This work describes the development of structured aluminum-anodized alumina microreactors that exhibit high catalytic activity for the decomposition of anhydrous ammonia to nitrogen and hydrogen at moderate temperatures. Experiments involving reactor fabrication methods and optimizations of reactor catalyst support were performed. Correlations for the prediction of catalytic activity of possible catalyst metals for use in the reactor were also tested experimentally. Modifications such as adjustments to the geometry of the microreactor features, surface area enhancement of the anodized catalyst support, choice of Ru precursor, and application of a catalyst promoter are each shown to affect the reactor performance to varying degrees. Microreactors of this type have potential uses for a variety of small-scale heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, especially in mobile applications where monolithic structures are advantageous. The best-performing microreactor converts approximately 99% of ammonia at ...
The three-dimensional (3D) microstuructural evolution in a Pb-free solder system undergoing accelerated electromigration (EM) testing is characterized using a custom, lab-scale, cone-beam, micro x-ray computed tomography (μXCT) instrument. A micro-scale Sn-0.7Cu butt -joint was subjected to a current density of 104A/cm2 at 100°C. The experimentation was enabled by the design of a miniature fixture for in situ imaging under accelerating EM testing conditions. The fixture is friendly to surface imaging and μXCT scanning. The migrating species, copper and tin, are observed volumetrically through substrate dissolution, solder build-up, and the formation of reaction products in the solder joint by μXCT imaging. The migration of the copper substrate and the formation of copper-tin reaction products is quantified ...
AN IMPROVED MICROMETHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ACETAMINOPHEN IN PLASMA BY VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY: APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY IN RABBITS
1. A very easy fluorescent micromethod is described to measure leukocyte N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminidase in human leukocytes. The method presents the following advantages: possibility to measure low activity due to prolonged linearity, very moderate consumption of substrate, use of total homogenate without the need for protein removal by precipitation after the enzyme reaction, and minimal handling after the addition of the stopping reagent. 2. A number of enzyme characteristics as linearity (up to 16 hr), pH optimum (4), thermoresistance at different temperatures (up to 24 hr at room temperature) and at different pH values (no differences between 3-8) and solubilization by digitonine and Triton X-100 were deter-mined. The characteristics (acid pH optimum, binding to Concanavaline A and stability for prolonged time at 0 and 23-degrees-C) are in agreement with the known properties of most lyosomal enzymes. 3. The specific activity of the enzyme is very low and an unexplained low latency (about ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Application of the modified Folin and Malmros micromethod to the determination of galactose in blood and urine, of urine glucose and lactose in a womans milk]. by Padilha D Licois T Gidenne B Carré G Fonty
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Tromexan and marcoumar in anticoagulant therapy; micromethod for determination of prothrombin-proconvertin activity]. by Torbjørn Iversen
Seegenes innovative real-time PCR method, READ™ (REal Amplicon Detection), is a powerful technology that overcomes the limitations of conventional real-time PCR. READ™ is totally different from current probe- (TaqMan, Molecular Beacon, etc.) and primer-based (Scorpion, LUX, Sunrise, etc.) real-time PCR methods, and opens new opportunities for highly effective pathogen detection. The Magicplex™ System is a two step process system based on READ™ technology that amplifies multiple target genes and then selectively detects the amplicons on a real-time PCR platform. The system provides maximum sensitivity and specificity by detecting the amplicons produced by the first amplification step. This unique process overcomes the limitations of conventional PCR and real-time PCR testing methods, such as low specificity and sensitivity, limited multiplexity, high re-test rates, long processing cycles and narrow range of applicable specimens for testing ...
The fully integrated cartridge contains all reagents on board and is designed to receive an unprocessed clinical specimen. The cartridge is then inserted into the reader instrument which then completes the three-stage process of sample preparation, DNA amplification and electrochemical detection. Each cartridge can carry out up to 24 different tests from a single patient sample. This new companion diagnostic collaboration is the first outside of infectious disease ...
The test and assays described are the official methods upon which the standards of the Pharmacopoeia are based. With the agreement of the competent authority, alternative methods of analysis may be used for control purposes, provided that the methods used enable an unequivocal decision to be made as to whether compliance with the standards of the monographs would be achieved if the official methods were used. In the event of doubt or dispute, the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative ...
