BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a site-selective post-transcriptional alteration of double-stranded RNA by ADAR deaminases that is crucial for homeostasis and development. Recently the Mouse Genomes Project generated genome sequences for 17 laboratory mouse strains and rich catalogues of variants. We also generated RNA-seq data from whole brain RNA from 15 of the sequenced strains. RESULTS: Here we present a computational approach that takes an initial set of transcriptome/genome mismatch sites and filters these calls taking into account systematic biases in alignment, single nucleotide variant calling, and sequencing depth to identify RNA editing sites with high accuracy. We applied this approach to our panel of mouse strain transcriptomes identifying 7,389 editing sites with an estimated false-discovery rate of between 2.9 and 10.5%. The overwhelming majority of these edits were of the A-to-I type, with less than 2.4% not of this class, and only three of these edits could not be
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a site-selective post-transcriptional alteration of double-stranded RNA by ADAR deaminases that is crucial for homeostasis and development. Recently the Mouse Genomes Project generated genome sequences for 17 laboratory mouse strains and rich catalogues of variants. We also generated RNA-seq data from whole brain RNA from 15 of the sequenced strains. RESULTS: Here we present a computational approach that takes an initial set of transcriptome/genome mismatch sites and filters these calls taking into account systematic biases in alignment, single nucleotide variant calling, and sequencing depth to identify RNA editing sites with high accuracy. We applied this approach to our panel of mouse strain transcriptomes identifying 7,389 editing sites with an estimated false-discovery rate of between 2.9 and 10.5%. The overwhelming majority of these edits were of the A-to-I type, with less than 2.4% not of this class, and only three of these edits could not be
Read "Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of heritable determinants of blood and brain serotonin homeostasis using recombinant inbred mice. AU - Ye, R.. AU - Carneiro, A. M.D.. AU - Airey, D.. AU - Sanders-Bush, E.. AU - Williams, Robert. AU - Lu, Lu. AU - Wang, J.. AU - Zhang, B.. AU - Blakely, R. D.. PY - 2014/3/1. Y1 - 2014/3/1. N2 - The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) exerts powerful, modulatory control over multiple physiological functions in the brain and periphery, ranging from mood and appetite to vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal motility. In order to gain insight into shared and distinct molecular and phenotypic networks linked to variations in 5-HT homeostasis, we capitalized on the stable genetic variation present in recombinant inbred mouse strains. This family of strains, all derived from crosses between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J (BXD) parents, represents a unique, community resource with approximately 40years of assembled phenotype data that can be exploited to explore and ...
Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT), indexed as the reduction from pre-injection baseline of their body temp
Genetic and environmental factors interact throughout life and give rise to individual differences, i.e., individuality. The diversifying effect of environmental factors is counteracted by genetic mechanisms to yield persistence of specific features (robustness). Here, we compared robustness between cohorts of isogenic mice of eight different commonly used strains by analyzing to what extent environmental variation contributed to individuality in each of the eight genotypes, using a previously published dataset. Behavior was assessed in the home-cage, providing control over environmental factors, to reveal within-strain variability in numerous spontaneous behaviors. Indeed, despite standardization and in line with previous studies, substantial variability among mice of the same inbred strain was observed. Strikingly, across a multidimensional set of 115 behavioral parameters, several strains consistently ranked high in within-strain variability (DBA/2J, 129S1/Sv A/J and NOD/LtJ), whereas other ...
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were once thought to be predominantly innocuous to cell growth. Recent evidence suggests that mtDNA undergo naturally occurring alterations, including mutations and polymorphisms, which profoundly affect the cells in which they appear and contribute to a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Furthermore, interplay between mtDNA and nuclear DNA has been found in cancer cells, necessitating consideration of these complex interactions for future studies of cancer mutations and polymorphisms. In this issue of Cancer Research, Vivian and colleagues utilize a unique mouse model, called Mitochondrial Nuclear eXchange mice, that contain the nuclear DNA from one inbred mouse strain, and the mtDNA from a different inbred mouse strain to examine the genome-wide nuclear DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of brain tissue. Results demonstrated there were alterations in nuclear DNA expression and DNA methylation driven by ...
Limitation of Number of Strains and Persistence of False Positive Loci in QTL Mapping Using Recombinant Inbred Strains. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Watson, J; Riblet, R; and Taylor, B A., "The response of recombinant inbred strains of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharides." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3712 ...
Hereditary Factors:, Organs:, Serology:, Transplantation:, Congenic Resistant Lines: B10.D2/O, Genes: H-2 - Histocompatibility-2, nu - Nude, Strains: BALB/C, C3H, C57BL/6, DBA/2 (212), Unknown:. ...
هدف: روش‏های انجمادی متفاوتی برای انجماد بافت تخمدان بیماران در معرض خطر ناباروری استفاده می‏شود. اتیلن گلیکول، دی متیل سولفوکساید و پروپاندیول، با خاصیت تشکیل کریستال‏های یخ کمتر به‏عنوان محلول‏های انجمادی نفوذپذیر پایه‏ای در مقایسه با انواع دیگر توصیه شده‏است. در مطالعه حاضر آثار دو روش انجماد شیشه‏ای متفاوت روی بافت کامل تخمدان موش نابالغ با استفاده از رنگ‏آمیزی تریپان بلو بررسی شد. مواد و روش‏ها: تخمدان موش‏های 8 روزه نژاد NMRI، پس از جداسازی در گروه‏های کنترل غیر انجمادی، انجمادی 1 و انجمادی 2 دسته‏بندی شدند. محلول انجمادی 1 از محیط پایه α-MEM،
The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. Derived from classical inbred strains and wild-derived strains, the CC captures nearly 90% of known genetic variation in laboratory mice, far surpassing more commonly used inbred strains. The CC is a tool to integrate studies of gene function and gene networks, allowing the prediction and testing of biological models based on the whole organism, critical to the development of personalized therapies for humans. Genome Research has published three articles online in-advance utilizing strains from the emerging Collaborative Cross mouse strains.. 1. Collaborative Cross strains facilitate mapping of causative loci. In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the "the pre-CC study," the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation ...
