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Microbiology and Immun (Sci) : An introduction to the composition and structure of microbial cells, the biochemical activities associated with cellular metabolism and how these activities are regulated and coordinated. The course will have a molecular and genetic approach to the study of microbial physiology. Terms: Fall 2021 Instructors: Cousineau, Benoit; Marczynski, Gregory T; Turcotte, Bernard (Fall) ...
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The last few decades have seen the rise of molecular microbial techniques that allow determining the abundance of microbial players in their natural habitats, their coincidence and their relationships with environmental conditions. These techniques have also provided critical insights in the phylogeny and functional potentials of micro-organisms. Moreover, they contributed new bioinformatics tools to describe the genetic and functional composition of microbial communities However, this information has so far hardly be coupled to microbial physiological principles, which will be essential to provide quantitative, system-level understanding of biogeochemical processes. Microbes play a critical role in driving and modulating biogeochemical processes and many of the ecosystem services delivered by microbes relate to this role. Already half a century ago, Monod and Pirt derived equations to quantitatively describe microbial growth and the rates of microbial biogeochemical conversions of elements.
Volume 61, no. 3, p. 305-318: Because the issues of cells regulating their levels of enzymes were left for a subsequent review, key work from the laboratory of Ferenci (T. Ferenci, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 18:301-317, 1996; L. Notley-McRobb, A. Death, and T. Ferenci, Microbiology 143:1909-1918, 1997) was omitted.. Page 310, column 2, lines 21 to 6 from the bottom: A two-component system regulating uptake and growth has already been described (J. W. Lengeler, Antonie Leeuwenhoek 63:275-288, 1993).. Page 311, column 1, lines 10 to 13: Reference 75 discusses a straightforward kinetic model; the cybernetic model is discussed by the same authors in Chem. Eng. Sci. 52:2567-2578, 1997.. ...
Work in my laboratory is focussed on microbial physiology - the study of how bacteria and other microorganisms work. Although rooted in the tradition of bacterial growth and intermediary metabolism, microbial physiology now embraces molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, and indeed any discipline that can shed light on bacterial function. Much of our experimental work is conducted with Escherichia coli, the pre-eminent model organism with unrivalled ease of genetic and physiological ...
73, 6181-6191. , Sivan, A. and Kushmaro, A. (2008) Global distribution and diversity of coral-associated Archaea and their possible role in the coral holobiont nitrogen cycle. Environ. Microbiol. 10, 2979-2990. A. M. (2000) Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots. Environ. Microbiol. 2, 495-505. , Wagner, M. and Schleper, C. (2010) Distinct gene set in two different lineages of ammonia-oxidizing archaea supports the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Trends Microbiol. 18, 331-340. , Wagner, M. W. (2008) Diversity and mode of transmission of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in marine sponges. In order to establish infection, resist host defences and re-emerge, Mtb must coordinate its metabolism with the in vivo environmental conditions and nutrient availability within the primary site of infection, the lung. Maintaining metabolic homeostasis for an intracellular pathogen such as Mtb requires a carefully orchestrated series of oxidation-reduction reactions, which, if unbalanced, generate oxidative or ...
Examines bacterial physiology, including discussions of energetics, regulation of metabolism, and cell structure. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite: MCB 300 or equivalent; credit or concurrent registration in a biochemistry course.
Kimura S, Koenig D, Kang J, Yoong FY, Sinha N (2008) Natural variation in leaf morphology results from mutation of a novel KNOX gene. Curr Biol 18(9):672-677 67. Kim M, Pham T, Hamidi A, McCormick S, Kuzoff RK, Sinha N (2003) Reduced leaf complexity in tomato wiry mutants suggests a role for PHAN and KNOX genes in generating compound leaves. Development 130:4405-4415 68. Clayberg CD, Butler L, Kerr EA, Rick CM, Robinson RW (1966) Third list of known genes in the tomato. J Hered 57:189-196 69. Avivi Y, Lev-Yadun S, Morozova N, Libs L, Williams L, Zhao J, Varghese G, Grafi G (2000) Clausa, a tomato mutant with a wide range of phenotypic perturbations, displays a cell type-dependent expression of the homeobox gene LeT6/TKn2. Patens gametophore epidermal cells, namely basal and mid-stem rhizoid, and auxin induces their development (17). The PpHB7 gene (encoding a homeodomain-leucine zipper I transcription factor) is required for rhizoids late differentiation steps, but not for their determination. ...
