bingol, B. O., Erdemci, B., Ozkan, O., & Mazlumoglu, M. R. (2015). Estimation of the efficacy of chemo-radiotherapy on tumor regression in the patients with laryngeal cancer via computerized tomography using the Cavalieri method. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 1-4. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2015.1096958.. Darlot, F., Moro, C., El Massri, N., Chabrol, C., Johnstone, D. M., Reinhart, F., . . . Benabid, A.-L. (2015). Near-infrared light is neuroprotective in a monkey model of Parkinsons disease. Annals of Neurology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/ana.24542.. McConnell, E. D., Wei, H. S., Reitz, K. M., Kang, H., Takano, T., Vates, G. E., & Nedergaard, M. (2015). Cerebral microcirculatory failure after subarachnoid hemorrhage is reversed by hyaluronidase. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. doi: 10.1177/0271678×15608389.. Prokop, S., Miller, K. R., Drost, N., Handrick, S., Mathur, V., Luo, J., . . . Heppner, F. L. (2015). Impact of peripheral myeloid cells on amyloid-β pathology in ...
In this study, we have demonstrated that CEU imaging of skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow and flow reserve provides information on the presence and severity of PAD in symptomatic patients. It was particularly useful in the diabetic population in whom conventional non-invasive tests were less predictive of the severity of symptoms.. The application of perfusion imaging to evaluate PAD in this study was a response to several emerging clinical needs. Elderly and diabetic patients constitute an increasing proportion of patients with PAD. The diagnostic performance of conventional techniques such as ABI, PVR, and Doppler ultrasound is reduced in these patients because of vascular noncompliance caused by medial arterial calcinosis, greater likelihood for diffuse or distal disease, and functional abnormalities of the microcirculation (15,16). For this reason, for any given reduction in ABI reduction, patients with DM tend to have more impairment in lower-extremity functional capacity than those ...
The fact that AM behaves as a local autocrine and/or paracrine hormone raises the possibility that AM released by CECs acts primarily on AM receptors present in the cerebral endothelium itself and on neighboring cells. The expression of CRLR, RAMP-1, -2, -3, was characterized on isolated rat cerebral microvessels [4], in rat CECs and cerebral pericytes [3], and in rat astrocytes [2]. In cultured rat CECs and peri-cytes RAMP-2 showed the highest expression, followed by RAMP-3 and RAMP-1, and exogenous AM increased the intracellular cAMP concentration suggesting the existence of functional AM receptors on these cells [3]. Although astrocyte-derived factors increased the AM production of rat CECs, they did not change the expression of AM receptor components in rat CECs. Oliver et al. [5] reported the same expression pattern of RAMPs in human cerebral vasculature.. Was this article helpful?. ...
Results Overall, a discordance between IMR and MVO was observed in 36.7% of cases, with 31 patients having MVO and IMR ≤40. Compared with patients with MVO and IMR ≤40, patients with both MVO and IMR ,40 had an 11.9-fold increased risk of final IS ,25% at 6 months (p = 0.001). Patients with MVO and IMR ≤40 had a significantly smaller IS at 6 months (p = 0.001), with significant regression in IS over time (34.4% [interquartile range (IQR): 27.3% to 41.0%] vs. 22.3% [IQR: 16.0% to 30.0%]; p = 0.001). ...
... is a food supplement act on microcirculation improving legs heaviness while vitamin C contributes to the formation of collagen, which is necessary to maintain a good elasticity of the blood vessels.
Contains a new chapter on microcirculation The already existing chapters have been rearranged and updated on the basis of the most recent meta-analyses
Principal Investigator:SEKI Junji, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
Microcirculatory alterations are frequent in sepsis and different mechanisms can be implied and variously studied. The severity of microvascular alterations is associated with organ dysfunction and mortality. The aim of this review is to make an overview of the most actual and used techniques applied on septic humans. We aimed at focus on the impact of different techniques on the evaluation of patients management and outcome.. ...
The endothelium is the largest and at the same time most diffuse organ in the human body. Endothelial cells (EC) control oxygenation, organ function and -perfusion and mediate the communication between blood and tissue. Because EC line all vessels, they are exposed to systemic soluble and mechanical factors including cytokines and growth factors, blood composition as well as microvesicles and hemodynamic force. Conversely, the endothelium reflects the tissues condition to circulating cells and plasma and communicates with downstream sections of the vasculature and -tissues, through (i) the release of microvesicles; (ii) the expression and shedding of surface molecules or (iii) the secretion of cytokines. Obstructive artery disease and Dysfunctional endothelial behavior of the coronary microcirculation has fundamental implications on the origin of ischemic heart disease and is frequently overlooked in contemporary guidelines on treatment of myocardial ischemia ...