Han Kyu Lee, Samuel J. Widmayer, Min-Nung Huang, David L. Aylor and Douglas A. Marchuk. GENETICS 213:2 (October 2019). To identify genes involved in cerebral infarction we have employed a forward genetic approach in inbred mouse strains, using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for cerebral infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion. We had previously observed that infarct volume is inversely correlated with cerebral collateral vessel density in most strains. In this study, we expanded the pool of allelic variation among classical inbred mouse strains by utilizing the eight founder strains of the Collaborative Cross and found a wild-derived strain, WSB/EiJ, that breaks this general rule that collateral vessel density inversely correlates with infarct volume. WSB/EiJ and another wild-derived strain, CAST/EiJ, show the highest collateral vessel densities of any inbred strain, but infarct volume of WSB/EiJ mice is 8.7-fold larger than that of CAST/EiJ mice. QTL mapping between these ...
In this study, we demonstrated that in vivo administration of anti-CD25 mAb (PC61) caused regression of tumors that grew progressively in syngeneic mice and killed them eventually. The tumors used were five leukemias, a myeloma, and two sarcomas derived from four different inbred mouse strains. The effect of anti-CD25 mAb (PC61) was observed on six of the eight tumors. Administration of anti-CD25 mAb (PC61) resulted in a reduction in CD4+CD25+ cells in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. These findings suggested that CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory cells were involved in the growth of those tumors. Tumor regression was observed even 2-3 months after PC61-treatment. Kinetic analysis showed that the administration of anti-CD25 mAb (PC61) later than day 2 after tumor inoculation caused no tumor regression. This could be due to an insufficient activation of effector cells for proliferating tumor cells by late depletion of CD4+CD25+ T cells. Alternatively, it could be due to a failure in the activation of ...
Mouse complement component C1q is a serum glycoprotein which consists of six A chains, six B chains and six C chains. The three polypeptides are 223, 228, and 217 residues long, respectively, and are encoded by three genes. DNA probes for mouse C1q A, B, and C chains were hybridized to Southern blots of DNA obtained from various inbred mouse strains. On the basis of fragment length polymorphisms, two different alleles of each of the genes could be identified. The distribution of these alleles was determined in the BXD and LXPL recombinant inbred strain series. Comparison with previously reported strain distribution patterns shows that the genes encoding mouse C1q map to the same locus on distal chromosome 4. Overlapping clones spanning the entire gene cluster of C1q were isolated from genomic libraries using specific cDNA probes. The three genes C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC are closely arranged on a 19 kilobase stretch of DNA in the 5 to 3 orientation A-C-B. Each gene consists of two exons separated ...
Age Related Survival and Spontaneous Disease Phenotypes in Selected Genetically Diverse Inbred Laboratory Mice is a study designed to develop a comprehensive reference benchmark database and clinical evaluation of 10 genetically diverse inbred strains of classical laboratory and wild-derived mice. ...
Male and Female Mice: 129S1/SvImJ; Male and Female Mice: A/J; Male and Female Mice: AKR/J; Male and Female Mice: B6C3F1; Male and Female Mice: BALB/cByJ; Male and Female Mice: BTBR T+ tf/J 2; Male and Female Mice: C3H/HeJ; Male and Female Mice: C57BL/6; Male and Female Mice: CAST/EiJ (M. m. castaneus); Male and Female Mice: DBA/2 Jackson; Male and Female Mice: FVB/NJ; Male and Female Mice: KK/HIJ; Male and Female Mice: MOLF/EiJ (M. m. molossinus); Male and Female Mice: NOD/LtJ; Male and Female Mice: NZW/LacJ; Male and Female Mice: PWD/PhJ (M. m. musculus); Male and Female Mice: WSB/EiJ (M. m. domesticus ...
The inheritance of B-cell responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied in 55 crosses between mice of the low-responder strain C3H/HeJ and the high-responder strains B10.5M and C3H/Tif. F1 hybrid mice between the low-and the high-responder strains, showed in every case responses which were intermediate between the responses obtained with each parent. The responsiveness among F2 hybrid and backcross mice to either high- or low-responder parents, segregated into intermediate, high, or low categories, respectively. The present results are compatible with the hypothesis that responsiveness to LPS is determined by one single, codominantly expressed, autosomal gene. The capacity to develop a specific thymus-independent response to a hapten-LPS conjugate, also under genetical control, was found to segregate together with the capacity to develop polyclonal responses to LPS. ...
History of the Swiss albino mouse. The CD-1 mice, an outbred stock of albino mice, are based on the Swiss mouse colony maintained at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, starting from two males and seven females in 1926 (24). This stock was derived from a colony of 200 mice obtained by investigators at the Pasteur Institute from a local dealer. Genetic analysis supports the claims of commercial breeders that colonies of outbred Swiss mice have not been supplemented by non-Swiss mice, as Swiss mice are genetically distinct from other mouse stocks (29). The Swiss mouse stocks may be considered an island population, isolated from migration. The C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain was established in 1921 from a breeder pair (female 57 and male 52) from Abbie Lathrops mouse colonies. The C57BLKS/J inbred strains are a derivative strain of C57BL/6J that was genetically contaminated, probably by DBA/2J (25). Information about other strains of mice relevant to this discussion can be obtained from a ...
SDS- PAGE of OMPs isolated from 4 various strains.1-2: S12, and S13 (strains investigated for pAbs production), 3: MW marker, 4: S3, 5: S7
The genetic basis of the control of acute splenic MCMV infection was studied after intraperitoneal inoculation of the virus. Classical Mendelian analyses using C57BL/6 (resistant) and BALB/c (susceptible) parental strains disclosed an autosomal dominant non-H-2 gene that regulates splenic virus replication. The probable location of this gene, to which we have assigned the symbol Cmv-1, is on chromosome 6 as defined by the strain distribution pattern of splenic MCMV replication in CXB recombinant inbred mice. Although there is a similar hierarchy of resistance to MCMV and HSV-1 with respect to the C57BL and BALB genetic backgrounds, the strain distribution pattern of HSV-1 replication in recombinant inbred mice suggests that Cmv-1 is not involved in restricting the spread of this virus. This is the first clear identification of a non-H-2 gene regulating the magnitude of MCMV infection. Elucidation of the function of this gene may be a fundamental step towards understanding the control of systemic ...
This correspondence was written in response to the comments by Young et al. Following careful evaluation of the relevant dataset, each of the points brought up by Young et al. has been addressed in this response. We anticipate this will clarify our findings regarding ERVmch8, an ecotropic endogenous retrovirus that was shown to have cerebellum-specific and age-dependent expression patterns in C57BL/6J mice.
