Blood stream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The time from taking blood cultures to obtain results of antibiotic sensitivity can be up to five days which impacts patient care. The Alfred 60 AST™ can reduce laboratory time from positive culture bottle to susceptibility results from 16 to 25 h to 5-6 h, transforming patient care. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility system, the Alfred 60 AST™, in clinical isolates from patients with BSIs and confirm time to results. 301 Gram-negative and 86 Gram-positive isolates were analysed directly from positive blood culture bottles following Gram staining. Antimicrobial susceptibility results and time-to-results obtained by rapid Alfred 60 AST system and BD Phoenix were compared . A total of 2196 antimicrobial susceptibility test results (AST) were performed: 1863 Gram-negative and 333 Gram-positive. AST categorical agreement (CA) for Alfred 60 AST™ was 95% (1772/1863) for Gram-negative and
article{5cf566a8-21ef-4c37-927c-b4548bf4fe7f, abstract = {Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish wild-type MIC distributions of first-line drugs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as to explore the usefulness of such distributions when setting clinical breakpoints. Methods: We determined the MICs of rifampicin, isonlazid and ethambutol for M. tuberculosis using a Middlebrook 7H10 dilution method for 90 consecutive clinical isolates, 8 resistant strains and 16 isolates from the WHO proficiency test panel. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was used for quality control and susceptibility results using 7H10 were compared with the results obtained with BACTEC460. Results: The agreement with BACTEC460 was very high for isonlazid (99.1%) and rifampicin (99.1%) but lower for ethambutol (94.7%). Intra- and inter-assay variation was below one MIC dilution. The MIC distributions for isoniazid and rifampicin provided a clear separation between susceptible and resistant strains. Regarding ethambutol, ...
BioAssay record AID 447039 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230 after 24 hrs by agar disk diffusion assay.
BioAssay record AID 572901 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against blaVIM-2-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa by CLSI broth microdilution method.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the e test system versus a microtitre broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts against fluconazole and itraconazole. AU - Colombo, Arnaldo L.. AU - Barchiesi, Francesco. AU - Mcgough, Deanna A.. AU - Fothergill, Annette W.. AU - Rinaldi, Michael G.. PY - 1995/7/1. Y1 - 1995/7/1. N2 - The E test strip (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) as an antimicrobial susceptibility testing method is a new and promising tool with broad application in microbiology. This method is less labour intensive than broth dilution methods and may be useful for testing individual clinical isolates.In contrast to several publications comparing E test antibacterial strips with NCCLS reference methods, there is littleinformation about the performance of E test antifungal strips. This study compared fluconazole and itraconazole MICs obtained by E test with a microbroth dilution method performed to NCCLS guidelines.Fluconazole and itraconazole E test results exhibited good ...
The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2013 survey focussed for the first time on blood stream infections. Four thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight Enterobacteriaceae species were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek® 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix™, BD). The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2014). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 7.5%/7.5% (CLSI/EUCAST criteria respectively) of Escherichia coli; 6.3%/6.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 7.4%/7.4% of K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.3%/11.3% for E. coli, 4.6%/7.5% for K. pneumoniae, 0.6%/0.6% for K. oxytoca, and 3.6%/6.1% in Enterobacter cloacae. ...
Mueller and Hinton developed Mueller Hinton Agar in 1941 to be a protein free medium for isolating pathogenic strains of Neisseria . (3) It was found that Mueller Hinton Agar was useful in identifying sulfonimide-resistant and responsive strains of gonococci. (3) Additionally, in recent times this media has been used in standardized antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing, as described by Bauer, Kirby, et al. (1) Barry and Fay investigated the effects of altering the depth of plated Mueller Hinton Agar on disk diffusion testing, and determined a standardized depth of approximately four millimeters to be sufficient. (2) In 1970 Dewees, et al., studied the effect of storage on Mueller Hinton Agar plates used for antimicrobial disk diffusion zone sizes. Their findings indicated commercially manufactured Mueller Hinton Agar plates were suitable for use in routine susceptibility testing. (6) Mueller Hinton Agar with Lysed Horse Blood is a modification to the traditional Mueller Hinton Agar ...
Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli isolates from HIV and AIDS patients in the Limpopo Province
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... was performed on 2 different Mueller-Hinton Agar plates. One plate had Escherichia Coli spread on it and the other plate has Staphylococcus Epidermidis spread on it. Both plates had.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of usefulness and PK-PD analysis of meropenem in children with various infections. AU - Sato, Yoshitake. AU - Sandoh, Mitsuru. AU - Hanaki, Hideaki. AU - Suzuki, Yumiko. AU - Yoshida, Mikinobu. AU - Kizu, Junko. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - We conducted a study of meropenem(MEPM) in a total of 29 children with various infections (moderate to severe pneumonia in 25, upper respiratory infection in 3, and urinary tract infection in 1) to demonstrate the efficacy and safety and assess the relationship between the time above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (T , MIC), calculated based on the pharmacokinetic simulation analysis using blood concentration data from subjects, and the clinical response. In accordance with the package insert in Japan, MEPM was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg three times daily, the highest dose in the usual dosage range. Each dose was administered by infusion over 30 minutes. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of MEPM ...
Summary. This Health Advisory describes the identification of emerging Shigella strains with elevated minimum inhibitory concentration values for ciprofloxacin and outlines new recommendations for clinical diagnosis, management, and reporting, as well as new recommendations for laboratories and public health officials. Current interpretive criteria provided by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) categorize these strains as susceptible to ciprofloxacin, which is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic and a key agent in the management of Shigella infections.. However, recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local public health partners show that these strains often have a quinolone resistance gene that may lead to clinically significant reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Clinicians treating patients with multidrug-resistant shigellosis for whom antibiotic treatment is indicated should avoid prescribing fluoroquinolones if the ...