Effect of local blunt muscle trauma on microvascular blood flow, relative hemoglobin amount and hemoglobin O2 saturation.Animals (n = 8) were ventilated wit
The causes of coronary microvascular disease are the same as atherosclerosis Unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, unhealthy eating habits, lack of exercise, etc.
A complete solution to propagate dermal microvascular cells in low serum (5% FBS) conditions with or without the addition of human recombinant VEGF.
Institute for Microcirculation. Research on fundamental biophysical, physiological and pathophysiological regularities of organ perfusion.
article{92975f7a-0c41-4aea-b47e-d8a0702fe11e, author = {Persson, Carl and Erjefält, Jonas and Andersson, Morgan and Erjefalt, I and Greiff, Lennart and Korsgren, Magnus and Linden, M and Sundler, Frank and Svensson, Christer}, issn = {1398-9995}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {241--255}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, series = {Allergy}, title = {Epithelium, microcirculation, and eosinophils--new aspects of the allergic airway in vivo}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.1997.tb00989.x}, volume = {52}, year = {1997 ...
The European Society of Intensive Care Medicine invited 12 experts to form a Task Force to update a previous consensus (Antonelli et al.: Intensive Care Med 33:575-590, 2007). The same five questions addressed in the earlier consensus were used as the outline for the literature search and review, with the aim of the Task Force to produce statements based on the available literature and evidence. These questions were: (1) What are the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic features of shock in the intensive care unit? (2) Should we monitor preload and fluid responsiveness in shock? (3) How and when should we monitor stroke volume or cardiac output in shock? (4) What markers of the regional and microcirculation can be monitored, and how can cellular function be assessed in shock? (5) What is the evidence for using hemodynamic monitoring to direct therapy in shock? Four types of statements were used: definition, recommendation, best practice and statement of fact.. ...
Roller Glacé - This eye contour, smoothes the look by refreshing it and relieving any congestion with only one touch. Its ball rubs and drains leaving a feeling of freshness and stimulates skin microcirculation of the delicate eye area. Roll-on 15ml/0.5 fl.oz - Eye Contour - en-GB
Roller Glacé - This eye contour, smoothes the look by refreshing it and relieving any congestion with only one touch. Its ball rubs and drains leaving a feeling of freshness and stimulates skin microcirculation of the delicate eye area. Roll-on 15ml/0.5 fl.oz - Eye Contour - en-AU
Microcirculation of eye vessels in practically healthy 120 people of different ages and in persons with signs of senile slackness was investigated. In the group of old patients, we observed pathological branching and spasm of arteriols, non- uniformity of their calibre, loops, microaneurysm, increased quantities of functioning anastomoses, infringements of paral- lelism of microvessels, loops and corners capillaries, presence of аvascular fields, reduced quantities of functioning capillaries, branching microveins, non-uniformity of their diameter, venous sacculation, loops microveins. It is concluded that in persons of senior age groups microcirculatory abnornalities take place in arterial and venous departments of microcirculation. Мicrocirculatory abnormalities which accompany senile slack- ness strengthen its clinical symptoms and promote deteriora- tion of morphological and functional conditions ...
Although the pharmacology implicating a role for Nav channels is provocative, the uncertainty in specificity and access of the activators and inhibitors limits the interpretation of the data. The propositions advanced here must ultimately be tested with appropriate knockout animals and patch-clamp methods to define the electrical signature of the channels involved. This represents a serious technical challenge, however, since available data indicate that the microvessels are quite different from the conduit vessels, and our findings indicate that understanding this system will ultimately require investigation of intact microvessels in vivo.. The reduced magnitude of the conducted vasodilation observed after buffering the endothelial cell Ca2+ (Fig. 5), as well as the behavior of arterioles from eNOS-deficient mice (Fig. 7), supports the idea that there is coupling between Cav3.2 channels and Ca2+-dependent endothelial cell function in this response. However, in our experiments, the KCa channel ...
A brief description of the analytical hemodynamic model that forms the basis for CHS can be found here. A Matlab code that implements the CHS model and plots CHS spectra can be seen here and can be downloaded here. The new CHS technology is aimed at the assessment of cerebral microcirculation. This project involves the optimization of measurement protocols and data processing schemes for CHS, and explores its applications to functional brain imaging and diagnostics or monitoring in clinical settings ...
Upon successful completion of course modules and an exam grade of 80 or higher, the student will be awarded 3 Category II CEU by the American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion.. ...