First, a number of transcripts had distinct transcriptional activity between the two lines of mice at all time points. For example, FVB mice had consistently four- to eight-fold higher expression of the adenosine A2B receptor gene (Adora2b).. Second, a group of genes, although consistently overexpressed in FVB mice compared to SW mice, also exhibited different expression as a function of time during infection. The Sorting nexin gene (Snx6; overexpressed in FVB mice by 16- to 31-fold compared with SW mice) had increased expression at 4 dpi by approximately 2-fold in both lines of mice. However, at 9 dpi, expression of Snx6 remained elevated in FVB mice, but returned to normal in SW mice. Another example was proton-dependent high affinity oligopeptide transporter Pept2 (Slc15a2), which was overexpressed in FVB mice by 15- to 51-fold. Slc15a2 was upregulated in infected SW mice by 2-fold at 4 dpi and downregulated by 4-fold at 9 dpi, whereas in infected FVB mice its expression decreased by 11-fold ...
Our studies using systemic ribozyme-based targeting of TER suggest a direct link between the functional activity of the telomerase complex and the metastatic progression of B16-F10 melanoma in tumor-bearing C57Bl/6 mice. That cationic liposome:DNA complex-based ribozyme targeting was able to produce significant antitumor effects in a mouse tumor model system is of significance because of the potential challenges inherent in using such a model. Laboratory mouse strains, such as the one used here, have very long telomeres and high telomerase activity in many of its normal tissues (26) . Thus, systemic targeting of telomerase in this system might have been expected to produce either widespread toxicity (if successful in every organ), or no effects given the time frame over which the level of telomerase complex was reduced.. The lack of antitumor activity of the disabled mutant anti-TER 180 ribozyme strongly suggests that the in vivo mechanism of ribozyme action is TER cleavage. We note that ...
Cytosol polypeptides from mouse liver have been examined using twodimensional electrophoresis. About 250 spots were readily discernible. When cytosols from strains BALB/cBy and C57BL/6By were compared, eight genetically determined differences were observed. Other strain pairs show comparable numbers of differences. These eight phenotypes were scored in seven recombinant inbred lines derived from the two parental strains, and their strain distribution patterns were compared with previously determined patterns for other genetic markers that differ between the two progenitor strains. Using this information, tentative chromosome assignments for the genes controlling five of the variant phenotypes have been made, and two of the assignments have been confirmed using congenic resistant strains. These eight genes will be useful reference markers in fiiture crosses designed to map new genes.. ...
Results of our chimaera experiments revealed no evidence that BALB/c cells were preferentially allocated to the mTE but indicated they were at a selective disadvantage between E4.5 and E8.5. We confirmed previous reports that preimplantation BALB/c embryos lagged behind embryos of some other strains and showed that the relative stage of development attained by E2.5 embryos of different strains correlated with the contribution they made to chimaeras. This suggests that the poor contribution of BALB/c embryos to aggregation chimaeras is at least partly because they lag behind their partner embryos, due to delayed or slow development.. In principle, heterosis of non-inbred partner embryos might also have contributed to the poor contribution of BALB/c cells in BALB/c↔BF2, BALB/c↔(BF1×TGB) and BALB/c↔(BF1×TP6.3) chimaeras, if hybrid cells outgrow BALB/c cells. However, this does not explain the differences in compositions of (BALB/c×AF1)↔BF2 and (AF1×BALB/c)↔BF2 chimaeras (West et al., ...
The ability of various B10 congenic resistant strains to respond to the alloantigen H-2.2 was tested. High and low antibody-producing strains were distinguished by their anti-H-2.2 hemagglutinating respones. However, these strains do not differ in their ability to respond to these antigenic differences in the mixed lymphocyte culture. The humoral response to the H-2.2 alloantigen was shown to be controlled by two interacting genes localized within the H-2 complex. Thus, F1 hybrids prepared between parental low responder strains could yield high level immune responses. In addition, strains bearing recombinant H-2 haplotypes were used to map the two distinct genes controlling the immune response. The alleles at each locus were shown to be highly polymorphic as evidenced by the asymmetric complementation patterns observed. The restricted interactions of specific alleles was termed coupled complementation. The significance of the results in the terms of mechanisms of Ir gene control are discussed. ...
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Scientists are quickly pointing out that the use of a single inbred mouse strain as was the case in this study, is not representative. Furthermore it is known that certain inbred mouse strains are resistant to septic shock, whereas others are much more susceptible. So yes the use of a certain inbred mouse strain in one study failed to translate into medicines for mankind and illustrates the limits of this particular strain for a given research or disease, however in my mind the article also reminds us of the importance of choosing the adequate or most valid animal model for a study. If I am not mistaken certain countries demand the use of two different animal species in studies such as for example rodents and primates. I now better understand the logic behind such a policy ...
The UH Gene-Server has been updated in three directories, highlights below. REMINDER: The UH Gene-Server is a volunteer effort. Because of a numbe of technical problems, the server does *not* have the latest GenBank and PIR releases; however this will be corrected during the last week of December. New Mac Software: Many PLOTA additons-power spectra of protein seqs, secondary structure prediction, etc. New MacLigand Latest Disinfectant (ver. 2.4), Gatekeeper (1.1.1) and Gatekeeper-Aid (1.1). Updated & bug fixed RIMGR by K. Mannly (mouse inbred strain db mgr). New Unix Software: Tom Schniders SEQUENCE LOGO software New Bio-Matrix files: AI-Molecular Biology Database by Larry Hunter, with registration form. To request any of these files, first start by sending a mail message to gene-server at bchs.uh.edu or gene-server%bchs.uh.edu at CUNYVM from BITNET. The Subject: line should be one of: Subject: HELP Subject: SEND MAC INDEX Subject: SEND MATRIX INDEX or Subject: SEND UNIX INDEX There are HELP ...