Video articles in JoVE about microbiology include Unraveling the Unseen Players in the Ocean - A Field Guide to Water Chemistry and Marine Microbiology, The WinCF Model - An Inexpensive and Tractable Microcosm of a Mucus Plugged Bronchiole to Study the Microbiology of Lung Infections, Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods, Whole Genome Sequencing of Candida Glabrata for Detection of Markers of Antifungal Drug Resistance, Novel Diagnostics in Revision Arthroplasty: Implant Sonication and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction, Identification of Rare Bacterial Pathogens by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS, Subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni ssp. doylei Isolates Using Mass Spectrometry-based PhyloProteomics (MSPP), A Robust Pneumonia Model in Immunocompetent Rodents to Evaluate Antibacterial Efficacy against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii, A Reference Broth Microdilution Method for Dalbavancin In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of
PURPOSE: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase are important mechanisms of betalactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae . The ESBL confirmation test described by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is in routine use. This method fails to detect ESBL in the presence of AmpC. Therefore, we compared two different ESBL detection methods against the CLSI confirmatory test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 200 consecutive clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from various clinical samples were tested for ESBL production using (i) CLSI described phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT), (ii) boronic acid disk potentiation test and (iii) cefepime-CA disk potentiation method ...
and : Susceptibility Testing of 120 Isolates to Six Antimicrobial Agents Using Disk Diffusion (EUCAST), Etest, and Broth Microdilution Techniques
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008) Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility test for bacteria isolated from animals; approved standard, 3rd edn. In CLSI Document M31-A3. ed. Watts, J.L., Shryock, T.R., Apley, M., Bade, D.J., Brown, S.D., Gray, J.T., Heine, H., Hunter, R.P. et al. , pp. 32-35. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ...
Purpose: The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular micRoorganisms (ARMOR) study was initiated in 2009 to survey resistance levels among ocular pathogens on a nationwide scale. Here we report the complete study results for 2013 compared to preliminary 2014 data.. Methods: Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing. In 2013, 543 isolates were collected from 22 sites; 140 isolates have been collected from 7 sites to date in 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution for up to 16 representative antibiotics per CLSI methods. Systemic breakpoints (where available) were used to categorize isolates as susceptible or non-susceptible (intermediate and resistant).. Results: With the exception of a fluoroquinolone-resistant isolate and an azithromycin-resistant isolate observed in 2014, all H. influenzae ...
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Next Generation PHENOTYPIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING Assays. ​FASTinov is a R&D intensive Startup with a patented disruptive technology to perform fast and reliable antimicrobial susceptibility tests in acute care settings. Context : The global emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is a major medical and economic problem . When an infection is diagnosed, the physician is required to start an empiric larg e spectrum therapy, since current comprehensive and proven susceptibility profile methods require, at least, 48h. FASTinov approach : In order to support clinical decisions with a fast turnaround time, FASTinov offers a unique time-saving and comprehensive solution starting directly from positive blood cultures. FASTinov innovative approach allows for the determination of the susceptibility phenotype in 2 hours, compared with +48 hours needed for current standard methods. Disruptive Technology : "FAST " patented methodology (Flow Cytometry Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test) fills a gap ...
Florin Anghelina, Ovidiu Zlatian, Mircea Sorin Ciolofan, Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea, Razvan Hainarosie, Octavian Dragos Palade, Liliana Anghelina, Cristian Dragos Stefanescu, Laura Mazilu, Andra Iulia Suceveanu, Catalina Pietrosanu, Andrei Osman - Bacteriological Profiles and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in Complicated Bacterial Infections of the Ears, Nose and Throat
Challenging bacteria in spatial gradients of antibiotics leads to large increases in resistance through sequential adaptive steps across competing lineages (Fig. 1 and movie S1). We first set up the MEGA-plate with symmetric four-step gradients of trimethoprim (TMP) or ciprofloxacin (CPR) proceeding inward with order-of-magnitude increases in concentration per step [Fig. 1A; TMP: 0, 3, 30, 300, and 3000 × wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); CPR: 0, 20, 200, 2000, and 20,000 × MIC] and inoculated the drug-free regions with Escherichia coli. Bacteria swim and spread until they reach a concentration in which they can no longer grow (TMP, Fig. 1C and movies S1 and S2; CPR, movie S3). As resistant mutants arise in the population, their descendants migrate into the next step of drug concentration and fan out (Fig. 1C, 88 hours). Adjacent mutant lineages exclude each other and compete for limited space, resulting in some lineages entirely blocking off growth of others (Fig. 1C). When ...
Innovative Grade US Origin Horse Whole Blood Lysed from Innovative Research was used in the following study: Mathematical modeling of the "inoculum effect": six applicable models and the MIC advancement point concept Jessica R. Salas, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Xuesong Wen, Victoriya V. Volkova FEMS Microbiology Letters 21 January 2020 "…Antimicrobial treatment regimens against bacterial pathogens are designed using the drugs minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured at the bacterial density of 5.7 log10(colonyforming units (CFU)/mL) in vitro. However, MIC changes with pathogen density, which varies among infectious diseases and during treatment. Incorporating this into treatment design requires realistic mathematical models of.... ...
Scattergram #2 -- Correlation of TMP/SMX MIC and zone diameters for S. pneumoniae. Horizontal and vertical lines represent MIC and zone diameter breakpoints. In this case, the isolates form a continuum, with the breakpoint for resistant and susceptible not being obvious. In this case one can not predict how the isolates which fall into the intermediate zone will behave in vivo. The breakpoints are set to maximize the predictive value of the test while minimizing errors (ie. it is preferable to call an isolate intermediate, than to incorrectly call it sensitive or resistant ...
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the major threats to human and animal health worldwide, yet few high-throughput tools exist to analyse and predict the resistance of a bacterial isolate from sequencing data. Here we present a new tool, ARIBA, that identifies AMR-associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms directly from short reads, and generates detailed and customizable output. The accuracy and advantages of ARIBA over other tools are demonstrated on three datasets from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with ARIBA outperforming existing methods.
Ashraf Mohamadkhani, Sima Besharat, Golnosh Gol-Jah Rad, Akbar Pour Dadash Asiabar, Gholamreza Roshandel, Akram Pourshams, Hossein Poustchi ...