Schorsch M, Kramer K, Goss T, Eisenhut M, Robinson N, Osman D, Wilde A, Sadaf S, Brückler H, Walder L, Scheibe R, Hase T, Hanke G (2018) A unique ferredoxin acts as a novel player in the low iron response of photosynthetic organisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (in press). Balevičius V, Fox K, Bricker W, Jurinovich S, Prandi I, Mennucci B, Duffy C (2017). Fine control of chlorophyll-carotenoid interactions defines the functionality of light-harvesting proteins in plants. Scientific Reports. Sacharz J, Giovagnetti V, Ungerer P, Mastrioanni G, Ruban A (2017). The xanthophyll cycle affects reversible PsbS-LHCII interactions to control non-photochemical quenching. Nature Plants. Engl C, Schaefer J, Kotta-Loizou I, Buck M (2016). Cellular and molecular phenotypes depending upon the RNA repair system RtcAB in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Research. Schuergers N, Lenn T, Kampmann R, Meissner M, Esteves T, Temerinac-Ott M, Korvink J, Lowe A, Mullineaux C, Wilde A (2016). ...
Course format: Laboratory (1:25P-5:00P, MW, JH A402) with discussions at the beginning and/or end of labs (TBA in JH 248.) Requirements: C341, L113, M250, M255 or consent of the instructor. Course description: This course will provide an overview of key microbial genetic and biochemical concepts, which are used in today s academic and industrial research settings. Students will become familiar with several methods of gene expression and protein purification, as well as mutagenesis and identification of mutants, characterization of enzymatic activity, and the chemical basis for microbial communication. Required text: Fundamental Lab Approaches for Biochemistry and Biotechnology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998. Weekly assignments: TBA Exams/papers: TBA ...
El Aidy, S., Stilling, R., Dinan, T. G., & Cryan, J. F. (2016). Microbiome to brain:: Unravelling the multidirectional axes of communication. In M. Lyte (Ed.), Microbial Endocrinology: Interkingdom Signalling in Infectious Diseases and Health (2 ed., Vol. 874, pp. 301-336). (Advances in Experimental Medical Biology; Vol. 874). Springer ...
A range of hosts was used for functional recombinant protein production. E. coli is one of the preferred hosts of choice for the preparation of therapeutic proteins because of its simplicity, fast growth, and low-cost fermentation process [15, 16]. The soluble expression of functional HSA in E. coli is the major difficulty for investigators. In earlier attempts, rHSA was expressed in E. coli but the majority of the protein expressed is insoluble, in the form of inclusion bodies [17, 18]. It is known that the majority of the overexpressed proteins that have hydrophobic patches, undergo post-translational modifications or have disulfide bonds are primarily at the risk to form such amorphous aggregates [21]. HSA is a large multidomain disulfide-rich protein and it is often difficult for a disulfide bond rich protein to fold in its functional form under the normal reducing physiological environment of the E. coli cells.. In the present study, we have targeted and eventually resolved the prime ...