We thank Vendrame and Dotta (1) for their interesting perspective regarding our recently published study investigating the role of interleukin-16 (IL-16) in the development of insulitis and type 1 diabetes in female NOD mice (2). On the basis of previous studies correlating suboptimal activation of caspase-3 with the development of autoimmunity in the clinical setting (3,4), they propose a similar condition might exist in NOD mice, resulting in defective secretion of mature IL-16. Although we have not directly examined this possibility, it must be considered that many studies have wrestled with the difficulty in detecting secreted IL-16 in several mouse strains used to examine inflammatory responses (2,5). This likely reflects the biology of mature IL-16, which is active at concentrations as low as 10−11 M, and indicates that the low levels of intrapancreatic mature IL-16 detected during the development of insulitis is not restricted only to the NOD genetic background.. However, the notion ...
ei,j,k. where b0 is an intercept term, bs(h) is the regression coefficient associated with the effect of the hth strain, br(g) is the regression coefficient associated with the effect of the gth brain region, and ei,j,kis an error term. The xi,j,k(sh) and xi,j,k(rg) are indicator variables set to 1 if the ijkth observation is from strain h and/or region g, respectively, and 0 otherwise. Note that we test only five strain and four region terms because of redundancy in adding the sixth strain and fifth region in the model.. Tests of significance of the strain and region effects involve the hypothesis that the relevant regression coefficient departs from 0.0. Tests of more global hypotheses of any strain and/or region effects can be constructed by fitting reduced models that do not include the strain (or region) terms and comparing these reduced models with the full model described above. These global tests involved five and four degrees of freedom for the strain and region effect tests, ...
A shallow slope of the exposure response relationship in the observable range in a laboratory bioassay predicts a higher low dose risk; a steep slope a lower low dose risk and thus allows a higher and less protective exposure limit. Increased variability in biological response of the host predicts a shallower exposure response relationship. BrooklynDodger hypothesizes that genetically diverse free living humans show greater variability than genetically homogeneous inbred laboratory housed animals. Therefore, a reference dose established with a dose response relationship in a laboratory study will be underestimate risk in people ...
The C166-GFP cell line was derived from the C166 cell line (ATCC CRL-2581) by transfection with a plasmid reporter vector, pEGFP-N1, encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). The vector was obtained from Clontech, Palo Alto, CA (#6085-1). The C166 cell line was established from cells from F1 embryos obtained by mating a female NMRI/GSF mouse with a male CD-1 mouse that was transgenic for the human fes (fps/fes) proto-oncogene.
Susceptibility to tumor advancement varies among mice strains. is certainly dominant-resistant against NIH [1, 2]. A locus was mapped by examining the Car-R and Car-S crosses [13] also, which were produced by the well balanced intercross of eight inbred strains, including A/J, BALB/C, SJL/J, SWR/J, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, P/J and DBA/2 [9]. had been mapped with […]. ...
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Search for mouse SNPs represented in dbSNP by gene or genome region. Results include selected strains. Filter by dbSNP function class.
So im interrested as im sure everyone is on how to get dense buds? Is it a strain dependant thing,a light thing or a fertalizer thing lol?I only have...
Learn all about mice, including the many different types of mice, facts about mice, the mouse anatomy, mouse life cycle, mouse identification, and many other mouse facts!
Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Salas, Julián; Gentile, Adiana-Mariel; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana-Yanina; Zayed, Hatem; Valderrama, J F; Tinahones, Francisco José; Bekay, Rajaa E L ...
Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Salas, Julián; Gentile, Adiana-Mariel; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana-Yanina; Zayed, Hatem; Valderrama, J F; Tinahones, Francisco José; Bekay, Rajaa E L ...
Kubo KY, Kotachi M, Suzuki A, Iinuma M, Azuma K.. Chewing during prenatal stress prevents prenatal stress-induced suppression of neurogenesis, anxiety-like behavior and learning deficits in mouse offspring.. Int J Med Sci 15:849-58, 2018. Azuma K, Zhou Q, Kubo KY.. Morphological and molecular characterization of the senile osteoporosis in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6).. Med Mol Morphol 51:139-146, 2018. Azuma K, Toyama T, Katano M, Kajimoto K, Hayashi S, Suzuki A, Tsugane H, Iinuma M, Kubo KY.. Yokukansan ameliorates hippocampus-dependent learning impairment in senescence-accelerated mouse.. Biol Pharm Bull.41:1593-1599, 2018. Kizaki K, Uchida S, Yamashita F, Tsukamoto M, Azuma K.. Microstructure of osteophytes in medial knee osteoarthritis.. Clin Rheumatol. 37:2893-2896, 2018. Tsukamoto M, Wang KY, Tasaki T, Murata Y, Okada Y, Yamanaka Y, Nakamura E, Yamada S, Izumi H, Zhou Q, Azuma K, Sasaguri Y, Kohno K, Sakai A.. Findings as a starting point to unravel the underlying ...
Today more than 95 percent of experimental pathology research in atherosclerosis is carried out using the apo E knockout mouse. Not only has it provided a system for studying how lesions form in arteries, it also has given scientists a way to test the effects of other genes on how atherosclerosis develops, by breeding so-called candidate genes onto the apo E knockout mouse background. In addition, when Breslow crossed the apo E knockout trait onto different inbred mouse strains, he found a wide range in the size of the lesions that formed. This indicated modifier genes, and through genetic crosses he has found additional genes involved in atherosclerosis susceptibility. The apo E knockout mouse is also widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to test compounds for treating atherosclerosis. Jan L. Breslow received the AB from Columbia College (1963), the MA from Columbia University (1964), and the MD from Harvard Medical School (1968). After an internship and residency in pediatrics at Boston ...
The position of a mouse DNA repeat located near the centromere of mouse chromosomes X, 11, 13, and 17 was examined in interphase nuclei of bone marrow and fibroblast cells by in situ hybridization of 3H- or biotin-labeled DNA probe 70-38. In most laboratory mouse strains this probe recognizes a single repeat cluster (DXWas70) close to the centromere of the mouse X chromosome. In a few mouse strains, a second locus (D11Was70, D13Was70, or D17Was70, depending on the mouse strain) is located near the centromere of an autosome. In interphase nuclei from mouse strains with the X-linked locus only, two distinct sites of hybridization were found in female mice and one in male mice. These two sites remained separated during the different phases of the cell cycle (G1, early S, late S, and G2) as demonstrated by in situ hybridization of the probe to flow-sorted nuclei. In interphase nuclei from mouse strains with both the X-linked locus and an autosomal locus, four distinct sites of hybridization were found in
Spontaneous activity is a key feature of an animals interaction with its environment reflecting a variety of metabolic, physiological and neurological processes. It has been reported that many laboratory strains of rodents exhibit variation in locomotor activity that are influenced by genetic factors. For example, Plomin et al. identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to locomotor activity in the open field using Recombinant inbred mouse strains (BXD) [1]. Several other genetic studies focused on differences of the open-field activity between various kind of mouse strains and found many QTLs [2-7]. In rats, Hendley et al. established a Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive (WKHA) strain that exhibits increased spontaneous activity in a novel environment [8]. A subsequent genetic study clarified QTL related to open-field activity in WKHA [9].. However, ambulation or locomotion in open-field often reflects motivational and situational influences [10-13]. From this point of view, measuring home-cage ...