Halpern, D. and Secomb, T.W. Viscous motion of disc-shaped particles through parallel-sided channels with near-minimal widths. J. Fluid Mech. 231: 545-560, 1991 ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Ischemic stroke produces rapid profound loss of microvascular integrity. Early following focal ischemia detectable disruption in the permeability barrier of cer...
Venatropen Gel - vasotonic and refreshing, this product is aimed at improving the microcirculation and controling edematous states.
The anti-shudder durability of power transmitting fluids, particularly automatic transmission fluids, is improved by incorporating a combination of low potency friction modifiers, alkyl phosphites, specific ashless dispersants and a corrosion inhibitor. The anti-shudder durability of these fluids may be further enhanced by inclusion of a metallic detergent.
Background: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction because of a dysregulated host response to infection. Disturbed microvascular blood flow is associated with excess mortality and is a potential future target for interventions. This review addresses the evidence for pharmacological manipulation of the microcirculation in sepsis assessed by techniques that evaluate the sublingual microvasculature.. Methods:. Systematic review using a published protocol. Eligibility criteria were studies of septic patients published from January 2000 to February 2018. Interventions were drugs aimed at improving perfusion. Outcome was improvement in microvascular flow using orthogonal polarization spectral, sidestream dark field, or incident dark field imaging (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria used).. Results:. Two thousand six hundred and six articles were screened and 22 included. (6 randomized controlled trials, 12 interventional, 3 observational, and 1 pilot, n = ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Japanese herbal medicine, sho-sako-to, prevents gut ischemia/reperfusion-induced hepatic microvascular dysfunction in rats. AU - Horie, Yoshinori. AU - Kajihara, Mikio. AU - Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki. AU - Kimura, Hiroyuki. AU - Tamai, Hironao. AU - Koto, Shinzo. AU - Ishii, Hiromasa. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Background and Aim: We have reported that gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes hepatic microvascular dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to be a modulator of the adhesive interactions between leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells. Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9), a Japanese herbal medicine, is reported to have protective effects against liver injury and to regulate NO production. The objective of this study was to determine whether TJ-9 affects hepatic microvascular dysfunction elicited by gut I/R, and to investigate the role of NO. Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to 30 min of gut ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Intravital microscopy was used to ...
C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) 1Osb/J mouse skeletal muscle tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
U.S., June 15 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03184155) titled Prevention of Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction Post-PCI by Intracoronary Nicardipine on June 7. Brief Summary: This is a single-center double blind, placebo controlled study of patients undergoing a cardiac catheterization where the need for a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is anticipated or will be determined during the early diagnostic phase. The study will assess the use of intracoronary nicardipine vs. sterile saline injection in reducing the index measurement of microcirculatory resistance (IMR). Fifty consecutive patients presenting to the Thomas Jefferson University (TJUH) Cardiac Catheterization lab will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to receive either intracoronary nicardipine or sterile saline injection prior to PCI. IMR values will be assessed pre and post procedure. Data on clinical outcomes and adverse events will be collected by phone at 30 days and 1 year ...
Microcirculatory disturbances contribute to the expansion of infarct lesions after focal cerebral ischemia. Recently, it was shown that Rho-kinase involves in endothelial dysfunction via down-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase function in a rodent stroke model. However, it is not clear whether endothelial Rho-kinase is activated in vivo or Rho-kinase activation contributes to microcirculatory disturbances after cerebral ischemia. In this study, we assessed the temporal and spatial profiles of Rho-kianse activity and the effect of the Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil on microcirculatory disturbances in the focal brain ischemia. Rho-kinase activation was evaluated by analyzing the phosphorylation of adducin, a substrate of Rho-kinase, by immunohistochemistry. Staining for p-adducin was found in endothelia in the ischemic area 6 hr after induction of ischemia. Microcirculatory disturbances and increased endothelial cell staining for von Willebrand factor (vWF) were observed in the same ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic pharmacological treatment in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. AU - Novo, Giuseppina. AU - Novo, Salvatore. AU - Barbaro, Gaspare. AU - Evola, Giovanna. AU - Barbaro, Giuseppe. AU - Azzarelli, Salvatore. AU - Palecek, Tomas. AU - Barbaro, Giuseppe. AU - Akashi, Yoshihiro J.. AU - Cascio, Caterina. AU - Pizzuto, Caterina. AU - Incalcaterra, Egle. AU - Di Gesaro, Gabriele. AU - Fazio, Giovanni. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium (LVNC) is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy resulting from an arrest in normal endomyocardial embryogenesis. In 2002 Jenni et al. [Jenni R, Wyss CA, Oechslin EN, Kaufmann PA. Isolated ventricular noncompaction is associated with coronary microcirculatory dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 39:450-454.] reported a microvascular dysfunction in 12 patients affected by non compaction: areas of restricted myocardial perfusion have been documented by scintigraphy, suggesting a reduction of Coronary flow reserve. McMahon et al ...