Dangers of Diarrhoea. Children are at higher risk of contracting diarrhoea than adults due to their underdeveloped immune systems and they are likely to be affected for longer periods. In the Western world, most cases are easily treated but it is a different story in developing countries, where infection rates are higher and death is a common outcome.. Acute diarrhoea is generally caused by bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and one of the key bacteria is diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, which can enter the body via contaminated food. However, it is not simply one strain that is responsible. In foods, four main categories can cause diarrhoea: enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohemorraghic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) E. coli.. Each of these categories contains similar but individual DNA, which proved a blessing for a team of Chinese scientists who have exploited the differences in a novel detection method. Lichun Cui from the Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, ...
In order to generate physiologically relevant in vitro tissue models, we use three dimensional cell cultures of stem cells and/or their differentiated progeny to develop platforms for pharmaceutical testing and models to recapitulate tissue development, tissue homeostasis, and disease progression.. Pharmaceutical Applications - Three dimensional models of human tissue can provide a platform for pharmacological screening that more closely predicts drug toxicity and other unwanted side effects than is currently possible with traditional 2D cell culture or with animal models. By understanding the interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix, the cross-talk between different types of cells, or the influence of morphogenic factors, we can develop methods to control these factors and build models that closely recapitulate native tissues. We are currently working toward generating functional 3D models of a variety of tissues including bone, cartilage, heart, and liver. Disease States - In ...
When DNA is used as the starting template, nanogram amounts of cloned template, up to microgram amounts of genomic DNA, or up to 20,000 target copies can be a good starting point for optimization. However, even very low levels of sample (i.e., mRNA from tens of cells, DNA from single cells or individual viral genomes) may be sufficient for PCR amplification ...
The MICROCHEMISTRY LAB is an Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB) - FORTHs facility Lab, unique of this kind in Greece, since 1988...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Squeeze play: Pressurized microreactor systems greatly expand the range of reaction conditions and accelerate gas-liquid mass transfer. Heck aminocarbonylation reactions (see scheme) exemplify the potential for the quick and safe scanning of reagents and reaction conditions. The yield of amide increases with an increase in temperature and the selectivity for α-ketoamide production (n=2) increases at lower temperature and higher pressure. ...
ISSNs: 1473-0197. Additional searchable ISSN (Electronic): 1473-0189. Royal Society of Chemistry, United Kingdom. BFI (2018): BFI-level 1, Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 5.98 SJR 2.147 SNIP 1.611, ISI indexed (2013): ISI indexed yes, Web of Science (2018): Indexed yes. Central database. Journal ...
Effective antileukemic agents are available for most forms of adult leukemia. Response frequency is low and time to remission, long. Progression of disease to death occurs in many patients before sequential therapeutic trials in search of an effective agent can be completed. Drug transport into cells, metabolism to active or inactive forms, the presence of target enzymes, and net effects on nucleic acid synthesis in the malignant cell may all be involved in the induction of a clinical remission. Isotopic micromethods have been developed in this laboratory for the measurement of the target enzymes for methotrexate (MTX) and 5-fluorouracil (FU), ...
Introduction Microfluidic is a discipline with roots going back to the 50s, in a form that resembles in no way the discipline that exists today. With the development of computers came the development of micro-chips, and thus the ability to print micro-channels on electronic chips. Around 1980-1990, biologists and chemists began working at a micro-scale […]. ...
Researchers found a way to make micro-scale, liquid-metal particles that can be used for heat-free soldering plus the fabricating, repairing and processing of metals - all at room temperature.
Open Techniques for the Study of Proteins at Interfaces32. High-Throughput Study of Protein-Surface Interactions losing a SurfacePlasmon Resonance Imaging Apparatus Yusuke Arima, Rika Ishii, Isao Hirata, and Hiroo Iwata33. discovering Protein Association with Nano- and Micro-Scale Structures withToF-SIMSIvan M. Kempson, Yeukuang Hwu, and Clive A. Soft neuroscience Spectromicroscopy of Protein Interactions faced Polymer Surfaces Adam P. Brash, Andreas Scholl, twentieth Doran35.
The A. explores some of the roots of childrens geographies preoccupation with the micro-scale and argues that it limits the relevance of research, both politically and to other areas of geography. The A. proposes that the notion of a flat ontology might help overcome some difficulties around scalar thinking and provide means of conceptualizing sociospatiality in material and non-hierarchical terms. It is important to examine the nature and limits of childrens spaces of perception and action ...
The unseen world, both living and non-living, at the micro-scale and the nano-scale has inordinate importance for health and disease and is only made visible in...
A cationic fluorescent dye which specifically binds to adenine-thymine-rich DNA. Applications include detection of nanogram quantities of DNA in cellular homogenates, and cytofluorometric determination of the DNA base content in human chromosomes. Available in bulk quantities for OEM users at significant savings.. λ max 342nm. 了解更多 ...