Expertise Areas: Microbiology; microbial ecology; microbial physiology; chemical detoxification; remediation; human microbiome; see Roanemicrobiology.weebly.com for more information. As a member of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, I mentor Indigenous students and am the faculty sponsor for the CU Denver AISES student group (AISES: American Indian Science and Engineering
The increased availability of genomic and metagenomic data poses challenges at multiple analysis levels, including visualization of very large-scale microbial and microbial community data paired with rich metadata. We developed GraPhlAn (Graphical Phylogenetic Analysis), a computational tool that produces high-quality, compact visualizations of microbial genomes and metagenomes. This includes phylogenies spanning up to thousands of taxa, annotated with metadata ranging from microbial community abundances to microbial physiology or host and environmental phenotypes. GraPhlAn has been developed as an open-source command-driven tool in order to be easily integrated into complex, publication-quality bioinformatics pipelines. It can be executed either locally or through an online Galaxy web application. We present several examples including taxonomic and phylogenetic visualization of microbial communities, metabolic functions, and biomarker discovery that illustrate GraPhlAns potential for modern microbial
You will be will introduced to microbiology as an applied science. You will also explore principles within biochemistry and will be introduced to basic biochemical concepts. Through data analysis you will gain confidence in the use of general mathematical techniques. Through the biology of disease module you will explore the fundamental concepts of aetiology, pathology and epidemiology. You will learn basic skills required to work in a microbiology laboratory. You will also study parasites in human diseases.. The second year develops your knowledge further. You will be introduced to industrial microbiology enabling you to identify microbiological mediated industrial problems. You will also look at the theoretical and practical microbial physiology with particular reference to ecology, immunology and metabolism. You will also look at the methods, benefits and potential hazards of genetic engineering. You will gain insight into the diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. The work-based learning ...
Meet Global Microbiologists and Physiologists from USA (America), Europe, Middle East and Asia pacific at Microbial Physiology Conferences, Microbiology Conferences, and Genomics Conferences happening from July 16-18, 2018 London, UK
In the post-genomic era microbial physiology and biochemistry are of paramount importance and this module will provide theoretical training in the processes involved in microbial growth and its measurement and control. The content will emphasise the immense diversity of environments that microbes inhabit and how this unlimited source of biological activity can be exploited for biotechnological purposes including specific examples of industrial bioprocesses. Although the emphasis is on the positive benefits of microorganisms, the potential for misuse of microbial biotechnology will also be discussed. ...
I studied Biochemistry at the Technical University of Hannover, Germany graduating with a MSc in Biochemistry in 1989. Subsequently, I obtained my PhD at the same university in 1993. After five years of postdoctoral research at the Medical School of Hannover and the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, I was appointed Junior Research Group Leader at the Helmholtz Institute for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany in 1998. In 2002, I gained a position as an Associate Professor in Molecular Microbiology at the KI obtaining a 5 year Elitforskartjänst. In 2012, I obtained the position as a Professor in Medical Microbial Physiology at Karolinska Institutet. The major focus of my research is on regulation of biofilm formation in microorganisms, biofilm composition and interaction of biofilms in different environments. I am interested in basic research as well as the clinical and environmental aspects. In addition, we are interested in persistence mechanisms of world-wide spread of Pseudomonas
Olaofe O.A., Fenner C.J., Gudiminchi R.K., Smit M.S. and Harrison S.T.L. (2013). The influence of microbial physiology on biocatalyst activity and efficiency in the terminal hydroxylation of n-octane using Escherichia coli expressing the alkane hydroxylase, CYP153A6. Microbial Cell Factories, 12(1), 8. Doi: 10.1186/1475-2859-12-8. [Impact factor 3.306 ...
Bacteriology, Biodiversity, Molecular biology, Water quality, DNA cloning, DNA libraries, DNA sequencing, Environmental chemistry, Acid sulfate soils, Acidification, Anaerobic microbiology, Anaerobic treatment, Metabolism, Microbial diversity, Microbial physiology, Microscopy, Sulfate reduction, ...
Microbial nutrition is that aspect of microbial physiology ... Table 1: Nutritional Categories of Microorganisms .... 1: A typical growth curve of a bacterial culture. ..... culture volume, cell number and concentration of nutrients remain constant.... ...
Meet Global Microbiologists and Physiologists from USA (America), Europe, Middle East and Asia pacific at Microbial Physiology Conferences, Microbiology Conferences, and Genomics Conferences happening from July 16-18, 2018 London, UK
The objective of this research project was to further develop a software system called BESS (Biodegradation Evaluation and Simulation System), which can predict the biodegradability of a compound based on the structural features of that compound and the prevailing environmental conditions. The approach pursued in the development of BESS is based on the iterative use of plausible enzymatic transformations that are hierarchically organized based on knowledge of microbial physiology and ecology. This organization reduces the potentially large number of enzymatic transformations that could apply to a compound, making the approach computationally feasible. Further, only those enzymatic transformations that are most likely to provide anabolic intermediates or energy to microorganisms and thus have evolved through processes of natural selection are used. This further reduces the complexity. BESS employs a fundamentally different approach to the prediction of whether a given chemical will undergo ...
Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat
I obtained my PhD in 1989 at the Free University (Amsterdam) on a research project in which microbial physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology were combined. Subsequently I spent 3 years abroad, 2.5 years of which as EMBO fellow at the EMBL (Heidelberg, Germany) where I worked on protein engineering and protein crystallization. I returned to Amsterdam as KNAW fellow for 3 years, during which I worked on protein analysis and pathway engineering. In 1995 I was appointed as group leader ...
I obtained my PhD in 1989 at the Free University (Amsterdam) on a research project in which microbial physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology were combined. Subsequently I spent 3 years abroad, 2.5 years of which as EMBO fellow at the EMBL (Heidelberg, Germany) where I worked on protein engineering and protein crystallization. I returned to Amsterdam as KNAW fellow for 3 years, during which I worked on protein analysis and pathway engineering. In 1995 I was appointed as group leader ...
Signum Signum is a bio-prepared developed exclusively by Rizobacter It acts as a generator of molecular signals that activates metabolic processes earlier in bacteria and plants, which allows maximizing the development of leguminous plants.. Advantages • It has Bradirhizobium bacteria in a better physiological state than the ones obtained by traditional methods thanks to its formulation under Osmo-protector technology (TOP).. • It is an activator of vegetable and microbial physiology.. • It acts on the germination and crops development.. • It promotes the activity in the rhizosphere.. • Induces diseases resistance by activating defensive signals.. • It improves the performance before stress situations such as water deficit, soil acidity and low temperatures.. • It favors the positive interaction with other beneficial soil microorganisms.. • It maximizes BNF (Biological nitrogen fixation) even under stress conditions.. • It increases grain performance and ...
Research Manager Håvard Sletta - SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Department of Biotechnology, Trondheim - Norway. The project aims to systematically elucidate the influence of increasing bioreactor inhomogeneity which occurs in industrial-scale bioreactor, with respect to microbial physiology and production performance of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a microorganism with broad industrial applications. Early consideration of inhomogeneity issues during lab scale process development will facilitate the selection of the most potent production strain, accelerate the upscaling process and improve the performance at production scale. Such inhomogeneous conditions can be mimicked at lab scale by a so called scale-down simulator bioreactor, consisting of a well-mixed stirred tank reactor (STR) and a plug-flow reactor (PFR) connected in series to it. During operation the cultivation volume is continuously pumped from the STR through the PFR simulating zones of inhomogeneity known to be present at the ...
So far, progress of microbial physiology has depended on the use of pure cultures. Study of a microbial strain in pure culture was essential to obtain unambiguous results about metabolism, regulation or cell biology, especially when a genetic system or a complete genome sequence was available. Unfortunately, it is also all but impossible to interpret results from physiological studies in ecological context. Indeed, for many highly interesting model organisms, meaningful definition of an ecological niche has defied decades of intensive study. Advances in next generation DNA and RNA sequencing, community proteomics, and metabolomics, in combination with advances in computational procedures are now enabling detailed physiological study of specific bacteria in the context of their natural community. This approach is currently under rapid development and used both directly with natural habitats or on habitats engineered in the laboratory. It provides information about how different bacteria interact,
Microbial Physiology. Wiley-Liss. ISBN 0-471-39483-1. Piechaczek C, Fetzer C, Baiker A, Bode J, Lipps HJ (1999). A vector based on the SV40 origin of ...