All results are expressed as mean ± SD except histologic results presented as median and interquartile range and results presented in figures 2 and 3 as mean ± SEM because SD would have led to unreadable figures. The effect of hemorrhage on physiologic and microcirculatory parameters was evaluated with a two-way ANOVA with one between factor: group (sham and CL) and one within factor: time (T0, T30, T60, T90, and T210). To evaluate the effect of resuscitation on MAP, on microcirculatory parameters (erythrocyte velocity in tips and villous capillaries, erythrocytes flux in villi) and on metabolic parameters (base excess) during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, a two-way ANOVA analysis was conducted with one between factor: group (hemorrhagic shock groups: CL, NE, FR50, FR60, FRNE50, and FRNE60) and one within factor: time (T30, T60, and T90) after checking that parameters were comparable at T30 (with a one-way ANOVA). Because the fraction of perfused villi is a non-Gaussian parameter, the effect ...
The clinical characteristics of angina pectoris are gender-specific: 1) angina is the predominant initial manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women but not in men, 2) the prevalence rate of angina is greater in women than men, and 3) chest pain both typical and atypical for angina in women is frequently not caused by fixed obstructive epicardial CAD (1-3). An alternative mechanism of recurrent chest pain in the absence of significant angiographically detected CAD is coronary microvascular dysfunction, which is defined as disordered function of the smaller coronary resistance vessels (,100 to 200 μm) that play a role in the regulation of coronary blood flow. Although these microvessels are usually spared from the gross morphologic changes of atherosclerosis, they may have abnormal motility, growth, inflammation and/or permeability resulting in disordered vascular function.. Microvascular angina is more prevalent in women than in men and may be manifested by chest pain, an abnormal ...
GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) regulate various biological functions, but their participation in controlling coronary microvascular tone has not been established yet. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the role of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein in regulating coronary microvascular tone during autoregulation and ischemia. In 42 open-chest dogs, coronary arterial microvessels on the surface of the left ventricle were directly observed by epi-illuminated fluorescence microangiography using a floating objective system. PTX (300 ng/mL) was superfused onto the surface of the left ventricle for 2 hours to block Gi and G(o) protein in epimyocardial coronary microvessels in vivo. PTX superfusion caused no change in the resting diameters of microvessels and significantly blocked the vasoconstriction induced by BHT 920 (a selective alpha 2-agonist). After pretreatment with PTX or its vehicle, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded by a hydraulic ...
OBJECTIVE: Vascular endothelial growth factor acts in part through nitric oxide release, the availability of which is decreased in endothelial dysfunction associated with advanced coronary artery disease. This could explain the relatively disappointing results of vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in clinical studies compared with animal studies. We examined the influence of L-arginine supplementation to vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on myocardial microvascular reactivity and perfusion in a porcine model of endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty-four pigs were fed either a normal (NORM, n = 8) or high-cholesterol diet with (CHOL-ARG, n = 8) or without (CHOL, n = 8) L-arginine. All pigs underwent ameroid placement on the circumflex artery and then 3 weeks later received surgical vascular endothelial growth factor treatment. Four weeks after treatment, endothelial-dependent coronary microvascular responses and lateral myocardial perfusion were assessed. Endothelial cell density was
CONCLUSION Our results showed that when fluid management was guided by detailed haemodynamic assessment, more crystalloid than colloid was needed to maintain haemodynamic stability, but there was no difference between the effects of crystalloids and colloids on the microcirculation. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03288051....
The microcirculatory response to thermal stimulation involves both an axon reflex and NO-mediated activation. The analysis of the microcirculatory flow following thermal stimulation may therefore enhance the detection of any impairment of the small unmyelinated fibres that are involved in the axon reflex. The aim of this work is to establish a method of non-invasive measurement of small fibre impairment. The microcirculatory flow in response to local heating is measured by using a laser Doppler instrument, and mathematically modelled to extract a set of quantitative parameters. The results confirm that there is a significant difference in the parameters modelling the axon reflex between diabetic and control subjects, while no significant difference is found in the parameters modelling the NO-mediated activation.. ...