Principal Investigator:MATSUNAGA Shunji, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Orthopaedic surgery
We have outlined a novel strategy for fine mapping atherosclerosis loci using association on a sensitized genetic background. In this proof-of-concept article, we have provided strong evidence that the strategy works, with the potential of greatly narrowing the regions of the mouse genome that contribute to differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility. We have previously reported the successful application of the EMMA algorithm for correction of the significant population structure existing among inbred strains of mice, allowing association analysis using common inbred strains of mice.5 Compared with linkage, association analysis has much improved mapping resolution because it uses the many historical recombinations that have occurred during the generation of inbred strains, rather than the much smaller number of recombinations that occur in a genetic cross.. To induce significant atherosclerotic lesions, we used a sensitized genetic background (the human APOB transgene). Indeed, the lesions we ...
immune Uncategorized Pexmetinib, PIK3C2G Thousands of people harbor latent attacks from the fungi susceptibility between inbred mouse strains is due to the genotype on the MHC locus. reaction to histoplasmosis final result (5C7), prior mouse stress studies have got highlighted the unexplained areas of a successful immune system response. The tests reported herein recognize a major impact from the locus on experimental attacks of mice using the fungal pathogen An infection. We previously mapped quantitative characteristic loci managing the phenotype of fungal burden using recombinant inbred mice (3). These data recognize two locations on chromosome 17 associated with 250-fold lower fungal burden within the spleens of resistant A/J mice weighed against delicate C57BL/6 (B6) mice. One particular regions is firmly from the MHC locus towards the immune system response against locus (Fig. 1congenic mice using mainly the A/W (A) and C57BL/10 (B10) substrains, not really the A/J and B6 Pexmetinib ...
NZO is an inbred strain originally selected in New Zealand for polygenic obesity (10). NZO neonates have high birth weights, and mice of both sexes are large and, at weaning, exhibit an elevated carcass fat content (11). The adiposity is more reflective of adipocyte hypertrophy than hyperplasia (12). NZO males develop hypertension when fed a diet with increased fat content (13). NZO mice have not been extensively studied because they are difficult to breed and only recently have been available from commercial suppliers. Because the obesity is polygenic, there is no simple control (although NZW and NZB are closely related nonobese strains and share certain hematological anomalies with NZO) (14). Diabetes frequencies vary among the various NZO substrains. The NZO/Wehi stock develops comparable obesity as observed in NZO/Hl and NZO/HlLt mice (15); however, only males of the latter two strains develop chronic nonfasting hyperglycemia. Approximately, 50% of group-caged virgin NZO/Hl and NZO/HlLt ...
Touma, C., Gassen, N.C., Herrmann, L., Cheung-Flynn, J., Bull, D.R., Ionescu, I.A., Heinzmann, J.M., Knapman, A., Siebertz, A., Depping, A.M., Hartmann, J., Hausch, F., Schmidt, M.V., Holsboer, F., Ising, M., Cox, M.B., Schmidt, U. & Rein, T. (2011) FK506 binding protein 5 shapes stress responsiveness: modulation of neuroendocrine reactivity and coping behavior. Biol Psychiatry 70, 928-936 ...
Watkins Star Line B (WSB) was derived from wild mice trapped in Eastern Shore, Maryland. Wild-derived mice are genetically distinct from common laboratory mice for a number of complex phenotypic characteristics and are valuable tools for genetic mapping, evolution and systematics research.
The mouse is rapidly becoming the most commonly used mammalian resource in biomedicine... Because many transgenic mice (gene knock-out and knock-in) models are used in neuroscience, it is important to document the differences in brain organization existing among different mouse strains. This atlas represents a first step in this direction comparing the anatomic organization of the brains of the C57BL/6 and the 129/Sv mice, two substrains that are frequently used in studies of the central nervous system... For each animal, a representative [coronal] series of 49 levels for general cytoarchitecture and 6 levels for myeloarchitecture are presented in standard stereotaxic coordinates... The left side of the brain [which is displayed on the right side of the plates] contains a superimposed outline of the relevant anatomical structures. Facing each plate, a schematic outline of the left hemisphere of the brain is provided... Small parasagittal diagrams show the rostrocaudal location of the plates... ...
A series of 15 scientific papers published this week in the journals of the Genetics Society of America (Genetics and G3: Genes,Genomes,Genetics) put North Carolina at the epicenter of a scientific resource called the Collaborative Cross. North Carolina-based genetic resources fuel big scientific progress - Read More… ...
RBF/DnJ, also known as POSF, is an inbred strain of mouse model that is especially useful for antibody production. Learn more about their characteristics
Format of Logitech Mouse parameter table: Offset Size Description ) 00h WORD baud rate divided by 100 (serial mouse only) 02h WORD emulation (serial mouse only) 04h WORD report rate (serial mouse only) 06h WORD firmware revision (serial mouse only) 08h WORD 00h (serial mouse only) 0Ah WORD port (serial mouse only) 0Ch WORD physical buttons 0Eh WORD logical buttons ...
NZO inbred mice and strains derived from them develop severe obesity, and are thus useful for studying obesity and Type 2 diabetes.
Inbr ?. Albino c. Origin: Outbred Jcl:ICR mice inbred in 1976 by Y. Yoshimura (Cent. Inst. for Exp. Anim., Japan). Maintained by Shi. ...
王绮文,李树森. 2D NMR与分子力学计算研究带RF长链麦芽糖的溶液构象[J]. 波谱学杂志,1994,11(1):104-106 ...
Defi*cit (?), n. [Lit., it is wanting, 3d person pres. indic. of L. deficere, cf. F. deficit. See Defect.] Deficiency in amount o...