The evolutionary histories of genomes and of individual genes are important for understanding the genetic basis of microbial physiology. Genes that have a different history than the rest of the genome due to lateral genetic transfer may provide insight into the unique abilities of closely related organisms, but also serve to disrupt inference of the history of organisms by common lineage. Inconsistent results in phylogenetic signal among different genes and derived by different methods illustrate the need for approaches that can utilize multiple genes and clarify phylogenetic signal across entire genomes. Phylogenetic inference based on models of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions has become the standard, but higher level markers such as conserved insertions and deletions (indels), may provide clearer results.; Indels appear as gaps in the alignment of sequences, but high levels of alignment errors associated with gaps have generally meant their exclusion from phylogenetic analysis. Efforts ...
Read Ecology and evolution of metabolic cross-feeding interactions in bacteria, Natural Product Reports on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
People need to be reminded that we live in a microbial worldin the Microbes section. Germs and bacteria a catalog of all known germs
This is an entry for the American Society of Microbiology Agar Art competition, and yes, its created using poop! Or more correctly, bacteria from poop. You can see more of the agar art at: http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.10154367491515200.1073741836.62453295199&type=3 Update: Weve now got a full gallery of our art at http://modmedmicro.nsms.ox.ac.uk/art-from-the-gut/ Theres a lot more behind it than…
**Standard disclaimer: these are my notes taken during the sessions, as accurate as I can make them, please let me know if any inaccuracies. Im putting them here as others have said they found them useful. However worth re-checking anything before you re-quote it. If this continues to be useful, Ill continue. If its clear…
EDITOR-As the rapid responses to Hoffenbergs reminiscences show, the United Kingdom has not been spared misunderstandings and controversy over death and brain function.1 Skegg has chronicled the confusion that followed the report by the conference of Medical Royal Colleges in 1976, when the conference was not asked (nor apparently was it able) to agree whether patients with brain stem … ...
A Postdoc position is available for an immediate start within the project Elucidating symbiotic interactions in the ecologically important marine sponge Ianthella basta - a collaborative project of Nicole Webster from the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) and Michael Wagner. The position is funded by the ERC Advanced Grant NITRICARE. We are looking for a highly motivated and independent postdoctoral fellow willing to work jointly between the University of Vienna and AIMS. Applicants should have a keen interest in fundamental microbial symbiosis and a strong research background in microbial physiology and environmental microbiology.. ...
BIOL 6150: Genomics and Applied Bioinformatics, 3-0-3: Retrieval and analysis of biological sequence, gene expression, and proteomics data from public databases and other sources; applying standard bioinformatics tools to investigate biological questions. BIOL 6221: Biological Oceanography, 3-0-3: An introduction to the major biological processes in the ocean, including primary production, elemental cycling, food webs, and fisheries.. BIOL 6410: Microbial Ecology, 3-0-3: Advanced studies of microbial ecosystems, the specific roles of bacteria in maintaining ecological balance, and the evolution of the ecosystem in response to changing environments.. BIOL 6417: Marine Ecology, 3-0-3: An overview of the ecological and evolutionary patterns, processes, and mechanisms affecting the organization, structure, and function of a broad variety of marine communities.. BIOL 6418: Microbial Physiology, 3-0-3: Study of the physiology of growth and metabolic activities of microorganisms.. BIOL 6422: ...
Dr. Christian Sund joined DARPA as a Program Manager in June 2018 to focus on developing novel technologies that harness the interplay between microbiomes and their host materials or organisms. His research interests include synthetic biology, systems biology, molecular biology, microbial physiology, and microbial ecology. Prior to joining DARPA, Dr. Sund served as the Bio-Systems team lead at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). At ARL, he focused on repurposing waste and indigenous materials to reduce logistics loads. This work included studies of electron-transfer from microorganisms to solid-state electrodes to produce power in microbial fuel cells. More recently, he used systems biology, computational biology, and classical molecular biology techniques to understand how carbohydrates in food waste are degraded and assimilated into the central metabolism. Dr. Sund earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from Virginia Commonwealth University, and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in ...