Receipts - You know how most modern receipts have a really smooth texture? That slick coating usually contains (you guessed it) BPA. And its no trivial nanogram quantity - were talking sizeable amounts that can pass into your skin or consumed when you eat. Studies on exactly how much ends up in the body are forthcoming, but at least this one is easy to avoid: just say no to receipts. (source) I often wash my hands right after handling receipts. As a woman I am already hormonal enough. ...
An electrospraying apparatus and/or method is used to coat particles. For example, a flow including at least one liquid suspension may be provided through at least one opening at a spray dispenser end. The flow includes at least particles and a coating material. A spray of microdroplets suspending at least the particles is established forward of the spray dispenser end by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the spray dispenser end and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom. The particles are coated with at least a portion of the coating material as the microdroplet evaporates. For example, the suspension may include biological material particles.
Flow chemistry specialist Uniqsis, based in Cambridge, UK, and Boston, MA, USA, supplies FlowSyn continuous flow reactors (also known as plug flow reactors, micro flow reactors or microreactors) for pharma and scale up chemistry applications
There are 454 ten-letter words containing A, C, M, O and R: ACETOMETER ACHROMATIC ACHROMATIN ... ULTRAMICRO UNROMANTIC VARICOTOMY. Every word on this site can be played in scrabble. Create other lists, starting with or ending with letters of your choice.
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TY - GEN. T1 - Effect of particle size on densification of copper powder during electric-field activated sintering for micro-scale forming. AU - Huang, Kunlan. AU - Qin, Yi. AU - Yang, Yi. PY - 2014/9/9. Y1 - 2014/9/9. N2 - A novel Micro-forming technology, called electric-field activated sintering for micro-scale forming (Micro-FAST), was introduced for the forming of micro-components. The effect of particle size on densification is revealed for copper powder being sintered under the influence from electrical field and force-field during forming of micro-components. Three kinds of copper powders of different particle sizes ((i) average particle size of 0.5μm; (ii) average particle size of 30μm and (iii) the mixture powders with 20% weight of 30μm and 80% weight of 0.5μm) with no binder were used for the experiments. The results show that the density of the compact sintered with mixed copper powders is the largest due to more volume of liquid phase was formed in the particles contacts. The ...
This study applied time lapse (4D) synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SRXCT) to observe micro-scale interactions between plant roots and soil. Functionally contrasting maize root tips were repeatedly imaged during ingress into soil columns of varying water content and compaction. This yielded sequences of 3D densiometric data, representing time -resolved geometric soil and root configurations at the micron-scale. These data were used as inputs for two full-field kinematic quantification methods, which enabled the analysis of 3D soil deformation around elongating roots. Discrete object tracking was used to track rigid mineral grains, whilst continuum Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) was used to track grey-level patterns within local sub-volumes. These techniques both allowed full-field soil displacements to be quantified at an intra-rhizosphere spatial sampling scale of ,300 µm. Significant differences in deformation mechanisms were identified around different phenotypes under different soil ...
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about MICRO-SCALE MANIPULATION. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
Modular tissue engineering involves the construction of large (macro-scale) tissue structures from smaller (micro-scale) tissue units or modules. The field has the potential to solve various cell-density related challenges associated with traditional tissue engineering. Previous studies have demonstrated the value of vascularization enhancing strategies as a necessary component in bone defect regeneration. In this study, we investigated the fabrication of macro-scale, bone-like constructs by fusion of micro-scale modular units composed of natural polyelectrolyte polymers, hydroxyapatite (HAP) granules, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The micro-scale modules were formed by complex coacervation whereby an ionic reaction between chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) and chitosan produced an insoluble polyelectrolyte membrane. Briefly, a C4S solution with suspended MSCs and HAP granules was extruded as 400 micron diameter droplets and collected into stirred chitosan solution. The insoluble polyelectrolyte ...
Theurillat, Regula; Sandbaumhüter, Friederike A; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang (2016). Microassay for ketamine and metabolites in plasma and serum based on enantioselective capillary electrophoresis with highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin and electrokinetic analyte injection. Electrophoresis, 37(9):1129-1138. ...