Appropriate medium(a blood agar plate)and incubated overnight at 35C Inoculate a tube that contains 2 ml of saline or Mueller-hinton broth With five or more colonies from the agar plate and adjust turbidity to Match a McFarland standard(approximately 10 CFU/ml) Transfer 0.1 ml of the turbid broth into 10 ml of Mueller-Hinton Broth,inoculate in shaking water bath or equivalent at 35C until Turbid(5 to 6 hours for rapid growth).The relevant control organism Should be inoculated into 3 ml of broth and incubated without shaking Until turbid.This represents a midexponential phase of growth. Prepare twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotic in 2 ml of Mueller-Hinton broth.Use acid washed borosilicated glass tubes. Standardise the inoculum of the patients organism and the ...
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Fully integrated within BD Phoenix panels, the new BD Phoenix CPO detect test enables laboratories to offer a more comprehensive antimicrobial susceptibility test profile while improving laboratory process efficiency.
HayrehSS,PeвerJ,ZimmermanMBMorphologicchangesinchronichigh-pressureexperi- mental glaucoma in rhesus monkeys. Prostate Cancer Trialistsв Collaborative Group. Fig. 4 In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Therapy keflx active pertussis keflex sibo prophylaxis of close contacts is considered to minimize transmission (6).
The first of the studies is RAPIDS-GN (ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT03218397), a randomized controlled trial conducted at Mayo Clinic and UCLA. RAPIDS-GN focused on Gram-negative bacteremia and randomized patients to be tested by the BC kit or legacy methods. The study met the primary endpoint of therapy optimization, reporting time to first Gram-negative antibiotic change a full 24 hours sooner than legacy methods (17.4 hours vs. 42.1 hours, p,0.01) and time to any antibiotic change 6 hours sooner (8.6 hours vs. 14.9 hours, p=0.02). ...
Stella-Jones, Inc., wholly-owned subsidiary McFarland Cascade Holdings, Inc., has signed a non-binding letter of intent to acquire the shares of Lufkin Creosoting Co., Inc.
Our shop retails Kirby`s Dream Land Terrarium Collection Kirby`s Adventure (Set of 8) (Anime Toy) Kirby`s Dream Land Re-Ment 203973 Anime Goods on the Web.
Development of a superior cleaning cloth with constant and continuous antibacterial effect, ensuring that no bacteria is left in the cloth and making bacterial re-growth impossible, without need for special and time-consuming hygiene procedures. This will be accomplished by a unique technology with antibacterial agent integrated into the microfiber of the cloth. The advances in this technology will allow significant reduction of cross-contamination and bacterial regrowth. Infectious diseases arising in the home setting are a significant concern. ...
Optimal use of antimicrobials begins by selecting the most potent agent as the first choice for therapy. Pharmacodynamic data from experimental models and
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Tzavaras I., Siarkou V. I Zdragas A., Kotzamanidis C., Vafeas G., Bourtzi-Hatzopoulou E., Pournaras S and.. Sofianou. J Antimicrob Chemother. , 67(8):1811-8, 2012. ...
I am a currently licensed RN who has been inactive for 8 years. During that time I was raising 3 children and remained very active in my community. Recently I have taken C.E.U. courses in physical
P4PS, E28A, V35T, E36D, V60I, I135V, T139TA, S162A, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211RK, F214L, H221Y, L228LH, V245Q, A272G, L283I, T286A, V292I, I293V, S322T, ...
V35T, T39L, K126KR, V148VG, S162A, E169EK, Q174D, D177E, I178M, T200A, Q207E, V245Q, P247T, E248D, D250E, S251T, A272P, Q278H, K281R, E291D, V292I, I293V, E297A, L301M, S322A, I326V, ...
Effects of various antimicrobial agents on multi-directional differentiation potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
Abstract:. To compare conventional phenotypic methods for the detection of methicillin in Staphylococci aureus in routine laboratory practice with reference to an established molecular method. This study was conducted on a selection of 30 isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococci aureus (MRSA) from clinical specimens. The Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion tests and oxacillin screen ager method were performed on all isolates using the presence of penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) as the reference standard. A commercial latex agglutination test (Oxoid, UK) was assessed for the detection of penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP2a), the Mec A gene product. Twenty of 30 isolates were positive to PBP2a and concomitant manifest resistance to (oxacillin) was confirmed using Kirby-Bauer diffusion test. All the thirty isolates were resistant using disk diffusion method. The specificity and sensitivity of this method, in comparison with PBP2a was 100% in our examined strains, whereas the specificity and ...
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for approximately 10% of all gram-negative nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance genes and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in the clinically A. baumannii. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 nonduplicative A. baumannii isolates were collected from different clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method. QnrA, anrB, qnrS, aac(3)-IIa, and aac(6′)-Ib genes were identified using PCR method. The results of antibiotic susceptibility test showed that polymyxin B was the most effective antimicrobial against A. baumannii. 97%, 95% and 82% of isolates were resistant to cefepime, ceftriaxone, and amikacin, respectively. The molecular distribution of aac(3)-IIa, aac(6′)-Ib, and qnrA genes were 45%, 50%, and 50% of isolates, respectively. However, qnrB and qnrS genes could not be detected in any strain. ...
Define antibiotic sensitivity test. antibiotic sensitivity test synonyms, antibiotic sensitivity test pronunciation, antibiotic sensitivity test translation, English dictionary definition of antibiotic sensitivity test. n. A substance, such as penicillin or erythromycin, produced by or derived from certain microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria, that can destroy or...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invasive Candida guilliermondii infection. T2 - In vitro susceptibility studies and molecular analysis. AU - Vazquez, J. A.. AU - Lundstrom, T.. AU - Dembry, L.. AU - Chandrasekar, P.. AU - Boikov, D.. AU - Perri, M. B.. AU - Zervos, M. J.. PY - 1995/12/1. Y1 - 1995/12/1. N2 - Candida guilliermondii is rarely isolated from humans. We describe a case of disseminated C. guilliermondii with associated purulent pericarditis, despite high-dose amphotericin B (AmB), in a 19-year-old female with aplastic anemia who underwent BMT. In vitro susceptibility studies of the 13 clinical isolates, two control strains and one environmental isolate revealed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of (0.19-1.56 μg/ml) for AmB and (1.25-10 μg/ml) for fluconazole. Pulsed-field gradient gel electrophoresis was performed to evaluate possible similarities between strains. This case is significant for several reasons, the high degree and prolonged duration of fungemia despite high-dose AmB and ...