OBJECTIVES: Early detection of microvascular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could identify patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcome, who may benefit from adjunctive treatment. Our objective was to compare invasively measured coronary flow reserve (CFR) and hyperaemic microvascular resistance (HMR) for their predictive power of long-term clinical outcome and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-defined microvascular injury (MVI). METHODS: Simultaneous intracoronary Doppler flow velocity and pressure measurements acquired immediately after revascularisation for AMI from five centres were pooled. Clinical follow-up was completed for 176 patients (mean age 60±10 years; 140(80%) male; ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) 130(74%) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction 46(26%)) with median follow-up time of 3.2 years. In 110 patients with STEMI, additional CMR was performed. RESULTS: The composite end point of death and hospitalisation for heart failure occurred in
The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor which blocks T cell activation has provided the pharmacologic foundation for organ transplantation. CsA exerts additional effects on non-immune cell populations and may adversely effect microvascular endothelial cells, contributing to chronic rejection, a long-term clinical complication and significant cause of mortality in solid-organ transplants, including patients with small bowel allografts. Growth of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a critical homeostatic mechanism in organs and tissues, and regulates vascular populations in response to physiologic requirements. We hypothesized that CsA would inhibit the angiogenic capacity of human gut microvessels. Primary cultures of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) were used to evaluate CsAs effect on four in vitro measures of angiogenesis, including endothelial stress fiber assembly, migration, proliferation and tube formation, in response to the endothelial
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly coronary vascular disease, is a primary contributor to diabetes-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Specifically, dysfunction of coronary microcirculation is common in this patient population, often occurring in the absence of or preceding epicardial coronary atherosclerosis, thereby leading to impaired coronary blood flow (CBF) regulation and increased risk of myocardial ischemia/infarct. Clinically, coronary microvascular function can be assessed by determination of coronary flow reserve (CFR) (ratio of maximal hyperemic to basal CBF), and impaired CFR is a powerful independent correlate of cardiac mortality in diabetic patients (1). Importantly, recent evidence revealed that diabetic patients with preserved CFR (above the median) have cardiac event rates similar to nondiabetic patients (1). Thus, treatment strategies designed to restore CFR (i.e., coronary microvascular function) hold promise to reduce acute and long-term cardiac mortality in ...
This pilot study investigated the effects of two courses of rituximab on microcirculation in patients with early systemic scleroderma with diffuse skin
Several cardiovascular risk factors are associated with an increased incidence of Alzheimers disease (AD); however, the mechanistic link is unknown. A common feature of cardiovascular risk factors is endothelial dysfunction, specifically, loss of bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide (NO). Recently, we demonstrated that loss of endothelial NO led to increased protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide. APP, the parent protein, when sequentially cleaved by BACE1 and γ-secretase generates amyloidogenic, Aβ, the primary component of AD plaques. Our data was the first to demonstrate a possible mechanism linking endothelial dysfunction, via loss of endothelial NO, with the upregulation of important AD related proteins in the cerebral microvasculature. Therefore, we sought to determine if supplementation of cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells with NO, by utilizing the NO donor, DETA NONOate, would ...
We thank Prof. J. L. Vincent, Department of Intensive Care, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium, for allowing us to use the SOAP acronym in our study; F. Messie, Osix, Huizen, The Netherlands, for software engineering; A. Carsetti, MD, R. Domizi, MD, and C. Scorcella, MD, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; G. Veenstra, MD, and B. Scheenstra, MD, ICU, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands, for their contributions to SDF analysis; D. M. J. Milstein, PhD, and K. Yuruk, MD, Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands for their help with SDF imaging; P. Ormskerk, RN, and D. van Duijn, RN, Intensive Care Adults, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for their help with study logistics; and D. S. Martin, MD, PhD, P. Meale, RGN, University College London, ICU, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK, and A. Vivian-Smith, RGN, ICU, Royal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral microvascular responses to endothelins. T2 - The role of ET(A) receptors. AU - Sagher, O.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Thai, Quoc-Anh. AU - Fergus, A.. AU - Kassell, N. F.. AU - Lee, K. S.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The regulatory role of endothelins in cerebral microvessels was investigated in a recently developed model system which allows the study of small cerebral vessels in their normal microenvironment. Using brain slices of the rat neocortex, it was shown that the isopeptide endothelin-3 (ET-3) had no effect on cerebral microvessels, while the isopeptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) produced a potent, dose-dependent vasoconstriction. When a recently developed antagonist of ET(A) receptors (Cyclo-[D-Asp-L-Pro-D-Val-L-Leu-D-Trp]; ETant) was administered prior to treatment with ET-1, the vasoconstrictor response to ET-l was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. When ETant was administered after the establishment of a constriction by ET-l, the constrictor response to ET-1 was ...