Verbi*age (?; 48), n. [F. verbiage, from OF. verbe a word. See Verb.] The use of many words without necessity, or with little sens...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
As PS1 is an integral protein of the γ-secretase complex, its stoichiometry may play an important role in balanced processing of APP. A decrease in PS1 (Refolo et al., 1999) or inactivation by mutations (Sudoh et al., 1998) may be associated with increased Aβ42. We had previously noticed an increase in APP as well as Aβ1-42 with age in SAMP8 mice (Morley et al., 2000), suggesting that a decrease in PS1 may cause increased aberrantγ -secretase activity. Accumulation of Aβ is attributed to loss of memory, as reduction of APP expression reverses this loss (Kumar et al., 2000). Therefore, reduction in APP expression is one of the pharmaceutical approaches to counter age-dependent or neurodegenerative disorders like AD that involve memory loss. Being an essential component of γ-secretase, PS1 is another therapeutic target for reducing Aβ formation. As SAMP8 mice have been shown to exhibit memory loss at a relatively early age (Flood and Morley, 1998; Miyamoto, 1997), we have studied the ...
75724 PARIS Cedex 15 France The founder colony of modern inbred laboratory strains was, most probably, a very small sized hybrid population derived from progenitors of the Mus musculus complex of species. This fact is substantiated by historical records as well as by the observation that most of the classical strains share the same mitochondrial DNA of Mus musculus domesticus origin and that most strains carry a Y chromosome from the Mus musculus musculus species. It follows that the genetic polymorphism present in these strains is not abundant and originates from three species: Mus m. domesticus, Mus m. musculus or Mus m. castaneus. Such a restricted genetic pool together with the relatively short period that has elapsed since the construction of present-day laboratory strains explains why such mice exhibit relatively little allelic variation compared, for example, with man. This disadvantage was overcome when mouse geneticists decided to take advantage of the diversity existing among wild ...
Background: Although the bio kinetics, metabolism and chemical toxicity of Atorvastatin are well known, until recently little attention was paid to the potential neurotoxic effect of Atorvastatin (Atv). Regarding the concrete evidences indicating Atv may reduce Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels through blockage of metalonate cycle, the present work aims to determine if Atorvastatin may provide toxic effects on brain mitochondria and whether its supplementation with two lipidicantioxidants, CoQ10 and Vit E may improve such outcomes. Methods: to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity, male NMRI mice were first treated with Atorvastatin(bo; 20 and 60 mg/kg) every other day with or without supplementation with CoQ10 (200 mg/kg) or Vit E (40 u/kg). After a period of 4 weeks, the animals were euthanized and brain cortices were harvested ad subjected to mitochondria isolation procedure. ROS release, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release were performed to precisely address the probable
Concerning rats, NMRI-mice, B6C3F1 mice, guinea pigs and hamsters the NMRI-mice are the most susceptible species (lowest LD50 = 142 mg/kg bw in male NMRI mice) and the dose- response relation was very steep. With an oral dose of 200 mg/kg bw none of the treated B6C3F1- mice, hamsters or guinea pigs died. For male rats a LD50 = 3622 mg/kg bw was found. Based on the broad LD50 values reported in different species and strains a weight-of-evidence approach was taken to conclude that ditolylether should be classified with Acute Tox.4, H302 and no defined LD50 vaue is selected for the risk assessment. A discriminating dose (rat) , 2587 mg/kg bw (2.5 ml/kg bw) for the acute dermal toxicity was determined in an experiment in rats. For acute inhalation toxicity a discriminating dose , 521 mg/m³ (rat, female) and a discriminating dose , 671 mg/m³ (rat, male), was found. The whole body exposure for 7 hours of the saturated test atmosphere caused no mortality and no signs of toxicity. The LC50 value could ...
Patients suffering from brain malignancies are treated with high-dose ionising radiation. However, this may lead to severe learning and memory impairment. Preventive treatments to minimise these side effects have not been possible due to the lack of knowledge of the involved signalling pathways and molecular targets. Mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were irradiated with acute gamma doses of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy. Changes in the cellular proteome were investigated by isotope-coded protein label technology and tandem mass spectrometry after 4 and 24 hours. To compare the findings with the in vivo response, male NMRI mice were irradiated on postnatal day 10 with a gamma dose of 1.0 Gy, followed by evaluation of the cellular proteome of hippocampus and cortex 24 hours post-irradiation. Analysis of the in vitro proteome showed that signalling pathways related to synaptic actin-remodelling were significantly affected at 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy but not at 0.5 Gy after 4 and 24 hours. We observed ...
We are very grateful to Dr. Radvanyi for his keen analysis and stimulating suggestions for possible ways to offset the effects of aging on the immune system. We do not question the desirability for having standardized assays of "immune health" that can be applied to all cancer patients, but the assays must be relevant to the outgrowth of cancer and not to other measurable immune responses.. We can construct such assays for mice of various inbred strains where multiple individuals of different ages of each strain are available (1). But we are unable, probably due to lack of imagination, to envision such tests for individuals in outbred populations. Our concern is that assays unrelated to an individuals response to a cancer will be developed and exploited commercially, just as some screening tests for other diseases have been exploited. For this reason, we warn against the misinterpretation of this part of Dr. Radvanyis letter.. See the original Letter to the Editor, p. 6074 ...
Recent findings have caused me to seriously question this narrative. One of the first challenges was the finding that genetically wild mice (as opposed to inbred laboratory strains) do not live longer when their calorie intake is restricted, despite showing hormonal changes associated with longevity in other strains, although the restricted animals do develop less cancer (1). One of the biggest blows came in 2009, when researchers published the results of a study that analyzed the effect of calorie restriction on lifespan in 41 different strains of mice, both male and female (2). They found that calorie restriction extends lifespan in a subset of strains, but actually shortens lifespan in an even larger subset. Below is a graph of the effect of calorie restriction on lifespan in the 41 strains. Positive numbers indicate that calorie restriction extended life, while negative numbers indicate that it shortened life ...
This study was supported by the Kamea Scientific Foundation of the Israeli Government (to Tamara Potikha and Daniel Goldenberg), by the Chief Scientist of the Israeli Ministry of Health (through grant 4930 to Daniel Goldenberg), by the German Research Foundation through SFB841 projects C2 (to Gabriele Sass and Gisa Tiegs) and C3 (to Eithan Galun), and by the Argentinean Agency for Science and Technology and Sales Foundation for Cancer (to Gabriel A. Rabinovich). ...