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections among pregnant women and if untreated could lead to serious complications.. Objective: This work was carried out to determine the prevalence rate of Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens and their antibiotics susceptibility profile among pregnant women attending two ante-natal clinics in Ilorin, Nigeria.. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 pregnant women between the ages of 18-50 attending ante-natal clinic at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and Civil Service Hospital, Ilorin participated in the study. Mid-stream urine samples were collected and cultured on Cysteine-Lactose-Electrolyte Deficient agar. Presence of significant bacteriuria (, 105 cfu/mL) was determined using the plate count method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique.. Results: Of the 111 urine samples collected, 27.9% of them were found positive on culture. Among the isolated organisms, Klebsiella ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activity of gemifloxacin against recent clinical isolates of bacteria in Korea.. AU - Yong, Dong Eun. AU - Cheong, Hee Jin. AU - Kim, Yang Soo. AU - Park, Yeon Joon. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. AU - Woo, Jun Hee. AU - Lee, Kyung Won. AU - Kang, Moon Won. AU - Choo, Youn Sung. PY - 2002/12. Y1 - 2002/12. N2 - Gemifloxacin is an enhanced-affinity fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. In Korea, resistant bacteria are relatively more prevalent than in other industrialized countries. In this study, we studied the in vitro activities of gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against 1,689 bacterial strains isolated at four Korean university hospitals during 1999-2000. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the agar dilution method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Gemifloxacin had the lowest MICs for the respiratory pathogens: 90% of ...
GISP is a CDC-supported sentinel surveillance system that has monitored N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibilities since 1986, and is the only source in the United States of national and regional N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility data. During September-December 2011, CDC and five external GISP principal investigators, each with N. gonorrhoeae-specific expertise in surveillance, antimicrobial resistance, treatment, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, reviewed antimicrobial susceptibility trends in GISP through August 2011 to determine whether to update CDCs current recommendations (2) for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Each month, the first 25 gonococcal urethral isolates collected from men attending participating STD clinics (approximately 6,000 isolates each year) were submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest antimicrobial concentration that inhibits visible bacterial growth in the laboratory, is used ...
Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa ...
Recent years have seen a dramatic rise in the incidence and severity of cases of human salmonellosis, in addition, multidrug resistant strains have arisen. the objective of this study as to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella spp. clinical isolates collected from Latin American medical centers as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance System. A total of 144 bloodstream Salmonella spp. isolates were collected between 1997 and 2000. the susceptibility to diverse antimicrobial agents was tested by broth microdilution techniques according to the NCCLS recommendations. the Salmonella spp. strains were more frequently collected from adult patients (67.0%; 21-60 years) and isolated from Chile (28.5%) , Brazil (25.0%) , Mexico , Colombia ( 11,8%). Ampicillin (MIC50, 1 mug/ml) showed good in vitro activity (92.4% susceptibility). Meropenem (MIC50. 0.06 mug/ml) and gatifloxacin (MIC50, 0.03 mug/ml) were the most Potent compounds against the Salmonella spp. isolates ( ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with hepatobiliary infections in Taiwan. T2 - Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2006-2010. AU - Toh, Han Siong. AU - Chuang, Yin Ching. AU - Huang, Chi Chang. AU - Lee, Yu Lin. AU - Liu, Yuag Meng. AU - Ho, Cheng Mao. AU - Lu, Po Liang. AU - Liu, Chun Eng. AU - Chen, Yen Hsu. AU - Wang, Jen Hsien. AU - Ko, Wen Chien. AU - Yu, Kwok Woon. AU - Liu, Yung Ching. AU - Chen, Yao Shen. AU - Tang, Hung Jen. AU - Hsueh, Po Ren. PY - 2012/6. Y1 - 2012/6. N2 - We investigated the trends in antimicrobial resistance among species of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with hepatobiliary tract infections in Taiwan during the period 2006-2010 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). During the study period, 1032 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli that had been collected from patients with hepatobiliary infections were ...
The in vitro activity of tigecycline (former GAR-936), a new semisynthetic tetracycline, was evaluated in comparison with tetracycline and other antimicrobial agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,326 contemporary clinical isolates collected from the Latin American region were collected in 2000-2002 period and tested with microdilution broth according to the CLSI guidelines. The bacterial pathogens evaluated included Staphylococcus aureus (505), Streptococcus pneumoniae (269), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 227), Haemophilus influenzae (129), Enterococcus spp. (80), Moraxella catarrhalis (54), beta-haemolytic streptococci (28), viridans group streptococci (26), and Neisseria meningitidis (8) RESULTS:Tigecycline demonstrated excellent activity against all Gram-positive cocci, with 90% of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains being inhibited at 0.12 µg/mL, while the same isolates had an MIC90 of , 16 µg/mL for tetracycline. All Enterococcus spp. were inhibited at 0.25 µg/mL ...
Background & Objectives: Due to increase in  bacterial drug resistance, discovering new antibacterial compounds is really important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phenol compounds effect on antibacterial activity of herbal extracts of Fasa-Fars province in vitro. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial activity of 26 plants was ...
Basically, antibiotic compounds play an important role of effector molecules in their natural environments, then their mechanism of action could be seen as using their specific targets as signal relays. For example, tetracyclines binding to the ribosome cause a breakdown in translation that ultimately lead to cell death at high concentrations; but at sub-inhibitory concentrations, the binding to the ribosomes causes a temporary stall in translation that leads to an mRNA build up thereby stabilizing mRNA transcript concentrations in target cells. (Fajardo et al., 2008). Therefore, the action of antibiotic is actually an interesting way of using ribosomes, DNA, RNA, carbohydrates (peptidoglycan) as signal effector receptors and transducers .If antibiotic compounds play the role of effector molecules in their natural environments, then their mechanism of action could be seen as using their specific targets as signal relays. An example, is when tetracyclines binding to the ribosome cause a breakdown ...