Microcirculation imaging is a key parameter for studying the pathophysiological processes of various disease conditions, in both clinical and fundamental research. A full-range spectral-domain correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cm-OCT) method to obtain a complex-conjugate-free, full-range depth-resolved microcirculation map is presented. The proposed system is based on a high-speed spectrometer at 91 kHz with a modified scanning protocol to achieve higher acquisition speed to render cm-OCT images with highspeed and wide scan range. The mirror image elimination is based on linear phase modulation of B-frames by introducing a slight off-set of the probe beam with respect to the lateral scanning fast mirrors pivot axis. An algorithm that exploits the Hilbert transform to obtain a complex-conjugate-free image in conjunction with the cm-OCT algorithm is used to obtain full-range imaging of microcirculation within tissue beds in vivo. The estimated sensitivity of the system was around ...
Adopting a multidisciplinary approach with input from physicists, researchers and medical professionals, this is the first book to introduce many different technical approaches for the visualization of microcirculation, including laser Doppler and laser speckle, optical coherence tomography and photo-acoustic tomography. It covers everything from basic research to medical applications, providing the technical details while also outlining the respective strengths and weaknesses of each imaging technique. Edited by an international team of top experts, this is the ultimate handbook for every clinician and researcher relying on microcirculation imaging.. ...
The microcirculation, involving the smallest vessels in the body, is where the oxygen transport to all tissue occurs. Evaluating microcirculatory parameters is, therefore, important and involves the quantification of oxygen content of red blood cells (RBCs), the amount of RBCs and their speed.. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can be used to estimate blood oxygen saturation and fraction of RBCs in tissue since oxygenated and deoxygenated blood have different light absorption characteristics. By illuminating the skin with white light and detecting the spectrum of the backscattered light, tissue absorption and scattering can be assessed. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a technique to measure blood flow in tissue. When laser light encounter moving objects in tissue, i.e. RBCs, the light is Doppler shifted, which can be detected and used to calculate tissue perfusion (the fraction of moving RBCs times their speed). With a small distance between light source and detector, both techniques ...
Enolase-phosphatase 1 (ENOPH1), a newly discovered enzyme of the methionine salvage pathway, is emerging as an important molecule regulating stress responses. In this study, we investigated the role of ENOPH1 in blood brain barrier (BBB) injury under ischemic conditions. Focal cerebral ischemia induced ENOPH1 mRNA and protein expression in ischemic hemispheric microvessels in rats. Exposure of cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEND3 cells) to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) also induced ENOPH1 upregulation, which was accompanied by increased cell death and apoptosis reflected by increased 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide formation, lactate dehydrogenase release and TUNEL staining. Knockdown of ENOPH1 expression with siRNA or overexpressing ENOPH1 with CRISPR-activated plasmids attenuated or potentiated OGD-induced endothelial cell death, respectively. Moreover, ENOPH1 knockdown or overexpression resulted in a significant reduction or augmentation of ROS
Background MEK1/2 is a serine/threonine protein that phosphorylates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cerebral ischemia results in enhanced expression of cerebrovascular contractile...
Aims: This study aims to assess vaginal wall angioarchitecture and function in women with vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and determine the effect of topical estrogen on the vaginal microcirculation. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, incident dark field imaging was used to assess the vaginal microcirculation. In patients with VVA, measurements were performed before and after treatment with topical estrogen and compared to measurements performed in women without VVA. Vaginal angioarchitecture was studied by assessing microcirculatory architecture and capillary tortuosity scores at four regions of the vaginal wall. In addition, the capillary density and microvascular flow index (MFI) were obtained. Results: Seventeen women were included in this study. Of these, eight women were diagnosed with VVA and nine women were considered healthy controls. Significant differences were observed between groups with regard to microcirculatory architecture scores. The architecture of the ...
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) is the first class of anti-diabetes treatment that reduces mortality and risk for hospitalization due to heart failure. In clinical studies it has been shown that SGLT2is promote a general shift to fasting state metabolism characterized by reduced body weight and blood glucose, increase in glucagon/insulin ratio and modest increase in blood ketone levels. Therefore, we investigated the connection between metabolic changes and cardiovascular function in the ob/ob-/- mice; a rodent model of early diabetes with specific focus on coronary microvascular function. Due to leptin deficiency these mice develop metabolic syndrome/diabetes and hepatic steatosis. They also develop cardiac contractile and microvascular dysfunction and are thus a promising model for translational studies of cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated whether this mouse model responded in a human-like manner to empagliflozin treatment in terms of metabolic ...