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Proteoglycan (PG) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) samples corresponding to a minimum of 10 ng of uronic acid were reliably quantified as precipitates with the cationic dye Safranin O, collected by vacuum-aided filtration onto a cellulose acetate/nitrate membrane in a standard 96-well dot assay apparatus. The reflectances of the precipitation dots were measured by automatic densitometric scanning of the membrane sheets. Standard GAGs produced reflectance values which were related to the number of anionic groups per unit disaccharide; hyaluronate and keratan sulfate gave lower values while heparin yielded values higher than those of chondroitin sulfates. The presence of 8 m urea, 1% Triton X-100, 30% sucrose, 0.02% NaN3, or mixtures of proteinase inhibitors and various buffers did not markedly influence the reflectances, while 4 m guanidinium chloride and 3 m CsCl reduced the sensitivity of the assay to 30-50 ng. Samples containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were not applicable because SDS ...
The PerkinElmer GC Ultramicro Volume Syringe: Capacity 1.0 µL, Needle Gauge 23 (1/Pack) is individually inspected for accuracy and performance.
BioAssay record AID 190228 submitted by ChEMBL: Effect of compound was measured on serum alpha-lipoprotein in male Dawley rats at the dose of 0.4 mmol/kg (day-1)..
Proteome profiling offers new levels of information about cellular identity and regulation that can be missed with genomics or transcriptomics alone. The generation of genome-wide protein measurements, however, is often limited by the amount of input needed for deep and high-quality proteomic profiling. Here, we show improved sample preparation strategies for MS-based proteomic analysis of low cellular inputs from FAC-sorted cells. Using these low input proteomics methods, we were able to quantify over 7000 protein groups analyzing half of the 300,000 freshly isolated mouse immune cell-type collected directly from FACS.. The sensitivity of our low input methodology derives from a combination of three main improvements: fabrication of collection microreactors for easy cell collection and digestion; on-column TMT labeling coupled with desalting for faster and more efficient peptide labeling; and optimized small-scale fractionation of TMT-labeled peptides. The microreactors provided a versatile ...
The kinetic parameters of a reaction, know to follow a Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism with alcohol inhibition, were determined on micro and bench scale. The effect of temperature on activity and denaturation was also investigated.. Lipase B from Candida antarctica was used to catalyze the esterification of 1-butanol and propionic acid in a water/decane two phase system. On bench scale this was done by end-over-end rotation. On micro scale, a 1.18 m long micro channel with a cross section of 40 x 85 µm facilitated residence times from 45 seconds to 10 minutes. The initial enzyme activity at different substrate concentrations was determined by measuring the ester concentration (product) over time.. The kinetic parameters of this reaction were determined on both scales and showed no significant differences. Parity plots of experimental versus model results are shown in figure 3. The activation energies of activation and denaturation were determined on bench scale and then applied on micro scale. ...
Benetti, E.M., Sui, X., Zapotoczny, S., Vancso, G.J. Surface-Grafted Gel-Brush/Metal Nanoparticle Hybrids, Adv. Funct. Mater.,20, 939 - 944 (2010). Chen, Q., Schönherr, H., Vancso, G.J. Encapsulation and Release of Molecular Cargos via Temperature-Induced Vesicle-To-Micelle Transitions,Small, 23, 2762 - 2768 (2010). Chen, Q., Rausch, K.G., Schönherr, H., Vancso, G.J. a-Chymotrypsin-Catalyzed Reaction Confined in Block-Copolymer Vesicles, Chemphyschem, 11, 3534 - 3540 (2010). Costantini, F., Benetti, Reinhoudt, D.N., Huskens, J., Vancso, G.J., Verboom, W. Enzyme-functionalized polymer brush films on the inner wall of silicon-glass microreactors with tunable biocatalytic activity, Lab on a Chip, 10,3407 - 3412 (2010). Costantini, F., Benetti, E.M., Tiggelaar, R.M., Gardeniers, H.J.G.E., Reinhoudt, D.N., Huskens, J.,Vancso, G.J., Verboom, W. A Brush-Gel/Metal Nanoparticle Hybrid Film as an Efficient Supported Catalyst in Glass Microreactors, Chem. Eur.J., 16,12406 - 12411 (2010). Dorokhin, D., ...
A two-stage microreactor continuous flow system allows the handling organic azides safely in small hold-up volumes with immediate conversion in the 2nd microreactor. In the 1st microreactor the azide intermediate is formed by nucleophilic substitution.1 The azide intermediate is submitted to Staudinger hydration with triphenylphosphine in a subsequent 2nd microreactor. Notably, it is possible to work with biphasic systems in microreactors. A phase transfer catalyst moderates the initial reaction with efficient mixing by the microreactor. Production capacity of o-Xylylenediamine (711462) in two subsequent glass microreactors exceeds 1 kg per day with an overall yield of 60%. Work-up and isolation of the potentially hazardous intermediate is completely avoided between reaction steps, saving time, money and offering scale-independent safety levels. back to top ...