Abstract : Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells ...
Abstract : Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells ...
In addition, data collected in the participating Brazilian centers were analyzed separately from the data of the entire Latin American region (including Brazil). Minimum antimicrobial concentrations that inhibits 50% and 90% of the organism collection (MIC50 and MIC90, respectively) were presented only for the data of the entire region. Isolates collected from bloodstream infections and from lower respiratory tract infections (mainly pneumonia) in hospitalized patients were also analyzed separately (Tables 3, 5, 7 and 9). Two groups of pathogens, streptococci and extended-spectrum (ESBL)-producing strains, were analyzed separately due to their importance in community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired infections, respectively. Table 10 presents the antimicrobial susceptibility of streptococcal species, while Table 11 presents the antimicrobial susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Discussion. We made a comprehensive analysis of the Latin American SENTRY Program data ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different animal species with septic ocular surface disease. Sixteen strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different species of animals (dog, cat, horse, penguin and brown bear) with ocular surface diseases such as conjunctivitis, keratocojnuctivits sicca and ulcerative keratitis. These isolates were tested against 11 different antimicrobials agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using E-tests for two antibiotics (tobramycin and ciprofloxacin) commonly used in veterinary ophthalmology practice. Imipenem was the most effective antibiotic, with 100% of the strains being susceptible, followed by amikacin (87.5%), gentamicin, norfloxacin, gatifloxacin and polymyxin (both with 81.5%of susceptibility). MIC90 of ciprofloxacin was 2 µg/ml and the values found ranged from 0.094 µg/ml to 32 µg/ml. For tobramycin,
Objective To study antimicrobial resistance of Brucella melitenesis and instruct rational use of antimicrobial agents for clinic.Methods Bacteria were cultured and identified by Bact/Alert 3D and VITEK Ⅱ automicrobic system.Drug susceptibility was detected by E-test method.Results Four strains Brucella melitenesis were isolated from blood of 4 patients with fever and MIC of gentamicin,ampicillin and ciprofloxacin was(0.5)~(0.75 mg/L),(1.5)~(2.0 mg/L) and (4.0)~(8.0 mg/L) respectively.MIC of ceftazidime,amikacin and doxycycline were all above(8.0 mg/L).Conclusion The preferred drug for treating brucellosis is gentamicin or plus ampicillin or ciprofloxacin,or choosing antimicrobial agents according to antimicrobial susceptibility test results.
Pharmacodynamic and mutant prevention properties of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin (PRA) were measured against a set of 17 Escherichia coli strains carrying no, one or two known mutations conferring reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. The strains included susceptible wild-types, isogenic constructed mutants, isogenic selected mutants and clinical isolates. The effectiveness of PRA was determined with regard to preventing the selection of resistant mutants, using static and changing concentrations of drug. Ciprofloxacin was used as a reference drug. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of PRA for the susceptible wild-type strains were in the range 0.012-0.016 mg/L and 0.2-0.3 mg/L, respectively, giving a mean +/- standard deviation mutant prevention index (MPI=MPC/MIC) of 17.7 +/- 1.1. The mean MPI PRA of the 14 mutant strains was 19.2 +/- 12, and the mean MPI across all 17 strains was 18.9 +/- 10.8. In an in vitro kinetic model in which PRA ...
Against streptococci other than pneumococci, the intrinsic potency of GAR-936, based on a comparison of MIC50s, was equivalent or slightly superior to that of minocycline. Median (modal) MICs for GAR-936 and minocycline were 0.06 (0.06) and 0.12 (0.12) μg/ml, respectively. However, all streptococcal isolates, including strains resistant to doxycycline or minocycline, were inhibited by GAR-936 at ≤0.25 μg/ml.. For pneumococci, the results shown in Table 1 were obtained by agar dilution. The activity of GAR-936 against 60 strains ofStreptococcus pneumoniae, half of which were not susceptible to penicillin, was also evaluated by microdilution. The MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml. These were within 1 dilution of agar dilution results. Individually, microdilution results were 2 dilutions lower than the agar dilution results for 11 strains, 1 dilution lower for 27, equivalent for 13, and 1 dilution greater for 4. For S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619, the broth microdilution result was 1 dilution ...
New macrolide expands treatment options for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle.. The new antimicrobial tildipirosin is now available on veterinary microbroth dilution susceptibility plates, enabling veterinary microbiology laboratories to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing on organisms that cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef and non-lactating dairy cattle.. The Thermo Scientific Sensititre System, recognized for including one of the largest and most up-to-date selections of antimicrobials for susceptibility testing, with more than 40 veterinary-specific antimicrobials, is now the first to offer tildipirosin on microbroth dilution susceptibility plates. Tildipirosin is available globally on Sensititre veterinary custom plates, and it will be featured on additional standard plates in the future. A variety of other species-specific, standard diagnostic formats are also available for applications related to avian and poultry, bovine and porcine, companion animals, ...
... , Published on: 2011-07-19. Authors: How Foo Chen, Chi-Hung Lin, Chun-Yao Su, et
Purpose. Rhodomyrtustomentosa is a Thai medicinal plant that has been attracting attention for its remarkable antibacterial properties against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of R. tomentosa leaf extract against Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae isolated from infected tilapia. Methodology. The anti-streptococcal activity of R. tomentosa was determined using broth microdilution assays. Results. The extract demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against the fish pathogens, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 7.8‒62.5 µg ml−1. It was found to possess a dose-dependent bacteriostatic effect on this organism. Scanning electron microscopy revealed irregular and long chains of swollen cells, as well as corkscrew shapes andincomplete separation of cell division of S. agalactiae cells following the treatment at sub-MIC. Moreover, S. agalactiae cells pre-treated with the extract became more
LOWMAN, Warren et al. Comparative MIC evaluation of a generic ceftriaxone by broth microdilution on clinically relevant isolates from an academic hospital complex in South Africa. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2012, vol.102, n.2, pp.102-103. ISSN 2078-5135.. We evaluated the in vitro microbiological efficacy of a generic ceftriaxone product against several clinically significant organisms collected from sterile sites. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each was determined simultaneously with the reference and the generic ceftriaxone product. Comparative analysis of MICs between the two products for each isolate was performed using both categorical (interpretive) agreement and essential (actual MIC value) agreement. A total of 260 isolates were tested. Overall, there was categorical agreement of 98.9% and essential agreement of 95.8%. The categorical agreement for all isolates (96.7 - 100%) accorded with international standards, as no very major errors were seen and the major error ...