Urea effect on mice spleen cells - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: Hi, I am going to do lymphocyte proliferation assay using mouse spleen cells in order to assess the cytokine profile of the cells (IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-10) after induction with the target protein. I have purified my recombinant protein of interest using denaturing method by 6M Urea. Since my protein disappears after dialysis, I wondered if I could use the protein for inducing cells without dialysis. I would...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanistic evaluation of trichloroethene-mediated autoimmune hepatitis-like disease in female MRL+/+ Mice. AU - Kondraganti, Shakuntala. AU - König, Rolf. AU - Boor, Paul J.. AU - Khan, Shahnawaz. AU - Kaphalia, Bhupendra. AU - Khan, M. AU - Ansari, Ghulam. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Environmental and occupational exposure to trichloroethene (TCE) is associated with autoimmune diseases (ADs). However, the mechanisms of TCE-mediated ADs are not fully elucidated. Previous investigations showed that chronic low dose exposure of autoimmune-prone female MRL+/+ mice to TCE resulted in development of autoimmune hepatitis-like disease (AIHLD). To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the development of AIHLD, we treated female MRL+/+ mice with TCE (0.5 mg/ml) via drinking water for 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Exposure to TCE resulted in increased lymphocytic infiltration and periportal hepatocellular necrosis in the livers of mice exposed for 48 weeks. Significantly increased apoptotic cells ...
We have an RNAseq experiment where we sequenced early offsprings from Mus Musculus Domesticus and Mus Musculus Castanuos cross and I was wondering if anyone has any experience analysing similar experiments and how I can tell which transcript is from which parent?. Thanks in advance.. ...
I use same drying method and for some strains they dont smell spectacular and some do. This blue dream ive been running smelled good but now that its...
Webster University Presents Embracing Diversity and Inclusion: Critical Conversations. A conference to be held on the Webster Groves campus, Feb. 29-March 1, 2016.
Just a quick question. Am I right in thinking that ALL current PSPs can be downgraded and/or permanent CFW installed? Thanks.
Differential seizure sensitivities to picrotoxinin in two inbred strains of mice (DBA/2J and BALB/c ByJ): parallel changes in GABA receptor-mediated chloride flux and receptor binding. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. 1989 ...
Click above to download a CSV file that can be opened in Excel. The file contains all strain survey measured phenotypes where BXD30/Ty was tested, along with measured means and summary statistics. Field names are given in the first row. The file includes some measurement metadata fields as well as some fields related to strain means ...
Click above to download a CSV file that can be opened in Excel. The file contains all strain survey measured phenotypes where BXD9/TyJ was tested, along with measured means and summary statistics. Field names are given in the first row. The file includes some measurement metadata fields as well as some fields related to strain means ...
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This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
a 第一部分: 利用縮合反應以及氧化還原反應合成所需要的前驅物,接著以烏爾曼型態的反應方式合成出 6H-吲哚[2,3-b]喹及不同取代基的衍生物,並探討其反應的耐受性。 第二部分: 將第一部分的產物- 6H-吲哚[2,3-b]喹進一步往後進行合成,合成類白葉藤鹼,總共四步驟全合成反應得到天然生物鹼,其在醫藥方面上具相當的應用性 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body temperature differentially affects ethanol sensitivity in both inbred strains and selected lines of mice. AU - Finn, Deborah (Deb). AU - Bejanian, M.. AU - Jones, B. L.. AU - McGivern, R. F.. AU - Syapin, P. J.. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alkana, R. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Offsetting ethanol-induced hypothermia in five inbred strains of mice changed ethanol sensitivity within strains and markedly reduced differences between strains in brain sensitivity to hypnotic ethanol doses. The present study extended this work to mice selectivity bred for sensitivity and resistance to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and hypothermia. In all experiments LORR duration and ethanol concentrations at return of righting reflex were measured after i.p. hypnotic ethanol doses and exposure to 22 or 34°C. In experiment 1, C57BL/6J, A/HeJ, 129/J, LS/Ibg and SS/Ibg mice were given 4.2 g/kg ethanol. In experiment 2, the same mouse genotypes were tested with different ethanol ...
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone mineral density (BMD) are defined as regions of the genome that contain sequence variations that cause differences in either bone deposition or rates of resorption. In this study, we investigate QTLs for BMD of whole bones using femurs and tibiae from the BXD family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived by crossing C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) inbred strains. ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Azoxymethane (AOM) is a colon carcinogen that is used to study the pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer. We have evaluated differential susceptibility to AOM in inbred mice used as progenitors of recombinant/transgenic lines. In experiment 1, male FVB/N, 129/SvJ, C57Bl/6J mice were treated i.p. with 10 mg/kg AOM once per week for 4 weeks and sacrificed after 20 weeks. Only AOM-treated FVB/N mice developed tumors (3.6 tumors/mouse) in distal colon. In experiment 2, A/J, AKR/J, Balb/CJ mice were treated with AOM for 6 weeks and sacrificed after 24 weeks. AOM-treated A/J and Balb/CJ mice developed 9.2 and 1 tumor/mouse, respectively. Despite these differences, tumors had similar morphology regardless of strain. Immunohistochemistry with β-catenin resulted in marked nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of tumor cells in FVB/N. However, fainter and heterogeneous β-catenin staining was observed in A/J tumors, suggesting distinct pathways of tumorigenesis in different strains. Irrespective of ...
Curcumin is a yellow-orange polyphenol derived from turmeric [Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceaerhizomes)]. Turmeric is a main ingredient of Indian, Persian, and Thai dishes. Extensive studies within the last half a century have demonstrated the protective action of curcumin in many disorders of the body. This study evaluated the protective effect of curcumin on dexamethasone-induced spermatogenesis defects in mice. Thirty-two NMRI mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. The first (control) group received 1 mL/day of distilled water by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for 7 days. The second group received 200 mg/kg/day of curcumin (Cur) for 10 days. Third group received 7 mg/kg/day of dexamethasone (Dex) for 7 days. Forth group received 200 mg/kg of curcumin for 10 days after dexamethasone treatment. Testicular histopathology, morphometric analysis, head sperm counting, and immunohistochemistry assessments were performed for evaluation of the dexamethasone and curcumin effects. Expression of ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact .. Anthony Doran1, Thomas Keane1,2, and The Mouse Genomes Project consortium 1Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK 2EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. The Mouse Genomes Project has completed the first draft assembled genome sequences and strain specific gene annotation for twelve classical laboratory and four wild-derived inbred mouse strains (WSB/EiJ, CAST /EiJ, PWK /PhJ, and SPRET /EiJ). These strains include all of the founders of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred Cross. We used a hybrid approach for genome annotation, combining evidence from the mouse reference Gencode annotation and strain-specific RNA -seq and PacBio cDNA, to identify novel strain-specific gene structures and alleles. Approx. 20,000 protein coding genes and 45,000 transcripts are annotated per strain. As these strains are fully inbred, we used heterozygous SNP density as a marker for highly polymorphic loci, and ...