Chris Dupont is an Associate Professor in the Microbial and Environmental Genomics group at JCVI. His primary research focus is microbial physiology and the environmental and evolutionary influence on physiological variation. This involves work with model organisms in laboratory systems, domestication of wild microbes for model studies, and sequencing based profiling of microbial communities in a variety of environments, including organismal microbiomes. Dr. Dupont is also working on applying synthetic biology and machine learning techniques to solve unique problems in big dataset associated with the human microbiome and the environment. Dr. Dupont began his career at JCVI as a post-doctoral fellow. He received his Ph.D. in Oceanography from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, as well as a Bachelors in Natural Resources and a Masters of Biological and Environmental Engineering from Cornell University. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteomics of Bacterial Pathogens. AU - Cash, Phillip. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Background: Significant progress has been made in the characterisation of bacterial pathogens using a combination of genomic and proteomic technologies. The data generated have improved our understanding of how these microbes interact with the human host to cause disease. Objective: Practical outcomes include the identification of putative vaccines and new drug targets. Method: This review highlights those developments achieved through the use of proteomic technologies including established electrophoretic methods as well as state-of-the-art mass spectrometry based techniques. Conclusion: Proteomics has been used at diverse levels to investigate microbial physiology, gene expression and the complex interactions between bacteria and their hosts. Pathogenic determinants are identified through comparative proteomics between virulent and avirulent isolates whereas complex disease phenotypes can be ...
ABSTRACT: Vincent Danos is Directeur de Recherches at CNRS, and holds the Chair of Computational Systems Biology at the University of Edinburgh. He works on clean and scaleable domain-specific modeling/programming languages, mostly, but not only, for systems and synthetic biology. He is taking part in cross-disciplinary activities meeting on algorithmic/mathematical structures for modelling (social systems, economical systems, climate, multi-scale plant growth, etc) with the Edinburgh Multidisciplinary Multiscale Modelling initiative. Vincent is one of the organizers of the Lorentz Center workshop Integrative Cell Models; Bridging Microbial Physiology and Systems biology that is being held from 26 Jan 2015 through 30 Jan 2015. ...
There are four major research foci in my laboratory. First, we are interested in elucidating and understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the survival of pathogenic bacteria in nature and the contribution of these mechanisms to aid these pathogens in their ability to cause human diseases. Second, we are interested in developing peptide based biosensors for rapid detection of important bacterial pathogens. Our biosensors can detect pathogens in just minutes rather than hours or days of other approaches. Third, we have determined that subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes possesses ability to produce anti-Pseudomonas and anti-MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) activities when they are induced with heat-killed pathogen. We are currently involved in identifying these antibacterial activities from R. flavipes. Finally, we are interested in genetic and metabolic engineering to develop bacterial cells into microbial factory for optimal production of value-added ...
Introduction: The microbial world. Despite suggestions from popular science programmes, planet Earth is not owned by insects (or humans): it is a microbial world. (For the purposes of this article, we classify microbial as including the bacteria and archaea (prokarya), fungi and yeasts (eukarya) and viruses.) Microorganisms inhabit virtually every possible niche on Earth, including those at the outer envelope of survival.1 Deep sea hydrothermal vent waters at 120 oC, the ancient sub-glacial lakes of the permanently frozen Antarctic continent, fractures in geological strata kilometres below our feet, sediments far below the ocean floors and even the clouds far above us are habitats for microbial life. In fact, the only sterile environments on Earth are those where conditions exceed the stability limits of molecular structures, such as in molten volcanic lava.. The total number of microbes on the planet is certainly not known with any accuracy, but estimates suggest ,1x1031 microbial cells.2 ...
might cause spontaneous abortion; probably through inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase activity to produce placental thrombosis … These same companies also exhort people to over-clean themselves with toxic shampoos, soaps and body washes. Yet, daily bathing only became a practice with the relatively recent invention of indoor plumbing; over 100 years ago, many thought wetting the whole body at once instead of taking sponge baths was dangerous and would invite diseases like pneumonia.. ...