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
BACKGROUND: S.aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in most of the countries wherever it is sought for. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital acquired infection. The main objectives of this study was to find out the antimicrobial
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to describe the rates of antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and wound infections reported from nine regions of the USA during 2005-07 and to identify the regional variation in patterns of resistance. METHODS The Surveillance Network (TSN) comprises 296 laboratories across the nine census regions of the USA. TSN laboratories reported the susceptibility data for six antimicrobials by isolate with source and other relevant data. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were analysed by individual drug resistance, multidrug resistance and geographical distribution of resistance phenotypes. RESULTS There were over 380 000 isolates of S. aureus tested and reported for the period 2005-07. Methicillin resistance was observed in 57.8% in 2007, with little change from 2005. There was little difference in rates of methicillin resistance between community and hospital strains, although strains from intensive care units (ICUs) tended to be slightly more
The practice of medicine changed dramatically with the availability of effective antimicrobial agents. Fatal diseases such as bacterial meningitis and endocarditis became treatable; much minor community infectious morbidity became readily controlled; many surgical procedures became much safer, and developments in solid organ and bone marrow transplantation became possible. However, the very success of antimicrobial chemotherapy has led to overuse, misuse and inappropriate pressures from the public to prescribe. In many countries, antibiotics are freely available to the public for purchase over the counter, with few controls or guidance to ensure their safe and effective use. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance worldwide and the decline in development and licensing of new antimicrobials threaten the future successful treatment of bacterial infections....
The purpose of this study was to define the potency of amikacin and comparator agents against a collection of blood and respiratory nosocomial isolates implicated in ICU based pulmonary infections gathered from US hospitals. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and tobramycin were tested against 2460 Gram-negative isolates. Amikacin had 96 % susceptibility against the combined E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates and 95 % susceptibility against P. aeruginosa. Ninety-six percent of all of isolates tested were susceptible (i.e., MICs ≤16 mg/L) to amikacin by current laboratory standards which demonstrates a high level of activity to combat infections caused by these organisms including ESBL, MDR, β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistant strains. Moreover, 99 % of all organisms had amikacin MICs ≤64 mg/L. Overall, these data highlight the continued potency of
Molecular hybridization has a wide application in medicinal chemistry to obtain new biologically active compounds. New isatin-indole molecular hybrids 5a-n have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic tools. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of the prepared compounds 5a-n was assessed using diameter of the inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays against a panel of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Most of the synthesized compounds 5a-n showed weak activities against Gram-negative bacteria while compounds 5b and 5c exhibited good activities against Gram-positive bacteria. On the other hand, compound 5j emerged as the most active compound towards Candida albicans (C. albicans), with an MIC value of 3.9 µg/mL, and compound 5g as the most active congener towards Asperagillus niger (A. niger), with an MIC value of 15.6 µg/mL. Moreover, compound 5h manifested the best anti-P. notatum effect, with an MIC value of 7.8 µg/mL,
Trailing endpoints occasionally complicate the interpretation of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of both bacteria and fungi. Early studies in bacterial susceptibility testing made note of the phenomenon, especially in the testing of sulfonamide compounds (2). Both broth and agar methods have been associated with trailing endpoints (2, 4, 5). The effect was attributed to the bacteriostatic action of the sulfonamides, with several generations being required before significant growth inhibition occurs. In addition, these isolates were not felt to be clinically resistant, despite high MICs. In one study, in vivo testing in mice showed no difference between susceptible isolates and those for which trailing endpoints were observed (6).. Antifungal susceptibility testing has made considerable progress in recent years. Specifically, the NCCLS methods (broth macro- and microdilution) have been shown to be reproducible and clinically useful, with good in vitro-in vivo correlation in the setting of ...
MMLRG : The method employed in this assay is broth microtiter dilution using a commercially available plate from Trek Diagnostics, Inc. Antimicrobials included in the assay are tested according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.(CLSI. Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacteria, Nocardiae, and Other Actinomycetes; Approved Standard. CLSI document M24-A2. CLSI, Wayne, PA, 2011; Woods GL, Lin S-Y G, Desmond EP: Susceptibility test methods: Mycobacteria, Nocardia, and Other Actinomycetes. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Vol 1. Eleventh edition. Edited by JH Jorgensen, MA Pfaller, KC Carroll, et al. Washington, DC, ASM Press, 2015, pp 1356-1378)
Dear Mike,. KWIK-STIK is the perfect product for performing QC on new lots of ETEST® strips. You made a smart first step, now follow these five tips for setting up and reading ETEST® strips to ensure a successful QC process:. 1. Subculture at least once before using the growth for QC. I recommend not testing the first plate you grow from the KWIK-STIK. Subculture at least once to ensure the strain is fully resuscitated.. 2. Be sure to use the correct fluid when making your 0.5 McFarland. Most ETEST® strips require 0.85% NaCI, but you should always consult the Etest product insert.. 3. Remember the ETEST® generates MIC values from a continuous scale and can give results between the conventional two-fold (i.e. half dilutions). MIC results for a QC strain that fall a half dilution below the lower QC limit should be rounded up to the next two-fold value before establishing QC compliance. Similarly, MIC results that are a half dilution above the upper limit show non-QC compliance.. 4. Be patient. ...