In vitro prepared antigen-specific helper factors reactive to the synthetic polypeptide antigens poly-L(Tyr, Glu)-poly-DLAla--poly-LLys [(T, G)-A--L] or LGlu60-LAla30-LTyr10 (GAT) and bearing Ia determinants were analyzed serologically to determine the nature of the Ia determinants they expressed. I subregion-specific mouse anti-Ia antisera were used, and showed that (T, G)-A--L-specific helper factor (HF) contains I-A subregion-controlled determinants, whereas GAT-specific HF carries I-J subregion-controlled antigens. This unexptected finding was confirmed in both the H-2k and H-2 b haplotypes, using a variety of anti-I-J antisera. Rabbit anti-Ia antisera also reacted with both HF which raised the possibility that the Ia determinants on HF may be carbohydrate in nature. The fact that HF has a low molecular weight and yet contains Ia determinants, antigen-binding capacity and idiotypic markers is compatible with this interpretation.
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
Each mouse in the pre-CC experiment was genotyped using a highdensity SNP array. Most of the genotyping was completed using test arrays. These arrays were developed as an intermediate step in the process of developing the Mouse Diversity array (Yang et al. 2009). There are two versions of the test array: A-array and B-array. The A-array includes 294,878 SNP assays, and the B-array contains 287,687 additional SNP assays. We determined that 181,752 (A-array) and 180,976 (B-array) SNP assays performed well and targeted loci that are polymorphic among the eight founder strains. There is no overlap between the two arrays, but the genome coverage is complete and uniformly distributed in both. In some cases, animals from the same phenotyping arm were genotyped with different arrays. Integration was achieved by merging the two sets and using an HMM to impute haplotypes at loci with missing genotypes. Due to the high marker density, this procedure was very effective. The exercise behavior and ...
To confirm the expectation that the gut commensals of SPF SW and SPF C57BL6/N mice were diverse, 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis was undertaken. This characterization demonstrated that SPF SW mice harbored increased diversity of gut commensals when compared to the SPF C57BL6/N mice (Fig. 4A). Bacteroides was the most prominent genus in SW mice (Fig. 4B). We chose to evaluate the impact of the obligate anaerobe B. acidifaciens, an abundant gut commensal identified in SPF SW mice, on inducing IgA transcripts in the gut and EALT. Upon monocoloization, a 9.5-fold increase in IgA transcripts (P = 0.0328, 1-way ANOVA with Dunnetts comparisons test; Fig. 5) was noted in the colons at 21 days relative to day 0. Interestingly, LG IgA mRNA transcript levels at 21 days also increased 4.8-fold (P = 0.0001, 1-way ANOVA with Dunnetts comparison) relative to day 0. Gut SIgA protein levels increased after 14 days (51 ng/mL, P = 0.0001, 1-way ANOVA with Dunnetts multiple comparisons test) than that of day ...
Ensuring the genetic homogeneity of the mice used in laboratory experiments contributes to the Reduction aspect of the Three Rs, by maximising the quality of the data obtained from any animals that are used for these purposes, and ultimately reducing the numbers of animals used. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is especially suitable for use in the analysis of the genetic purity of model organisms such as the mouse, because bi-allelic markers remain fully informative when used to characterise crosses between inbred strains. Here, we attempted to apply a microarray-based method for a SNP marker to monitor the genetic quality of inbred mouse strains, so as to validate the reliability, stability and applicability of this SNP genotyping panel. The amplified PCR products containing four different SNP loci from four inbred mouse strains were spotted and immobilised onto amino-modified glass slides to generate a microarray. This was then interrogated through hybridisation with ...
In the analysis of genes contributing to disease in animal models of autoimmunity, the affected strain is usually outcrossed to another strain that does not express the phenotype being studied. Whether the genes from the unaffected or non-autoimmune strain can change the results of linkage analyses has not been directly studied. McAleer et al. (23) analyzed genes contributing to insulin-dependent diabetes in NOD mice in outcrosses to MHC-congenic NON mice and compared results to previous outcrosses with C57BL/10 mice. Background genetic influences from NON versus C57BL/10 strains were apparent, but the fact that NOD and NON are related backgrounds likely influenced some of the findings. Furthermore, the comparison was retrospective, which could have introduced another variable. In our study, we used two well-studied and unrelated normal strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ, and all backcross progeny were bred and followed for disease concomitantly. Our results indicate that the genetic background of ...
Rodents of an inbred strain display large variations in several behaviors: sucrose preference (Strekalova & Steinbusch, 2010), fear conditioning (Siegmund, Kaltwasser, Holsboer, Czisch, & Wotjak., 2009), decrease in social interaction after social defeat (Krishnan et al., 2007), ambulation in the open-field and the elevated plus-maze (Vidal, 2015). Variations of physiological variables (weight, course of infection, stress response) in inbred animals have also been reported (Gärtner, 2012). This variability, which is not readily explained by genetics or environment, has been termed intangible variation, developmental noise (Blewitt, Chong, & Whitelaw, 2004; Falconer, 1989) or third component (Gärtner, 2012). The author of the present report could not find studies documenting individual differences in the antibody response within an inbred mouse strain; therefore, one goal of this report was to find out if such differences occurred in mice of the C57Bl/6J inbred strain.. A set of correlated ...
EFSA concluded No evidence of carcinogenicity was confirmed by the majority of the experts (with the exception of one minority view) in either rats or mice due to a lack of statistical significance in pairwise comparison tests, lack of consistency in multiple animal studies and slightly increased incidences only at dose levels at or above the limit dose/maximum tolerated dose (MTD), lack of preneoplastic lesions and/or being within historical control range. The IARC WG review found a significant positive trend for renal tumours in male CD-1 mice,12 a rare tumour, although no comparisons of any individual exposure group to the control group were statistically significant. The WG also identified a significant positive trend for hemangiosarcoma in male CD-1 mice,13 again with no individual exposure group significantly different from controls. Finally, the WG also saw a significant increase in the incidence of pancreatic islet cell adenomas in two studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats.14-16 In one ...