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It is common to characterize metabolic models by the numbers of reactions and metabolites included, but these can be misleading measures without qualification. One reason is that there is a case during model building for adding more reactions than can be connected to the network. This will arise if a gene is annotated to an enzyme with a broad substrate range (e.g. alcohol dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.1), since it will not be clear while the model is incomplete as to which alcohols and aldehydes will be available by being produced or consumed by other enzymes in the network. A simple solution is to add more than is likely to be necessary and to remove at a later stage the ones that are not functional.. What criteria do we have for reactions that are non-functional? One test is where a metabolite is only involved in a single reaction in the network. In this case, the metabolite cannot reach a steady state because it is impossible to have its balanced production and consumption. Furthermore, the ...
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In the 1980s scientists discovered that, despite microbes invisibility to us, the microbial world is much more diverse and numerous than the macroscopic world of plants and animals. Traditional measures of diversity relied on physical traits. The use of physical traits in determing relationships between organisms has two major problems when it comes to microbes: 1) microbes are not as morphologically diverse as metazoans and their morphological traits are not indicative of evolutionary relationships and 2) there are no morphological traits common to both macroorganisms and microbes. In the 1980s Carl Woese suggested that the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences of certain common genes could be used to measure relatedness among radically different organisms. He picked the genes that encode ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes, the protein-RNA complexes that are the scaffold on which proteins are synthesized, are common to all cells, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Despite differences in size, the ...
TopThis module gives an overview of microbial diversity, the biological properties of microbes, methods and approaches in the study of microbiology. At the end of the module, students should have fundamental knowlede of microbiology, incuding tools in the study of cells and microbes and the awareness of biosafety, and students should be excited by the microbial world and wishing to know more. ...
Visual Media Briefs consist of high-quality, short communications with digital images, animations, and videos about the microbial world. Brief content is visually engaging and covers the expanse of ASMs Curriculum Guidelines. Each item includes an introduction, methods, discussion, and reference section. Briefs describe the item and how it was obtained (e.g., cultured and isolated), its significance and/or use, magnification, and references. Visual Media Briefs are similar to short research communications (or briefs) in scientific journals and can be used to enhance presentations. Content is free, original, open access, and peer-reviewed by the microbiology educator community. Visual Media Brief content was published between 2007 and 2014.. ...
Humankind has a delicate and intricate set of relationships with a microbial world of astonishing diversity. In recent times, these relationships have become increasingly strained, reflecting the emergence of new pathogens as agents of naturally occurring disease as well as the possibility that some microorganisms could be deliberately used to cause harm. Faced with this situation and the imperative of developing public-health countermeasures, it is a natural desire to begin to organize, categorize and prioritize these threats. A common feature of such efforts is the generation of a list, sometimes in rank-descending order on the basis of importance or some other metric. A list gives the appearance that one has bounded and specified an issue or problem and can suggest or define priorities. But lists are, by their nature, incomplete and, more impor- tantly, they can inappropriately limit creative or broad thinking as well as subtly mislead viewers into organizing their world view in. a narrow and ...
From garden to gut, David R. Montgomery, PhD, University of Washington, Earth and Space Sciences, and Anne Bikle, MLA, Biologist and Environmental Planner, will present a new view of the tiniest creatures on Earth and how it is changing the way we see nature and ourselves. Through the twists and turns of history, science, and personal experience, theyll reveal our tangled relationship with the microbial world, including the stunning similarities between whats going on around the roots of plants and deep within the human gut.. Fee: Free member and student, $10 nonmember. Register at my.arboretum.harvard.edu or call 617-384-5277.. ...
Jeremy Berg: I recently have started to work on the next edition of Biochemistry, the textbook first written by Lubert Stryer. The initiation of the revision process is always a bit daunting, but it is a great occasion to take stock of progress across the entire field of biochemistry. In my survey, four facets stood out: newly appreciated roles for RNA; an increased interest in the importance of metabolism; the ever-growing knowledge of the vastness of the microbial world, including the human microbiome; and the structures and mechanisms of action of membrane proteins. I will focus on the last topic here. ...
Protozoa are single-celled organisms without cell walls. They are believed to be a part of the microbial world as they are unicellular and microscopic. There is a great deal to know about their classification, characteristics and more.
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