El desarrollo de nuevos procedimientos analíticos e instrumentación automáticos para la monitorización de parámetros (bio)químicos, tales como los que afectan a la calidad del agua, es de especial importancia debido a las graves consecuencias que puede tener el uso o consumo de un agua (bio)químicamente contaminada. Los microsistemas de análisis total o dispositivos Lab-On-a-Chip son cada vez más empleados con este propósito debido a la gran integración y automatización que ofrecen estos dispositivos, a través de la miniaturización, y a la posibilidad de realizar medidas in situ. Por otro lado, el uso de nanopartículas con fines analíticos ha demostrado mejorar la sensibilidad y límites de detección de métodos ópticos. Así, esta tesis se centra en el desarrollo de microsistemas analíticos automatizados que llevan a cabo análisis colorimétricos o fluorimétricos, basados en el uso de nanopartículas como marcadores ópticos, para la rápida detección de analitos o ...
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Microarrays have revolutionized many areas of biology due to our technical ability to quantify tens of thousands of transcripts within a single experiment. However, there are still many areas that cannot benefit from this technology due to the amount of biological material needed for microarray analysis. In response to this demand, chemistries have been developed that boast the capability of generating targets from nanogram amounts of total RnA, reflecting minimal amounts of biological material, on the order of several hundred or thousand cells. Herein, we describe the evaluation of four chemistries for RnA amplification in terms of reproducibility, sensitivity, accuracy, and comparability to results from a single round of T7 amplification. No evidence for false-positive measurements of differential expression was observed. In contrast, clear differences between chemistries in sensitivity and accuracy were detected. PCR validation showed an interaction of probe sequence on the array and target ...
By transporting stem cell clusters through a micro-scale, spiral-shaped device, researchers can safely isolate single stem cells.
Nano-scale or micro-scale adhesive structures comprising an array of nano-fabricated, pillars, the pillars having coated upon, or having disposed on a working surface thereof, a protein-mimetic, marine-adhesive coating. Methods of fabricating the nano-scale pillars, synthesis of the protein-mimetic coating or wet adhesive and application of the adhesive to the pillars are described.
At the micro-scale the brain is a mess; a thick tangle of nerve cells connected at synapses. Mapping just a tiny portion of this mess, a few hundred cells, is a
New research has produced the first micro-scale, in-situ, real-time observations of structural changes within alloys when under extremely high temperatures and stress.
The TargetAmp 2-round biotin-aRNA amplification kit 3.0 from Epicentre Biotechnologies produces microgram amounts of biotin-aRNA (cRNA) from as little
The essential nutrient selenium is required in microgram amounts [recommended dietary allowance (RDA) = 55 μg/day, 699 nmol/day] and has a narrow margin of safety (upper tolerable intake...
Optimizing current chemical processes alone does not yield the improvements required in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. At least partially, a switch from batch to continuous manufacturing is needed. Cost-, time-, and atom-efficient routes frequently demand the application of high temperatures, pressures, and concentrations, and/or the use of highly reactive reagents. These chemistries often cannot be employed in conventional reactors. Costly and long alternative synthetic routes are chosen instead. The application of continuous-flow microreactors allows to access harsh or hazardous reaction conditions and, furthermore, enables entirely new transformations. ...
Flow chemistry specialist Uniqsis, based in Cambridge, UK, and Boston, MA, USA, supplies FlowSyn continuous flow reactors (also known as plug flow reactors, micro flow reactors or microreactors) for pharma and scale up chemistry applications
Using a Syrris flow system and glass microreactors, researchers at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences and SINTEF Materials and Chemistry have demonstrated a novel method for the dibromo-cyclopropanation of alkenes via a continuous two-phase method.. Gem-Dibromocyclopropanes are versatile intermediates in the synthesis of many natural products and are usually prepared via a two-phased catalyzed dihalocyclopropanation of alkenes.. The introduction of two immiscible phases into a microreactor generates a large specific interface area with two distinct, alternating phases. The mass transfer within a microreactor is further increased by the internal circulation within the alternating slugs. Reactions of this type carried out under flow conditions contribute not only to increased mass transfer but increased rates and better selectivity.. Using this methodology the group obtained gem-dibromo-cyclopropanes in good to excellent yields in less time than the equivalent batch reaction across a ...
The MicroChem Kit for Kids includes 17 lessons & experiments to teach students microchemistry concepts & laws. Chemicals, goggles & manual included. Ages 12+.