Resistance rates higher than those in South Africa have been reported from the Asia Pacific region. In the PROTEKT study, 81% of the pneumococcal isolates were macrolide resistant.1 Of these, 11% showed intermediate resistance, whereas 70% were fully resistant to these agents.1. In addition, 21% of the South African pneumococcal isolates demonstrated intermediate resistance and 51% full resistance to co-trimoxazole.. The massive increase in both macrolide and penicillin resistant isolates may reflect bias introduced into our present study because only clinical isolates from specimens submitted to the private laboratories were tested. In the private sector many patients are treated empirically initially, and frequently specimens are only submitted for culture in severely ill patients or patients who do not respond to initial treatment. Such infections are more likely to be caused by a resistant strain. However, it is very important to know the sensitivity patterns of the more resistant organisms ...
Synonyms for sulfisoxazole in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for sulfisoxazole. 1 synonym for sulfisoxazole: Gantrisin. What are synonyms for sulfisoxazole?
Twenty-two MDR A. baumannii isolates from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and two reference strains for the European clonal lineages I and II (including 3, 15 and 6 isolates that were resistant, intermediate and susceptible to tigecycline, respectively) were tested. Antimicrobial agents were: tigecycline, levofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, imipenem, rifampicin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and colistin. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. Antibiotic interactions were determined by chequerboard and time-kill assays. Only antibiotic combinations showing synergism or antagonism in both chequerboard and time-kill assays were accepted as authentic synergistic or antagonistic interactions, respectively ...
n=1) were determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar. The findings revealed that all the isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistances ranging from 30% to 100%, intermediate resistance 0%-20% and susceptibility 9.75-60%. Five (18.4%) isolates showed pan-resistance (100%). The highest resistance (100%) was shown to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, augmentin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cephaplexin. The highest susceptibility was shown to levofloxacin (100%), ofloxaxin (66.7%), ciprofloxacin (60%) and perfloxacin (50%). The findings support the claim that ciprofloxacin is still the most effective second line broad spectrum antibiotic. The implications of drug resistance in health and economy, which include higher mortality rates, longer duration of illness and treatment, increased health-care costs and economic burden, the resort to alternative herbal treatments which further compound health problems and the emergence of pan-resistant bacterial pathogens ...
Etest, (previously known as Epsilometer test) manufactured by bioMérieux, is a manual in vitro diagnostic device used by laboratories to determine the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and whether or not a specific strain of bacterium or fungus is susceptible to the action of a specific antimicrobial. This type of test is most commonly used in healthcare settings to help guiding physicians in treatment of patients by indicating what concentration of antimicrobial would successfully treat an infection. The Etest principle was first described in 1988 and was introduced commercially in 1991 by AB BIODISK. AES Chemunex acquired AB BIODISK in 2008 and BioMerieux acquired AES in 2013 continues to manufacture and market this product range under the name Etest. During the 1950s, Hans Ericsson (Professor of microbiology at the Karolinska Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm), the scientific founder of AB BIODISK, developed a method to standardize the disc diffusion method and to improve its ...
Using molecular modeling approach, potential antibacterial agents with triazole core were proposed. A moderate to weak level of antibacterial activity in most of the compounds have been observed, with best minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.003 mg/mL, as shown by the 15 against S. epidermidis. Studied compounds were also submitted to the antifungal assay. The best antifungal activity was detected for 16 with MIC at 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, respectively.
The lack of antagonism seen with tigecycline combinations in both chequerboard and time-kill kinetic studies is an encouraging outcome, suggesting that tigecycline may prove to be effective in combination therapy as well as in monotherapy.
RANI, Archna; JAIN, Sapna; KUMAR, Rita and KUMAR, Anil. 1,5-bis (2-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1,4-diene-3-one: A lead compound for the development of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2010, vol.63, pp.31-35. ISSN 1996-840X.. A systematic and comparative study has been made starting from a naturally-occurring chalcone nucleus to design effective antibacterial agents. The present investigation established 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1,4-diene-3-one (lc)asalead compound with potential against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus (coagulase negative), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acenetobacter sp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gentamycine and tetracycline were used as reference drugs. The mode of antibacterial action of 1c was also studied by scanning electron microscopy, which showed membrane disruption and cell lysis of the organisms during the exposure of the tested compound. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that all the bioactive ...
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of vanillin against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined in tripticase soy broth (TSB), pH 7 and 6, incubated at 35 °C/24 h and in semi-skim milk incubated at 35 °C/24 h and 7 °C/14 days. The influence of the fat content of milk on the antimicrobial activity of va ...
Objectives: During 2003, the Health Protection Agencys Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory began to receive isolates of Escherichia coli for confirmation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production with a phenotype implying a CTX-M-type β-lactamase, i.e. MICs of cefotaxime ≥8-fold higher than MICs of ceftazidime. Many were referred as being from community patients. We examined 291 CTX-M-producing isolates from the UK and investigated the genetic basis of their phenotype.. Methods: PCR was used to detect alleles encoding CTX-M enzymes and to assign these to their blaCTX-M phylogenetic groups. Selected alleles were sequenced. Producers were compared by analysis of banding patterns generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested genomic DNA. MICs were determined by an agar dilution method or by Etest.. Results: Of 291 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates studied from 42 UK centres, 70 (24%) were reportedly from community patients, many of whom had only limited ...
The inhibitory effect of antifungal drugs at the incubation endpoint of the NCCLS M27-A method is based on cell growth, which is measured in terms of culture turbidity. For cell growth to occur, the yeast must first and continually absorb sufficient exogenous nutrients. When yeast cells were exposed to antifungal drug pressure, their ability to absorb substrate (glucose) was inhibited, and this effect occurred in the absence of any cell turbidity change. The magnitude of substrate consumption was dependent on the degree of drug pressure (Fig. 2). These observations suggested that substrate consumption could form the basis of an RSA.. Several factors influence the sensitivity of RSA. These factors are not unique to the RSA but are common to those susceptibility assays that depend on metabolic activity to provide a detectable endpoint. Perhaps the most critical of these factors are inoculum density, organism growth rate, incubation time, and mechanism of drug action (1). Additional important ...