Instead of affects the arteries, coronary microvascular disease (MVD) affects the hearts smallest coronary arteries. according to findings from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institutes (NHLBI) Womens Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study, In women with this condition, called coronary microvascular syndrome, plaque accumulates in very small arteries of the heart, causing narrowing, reduced oxygen flow to the heart, and pain that can be similar to that of people with blocked arteries, but the plaque does not show up when physicians use standard tests. As a result, many women go undiagnosed ...
Background: The induction of microvascular inflammation and the effects on cytokine production in blood due to hypoxia has been shown in the past. We have previously reported a statistically significant increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) in normobaric hypoxia in the setting of a hypoxia-chamber. In the present study, we sought to analyze plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in a real-life stetting in order to foster our knowledge on hypoxia induced microvascular inflammation at moderate altitude. Read More ...
We report for the first time that diabetes increases FOXO1 mRNA levels and DNA binding activity in the retina. In addition, both type 1 and type 2 diabetic models exhibited increased FOXO1 nuclear translocation in retinal microvascular cells. These increases occurred in a time frame when increased inflammation, caspase-3-positive cells, and enhanced apoptosis are present (8-26 weeks). Moreover, TNF-mediated diabetes enhanced FOXO1 mRNA levels, DNA binding, and nuclear translocation. Thus, we propose that diabetes increases TNF-α, which enhances FOXO1 mRNA levels, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding in retinas of type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats.. The functional significance of FOXO1 was tested by RNAi. Intravitreal injection of FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced FOXO1 mRNA levels and FOXO1 nuclear translocation, while control-scrambled siRNA had no effect. The effect of FOXO1 knockdown by siRNA was evident 6 weeks after the second injection, indicating that silencing is effective for at least ...
Irrespective of its underlying aetiology, it has been hypothesised that TC could be characterised by a common pathophysiological pattern involving acute and reversible coronary microvascular dysfunction. The occurrence of the syndrome in postmenopausal women may support the hypothesis of stress-mediated vasoconstriction enhanced by estrogen depletion. In a recently published study, a perfusion defect was evident at myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) within the dysfunctional myocardial area. As opposed to a group of anterior STEMI control patients, the extent of perfusion defect was transiently reduced by the infusion of adenosine (that vasodilates constricted microvessels) and entirely resolved within a 1-month follow-up. The finding that microvascular defect promptly returned at baseline soon after adenosine challenge reveals the functional (vs anatomical) nature of microvascular dysfunction. Interestingly, the study has also reported a transient contractile recovery that paralleled the ...
ATCC hTERT immortalized dermal microvascular endothelial cells have an extended lifespan, express a panel of endothelial cell surface proteins, undergo tubule formation in culture and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells.
NEC is a major problem in neonatal intensive care units worldwide. However, prevention and treatment strategies remain inadequate and inconsistent across different centers due to the inability to precisely define NEC pathophysiology. Nonetheless, progress in the last decade defined the roles of premature regulation of intestinal microcirculation and locally produced inflammatory mediators such as PAF, IL-8, TNF-α, iNOS, and others as critical determinants of pathology (for review, see Ref. 39). An altered bacterial colonization pattern (40), the protective role of probiotics (41, 42, 43), occasional clustering of NEC in neonatal intensive care units (44), the observation that NEC does not occur in a sterile environment in utero, and the absence of NEC-like pathology in an acute NEC model in germfree rats (8) suggest that bacteria play a role in NEC pathogenesis, but underlying defects in host-pathogen interactions that might lead to NEC are unknown. Our present report elucidates the importance ...