Fifty-one (25.5%) of the 200 specimens were positive for the organism with urine (30%) being the most common source of isolation. Biochemical characterization grouped the isolates into eight biotypes with biotypes B III (25.59%), B II (23.53%) and B I (21.57%) being the most prevalent. Antimicrobial susceptibility results of isolates revealed 13 antibiotype patterns based on resistance to the antimicrobial agents investigated. The resistance pattern, cefotaxime, gentamicin and tetracycline (CTXR GENR TETR) was the most common (21.6%) amongst the isolates. Over 40% of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance to five or more antibiotics, especially environmental isolates. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the susceptibility of isolates to ciprofloxacin (98%), amikacin (90.2%) and netilmicin (80.4%) compared with other drugs used in the study. Conclusion ...
Most children with reported hypersensitivity reactions to non-beta-lactam antibiotics (NBLAs) have negative allergy tests and should be re-evaluated, Melbourne researchers say. Lead researcher Dr Lisa Grinlington, of the Royal Childrens Hospital in Melbourne, says doctors may need to refer children who report sensitivities for further testing. Our study has shown that all children who report hypersensitivity reactions to NBLAs should be referred for formal allergy evaluation, given that the large majority of children can have their allergy label removed, she said. Allergy to the NBLA antibiotics is overreported and more testing is needed, according to Australian study.
Reliable CBPs/ECOFFs require species-specific determinations.Inhibition zone diameters and MIC distributions are species specific in terms of ranges, means, and standard deviations (8). Thus, ECOFFs and CBPs, by definition, need to be determined on a species-specific basis, a principle acknowledged by EUCAST and CLSI (10, 11). To avoid increased guideline complexity, group-specific CBPs have been suggested, e.g., the majority of staphylococcal CBPs are defined at the genus level, and Enterobacteriaceae CBPs are applicable at the group level (3, 5). However, there is agreement that CBPs must never split a wild-type population due to biological variation within wild-type isolates (11). A practical solution to reduce the highly complex process of setting CBPs for a large number of drugs is the use of drug class representatives with use of AST extrapolations for other class members (3, 5).. For sufficient statistical power, an analysis should include a minimum of 30 isolates to form a Gaussian ...
Supplementary Material for: Antimicrobial Susceptibility among European Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Isolates Collected as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (2004-2014)
Cultures of the earliest isolate, JH1, and surveillance culture JH15 showed heterogeneous oxacillin resistance phenotypes when tested for population analysis profiles (PAPs). For the great majority of bacteria (>99.9%), oxacillin MICs were 0.75 μg/ml. The cultures also contained subpopulations of highly resistant cells for which oxacillin MICs were >400 μg/ml, but these subpopulations were present at a low (10−6) frequency in the cultures. A major increase in the oxacillin MICs for the majority of cells and a less heterogeneous PAP were detected in cultures of the isolates obtained next chronologically, JH2 and JH3; these isolates were recovered from the patient after a therapeutic regimen of imipenem treatment for noscomial pneumonia. Cultures of isolates recovered after this time (JH6 through JH14) showed heterogeneous oxacillin phenotypes; the MICs for the majority of cells were reduced to 1 to 3 μg/ml (Fig. 3).. Similar but much less extensive changes were also apparent with respect to ...
We explored the potential of poly(oxonorbornene)-based synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs), a promising new class of antimicrobial polymers with cell-selectivity and low resistance development potential, for clinical applications. We evaluated their antimicrobial activity against a panel of seven clinical and regulatory relevant bacteria strains, and tested their toxicity with two different kinds of primary human cells. For the antimicrobial activity, we performed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and determined the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) according to the NCCLS guidelines. The results revealed specific problems that may occur when testing the antimicrobial activity of amphiphilic cationic polymers, and confirmed the working hypothesis that the more hydrophilic SMAMP polymers in our portfolio were doubly selective, i.e. they are not only selective for bacteria over mammalian cells, but also for Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria. The data also
General principles of the treatment of infection - General principles of usage of antimicrobial agents - Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - The essence of this book is to describe the basic properties of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents and to discuss the principles underlying the rational use of antimicrobial agents in the management of infection.
Archives issue of International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences which aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences
DUBLIN, June 20, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Data Presented at ASM Microbe Highlight In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of AVYCAZ® (ceftazidime and avibactam)...
Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to public health. The empiric use of the wrong antibiotic occurs due to urgency in treatment combined with slow, culture-based diagnostic techniques. Inappropriate antibiotic choice can promote the development of antibiotic resistance and can result in increased patient morbidity and mortality. We propose to use live/dead spectroscopy as a rapid alternative to culture-based techniques through application of the LIVE/DEAD® BacLightTM Bacterial Viability Kit. We have developed a spectroscopic device (Optrode) to measure fluorescence from SYTO 9 and propidium iodide (PI) stained cells that can be used to enumerate the bacterial load. We propose a procedure using the Optrode that will take bacteria in a clinical sample, challenge with a panel of antibiotics, and measure live/dead ratios to determine the best bactericidal choice. Initial investigations revealed that the experimental parameters outlined in the kit instructions do not generate results that ...
There are two international organisations that set up guidelines and interpretive breakpoints for bacteriology and susceptibility testing. The CLSI or Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute is a non-profit organisation with a mission to develop clinical and laboratory practices and promote their use worldwide. Their laboratory testing standards are based on input from and consensus among the industry, governments and healthcare professionals. The CLSI has a Veterinary Subcommittee that approves clinical interpretive breakpoints: this means that the breakpoints of sensitivity discs are related to the actual clinical cure for a certain disease.. ...
Its main uses are in intensive care medicine (pneumonia, peritonitis), somediabetes-related foot infections, and empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia(e.g., after chemotherapy). The drug is administered intravenously every 6 or 8 hr, typically over 30 min. It may also be administered by continuous infusion over 4 hours. Prolonged infusions are thought to maximize the time serum concentrations are above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacteria implicated in infection.. ...