Introduction The introduction of orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging in clinical research has elucidated new perspectives on the role of microcirculatory flow abnormalities in the pathogenesis of sepsis. region were obtained, processed and analysed in a standardised way. We validated intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility with kappa cross-tables for both types of microvascular beds. Results Agreement and kappa coefficients were >85% and >0.75, respectively, for interrater and intrarater variability in quantification of flow abnormalities during sepsis, in different subsets of microvascular architecture. Conclusion Semi-quantitative analysis of microcirculatory flow, as described, provides a reproducible and transparent tool in clinical research to monitor and evaluate ADX-47273 the microcirculation during sepsis. Introduction Recent clinical investigations have identified microcirculatory abnormalities as a key component of the pathogenesis of sepsis [1,2]. These new ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Exposure to harmful stimuli can render vascular endothelial cells dysfunctional, characterised by reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailibility. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a reversible precursor of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of ED could lead to clinical strategies in preventing/treating IHD. Very little is known about the responses of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) to pro-ED stimuli, as most studies are conducted on macrovascular endothelial cells. The current dissertation set out to comprehensively investigate the responses of cultured primary adult rat CMECs to known harmful stimuli, viz. hypoxia and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α; proinflammatory cytokine). We were interested to investigate whether this distinct endothelial cell type would develop classical features of ED, and if so, what the underlying mechanisms were. First we aimed to establish a baseline characterization of the CMECs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of trivalent arsenicals on cell proliferation in mouse and human microvascular endothelial cells. AU - Dodmane, Puttappa R.. AU - Arnold, Lora L. AU - Pennington, Karen L.. AU - Singh, Rakesh K. AU - Cardoso, Ana Paula Ferragut. AU - Cohen, Samuel Monroe. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been associated with cancerous and non-cancerous health effects, including cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanism for a presumed toxic effect of arsenic on vascular tissue is not clear. Our working hypothesis is that inorganic trivalent arsenic and its methylated metabolites react with cysteine-containing cellular proteins and alter their function leading to adverse events such as cytotoxicity or proliferation. In this study, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC1) and mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MFP-MVEC) were exposed to arsenite (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), or dimethylarsinous acid ...
Background: Coronary spastic angina (CSA) is characterized by transient vasoconstriction of epicardial coronary arteries leading to myocardial ischemia. There have been several studies of coronary microvascular function in patients with CSA, but it is not yet clear whether coronary microvascular function is impaired. We investigated this relationship in the present study.. Methods: Thirty-four patients with CSA (28 men, mean age 58 years) were enrolled. CSA was defined as ,90% narrowing of the epicardial coronary arteries on the angiogram during a spasm provocation test with ergotamine maleate, accompanied by characteristic chest pain and/or ST-segment deviation on ECG. Thirty-six patients with a negative spasm provocation test matched for age and gender were enrolled in the control group. Before the spasm provocation test, acetylcholine (ACh) at a low dose (3 μg/min) was infused into the left coronary ostium for 2 min. Coronary blood flow (CBF) was calculated from quantitative angiography and ...
AIMS: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the optimal treatment for patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). An elevated index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) reflects microvascular function and when measured after PPCI, it can predict an adverse clinical outcome. We measured coronary microvascular function in STEMI patients and compared sequential changes before and after stent implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 85 STEMI patients, fractional flow reserve, coronary flow reserve, and IMR were measured using a pressure wire (Certus, St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA) immediately before and after stent implantation. Stenting significantly improved all of the measured parameters of coronary physiology including IMR from 67.7 [interquartile range (IQR): 56.2-95.8] to 36.7 (IQR: 22.7-59.5), P | 0.001. However, after stenting, IMR remained elevated (|40) in 28 (32.9%) patients. In 15 of these patients (17.6% of the cohort), only a partial reduction in IMR
Request (PDF) | Acute Normovolemic H... | The authors investigated the impact of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) on intrarenal oxygenation and its functional short-term consequences in pigs. Renal microvascular oxygenation (µPO2) was measured in cortex, outer and inner medulla via three implanted optical fibers by oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence. Besides systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression were determined. ANH was performed in n = 18 pigs with either colloids (hydroxyethyl starch 6% 130/0.4) or crystalloids (full electrolyte solution), in three steps from a hematocrit of 30% at baseline to a hematocrit of 15% (H3). ANH with crystalloids decreased µPO2 in cortex and outer medulla approximately by 65% (P | 0.05) and in inner medulla by 30% (P | 0.05) from baseline to H3. In contrast, µPO2 remained unaltered during ANH with colloids. Furthermore, renal function decreased by approximately 45% from baseline to H3 (P | 0.05)
Abbreviations: BLMEC, bovine lung microvascular endothelial cell; DUSP, dual-specificity phosphatase; E, embryonic day; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; ERK, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase; FGF2, fibroblast growth factor 2; HDMEC, human dermal microvascular endothelial cell; HUVEC, human umbilical vein endothelial cell; KLF, Krüppel-like factor; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MAPKK, MAPK kinase; MAPKKK, MAPKK kinase; MEF, myocyte enhancer factor; MEK, MAPK/ERK kinase; MEKK, MEK kinase; MKP, MAPK phosphatase; NF-κB, nuclear factor κB; NLS, nuclear localization signal; NRF2, nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2; PKB, protein kinase B; RSK, ribosomal S6 kinase; SGK, serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor α; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor ...