The basis for the resistance of the female and the susceptibility of the male ICR Swiss mouse to the diabetogenicity of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV-D) is unknown. This pattern of disease resistance and susceptibility can be reversed if females are treated with testosterone and males are treated with estrogen before virus infection. As a possible explanation for this sex difference in disease development, differences in early antiviral host responses were explored. Cellular antiviral resistance mechanisms operative early in virus infection were evaluated in ICR Swiss mice of both sexes after intraperitoneal infection with virus. No differences were seen in splenic natural killer (NK) cell responses of male and female mice during the 1st wk of infection, during which only the males became diabetic. Depletion of NK cell activity with rabbit anti-asialo GM1 serum did not render the infected ICR Swiss female susceptible to virus-induced diabetes. Treatment of ICR Swiss mice with type I
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential global gene expression in red and white skeletal muscle. AU - Campbell, W. G.. AU - Gordon, S. E.. AU - Carlson, C. J.. AU - Pattison, J. S.. AU - Hamilton, M. T.. AU - Booth, F. W.. PY - 2001/6/5. Y1 - 2001/6/5. N2 - The differences in gene expression among the fiber types of skeletal muscle have long fascinated scientists, but for the most part, previous experiments have only reported differences of one or two genes at a time. The evolving technology of global mRNA expression analysis was employed to determine the potential differential expression of ∼3,000 mRNAs between the white quad (white muscle) and the red soleus muscle (mixed red muscle) of female ICR mice (30-35 g). Microarray analysis identified 49 mRNA sequences that were differentially expressed between white and mixed red skeletal muscle, including newly identified differential expressions between muscle types. For example, the current findings increase the number of known, differentially expressed ...
In this study, we prepared BLs of submicron size (~ 500 nm). Male ICR mice were injected intravenously with Evans blue dye (EB) which binds with albumin in blood stably. Subsequently, BLs were also injected and then right hemispheres were exposed with a 1.0 MHz pulsed HIFU (10% duty, 10-60 sec) with different intensities (0.1-1.5 kW/cm2). After 3 hours, their treated mice were infused intravenously with PBS as a perfusion medium by a syringe pump at a constant speed. The mice were perfused with PBS via the left ventricle. After perfusion and brain removal, the brains were then divided into right and left hemispheres before measuring the amount of EB extravasated. Non-focused left hemispheres of the treated mice were used as the control. Samples were weighed, soaked in formamide solution, and the incubated for 24 hours at 55 degrees. After that, the extracted dye was finally determined using a spectrophotometer at 620 nm. Similarly, FITC-dextrans (molecular weight 70-2000 kDa) were also delivered ...
BioAssay record AID 424689 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiosteoporosis activity against ovariectomized ICR mouse assessed as dry femur weight at 110.3 nmol/kg, po after 30 mins.
Inbr ?. Albino c. Origin: Outbred Jcl:ICR mice inbred in 1976 by Y. Yoshimura (Cent. Inst. for Exp. Anim., Japan). Maintained by Shi. ...
BAZ2-ICR is a potent, selective, cell active and orally active BAZ2A/B bromodomains inhibitor with IC50s of 130 nM and 180 nM, and Kds of 109 nM and 170 nM, respectively. BAZ2-ICR shows 10-15-fold selectivity for binding BAZ2A/B over CECR2 and >100-fold selectivity over all other bromodomains. BAZ2-ICR is an epigenetic chemical probe ...
To investigate the mechanism of the combined effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeine on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, eighty female ICR mice were randomly divided into eight groups and fed with a high-fat diet with/without CGA and/or caffeine for 14 weeks. The combination of CG
Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd)-induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L) in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg) was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in
Consequences of pain include stimulation of some behaviors (e.g. vocalization, reflexive withdrawal from stimuli), and depression of others (e.g. exercise, and work). Pain-related decreases in behavior are among the primary diagnostic and treatment concerns for physicians, but preclinical research has often ignored this important endpoint. This discrepancy between basic research and clinical application may be one obstacle to the development of new pain treatments. In the present study, we modeled pain-related depression of behavior by examining nesting behavior in male ICR mice. Nest building is an innate mouse behavior that is sensitive to depression by a pain stimulus, and pain-related depression of nesting is blocked by the clinically effective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ketoprofen. This project examines effects of monoamine uptake inhibitors with varying selectivity for serotonin (5HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) on pain-related depression of nesting. Citalopram ...
Pregnant ICR mice (Nihon-SLC) were used for in utero electroporation. Noon of the day at which the vaginal plug was detected was designated as embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) and E19.5 was defined as P0.5. In utero electroporation was conducted on E13.5-13.75 embryos as described previously (Hatanaka et al., 2004) with minor modifications. Briefly, a 1-1.5 μl plasmid solution was injected into the lateral ventricle and 30 V or 40 V electric pulses of 50 ms duration were delivered at 200 ms intervals. Plasmids were prepared with the NucleoBond Midi Kit (Macherey-Nagel), suspended in PBS (0.1 m, pH 7.4) and electroporated at the following final concentrations: 1.0 μg/μl pCAG-EGFP-IRES-mito-mCherry for analysis of the mitochondrial distribution during the development of dendritic arbors; 3.0 μg/μl pCAG-Mfn1 and 1.0 μg/μl pCAG-EGFP-IRES-mito-mCherry for analysis of the mitochondrial distribution and dendritic morphology in Mfn1-overexpressing neurons; 3.0 μg/μl pCAG-Mfn1 and 1.0 μg/μl ...
With nobody above him, ICR director Paul Workman was seemingly investigating himself, and found two female colleagues guilty of placing fake data into his papers, primarily the ICR emeritus Ann Jackman. One paper was retracted, another received an outrageous correction. The previous ICR CEO, Alan Ashworth, together with his right-hand man Chris Lord, have their…
Hayashi and collaborators profiled the EGF dependent microRNAs of the fetal mouse submandibular gland at embryonic day 13. Avraham and colleagues, described a
Complete information for ICR4 gene (Genetic Locus), Ichthyosis Congenita IV, Ichthyosis-Prematurity Syndrome, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-ErbB 2 antibody [ICR55] (ab11711) : Immunoprecipitation protocols, Immunohistochemistry protocols, Western blot…
You can click on column titles to obtain more information about the subject. You can click on the "NO DATA" to find out why data is missing. "0" value does not mean that the value was missing. Missing values are indicated by a "NO DATA" label. For microbial results, "0" indicates that a sample was analyzed, but that no microbes were found. For DBP results, "0" may indicate that a sample was analyzed, but that the result was less than the lowest value that the analytical method can reliably report ...
The nanoGUNE Cooperative Research Center (CIC) is a Basque research center set up with the mission to conduct excellent research in nanoscience and nanotecnology with the aim of increasing the Basque Countrys business competitiveness and economic growth.
Methods Bone marrow cells (BMCs) were obtained from 5-week-old male ICR mice and cultured to be differentiated into osteoclasts with M-CSF and RANKL in the presence or absence of IL-1β, TG, or TAC. The formation of osteoclasts was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and resorption pit assay with dentine slice. The molecular mechanisms of the above effects of TAC on osteoclastogenesis were investigated by using RT-PCR and immunoblotting for osteoclast specific and ER stress signaling molecules, including PERK, IRE1, GRP78, eIF2α, c-Fos and NFATc1.. ...
The metabolites formed, i.e. diethylphosphoric acid, diethylthiophosphoric acid and the derivatives of pyrimidinyl ring, are eliminated mainly via the kidneys. Only minimal quantities of the metabolites were detected in milk and eggs. 6.2.1 In vivo metabolic transformations 6.2.1.1 Mice When male ICR mice (number not stated) were treated orally with diazinon or [pyrimidine14C] diazinon at 50 or 75 mg/kg body weight, one half of the high-dose animals died and the rest showed symptoms (sweating, crouching) (Miyazaki et al., 1970; Sekine, 1972). At the low dose, no signs of toxicity were observed. Metabolism and excretion occurred rapidly, and the metabolites diazoxon, O, O-diethyl- O-[2-(alpha-hydroxyisopropyl)-4-methyl)-6-pyrimidinyl] phosphorothioate, and O, O-diethyl- O-(2-(2-propenyl)-4-methyl-6- pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate were found in the urine 1 h after treatment. Most of the metabolites were found in urine 6 h after treatment, but metabolism was not identical in the two dose groups. In ...
Resveratrol (RES) is a well-known phytocompound and food component which has antioxidative and multifunctional bioactivities. However, there is limited evidence for the effects of RES on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of trans-RES on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered RES for 21 days at 0, 25, 50, and 125 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, RES-25, RES-50, and RES-125 groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The exhaustive swimming time of the RES-25 group (24.72 ± 7.35 min) was significantly (p = 0.0179) longer than that of vehicle group (10.83 ± 1.15 min). A trend analysis revealed that RES
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuating effect of clock mutation on triglyceride contents in the ICR mouse liver under a high-fat diet. AU - Kudo, Takashi. AU - Tamagawa, Toru. AU - Kawashima, Mihoko. AU - Mito, Natsuko. AU - Shibata, Shigenobu. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Energy homeostasis is subjected to a circadian control that synchronizes energy intake and expenditure. The transcription factor CLOCK, a key component of the molecular circadian clock, controls many kinds of rhythms, such as those for locomotor activity, body temperature, and metabolic functions. The purpose of the present study is to understand the function of the Clock gene during lipid metabolism in the liver using Clock-mutant mice. Clock-mutant mice with an ICR background were fed a high-fat diet for 13 weeks, and liver triglyceride, serum triglyceride, and serum free fatty acid levels were examined. Triglyceride content in the liver was significantly less increased in Clock-mutant mice on a high-fat diet compared to wild-type ...
Abstract The collagen content of the liver, measured as hepatic hydroxyproline, was examined for a period of up to 52 weeks following Schistosoma mansoni infection. Hepatic fibrosis was much more marked in S. mansoni-infected mice of an outbred ICR strain than in C57BL/6J mice, while C3H/HeN mice occupied an intermediate position. The marked difference in hepatic fibrosis in ICR and C57BL/6J mice correlated with more rapid in vitro synthesis of collagen by the livers of infected ICR mice. Strains of mice exhibiting high and low levels of fibrosis provide an excellent tool for examining mechanisms of murine schistosomal hepatic fibrosis and its genetic regulation.
A network of tubular lysosomes extends through the cytoplasm of J774.2 macrophages and phorbol ester-treated mouse peritoneal macrophages. The presence of this network is dependent upon the integrity of cytoplasmic microtubules and correlates with high cellular rates of accumulation of Lucifer Yellow (LY), a marker of fluid phase pinocytosis. We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of LY transfer between the pinosomal and lysosomal compartments is increased in the presence of tubular lysosomes by asking how conditions that deplete the tubular lysosome network affect pinocytic accumulation of LY. Tubular lysosomes were disassembled in cells treated with microtubule-depolymerizing drugs or in cells that had phagocytosed latex beads. In unstimulated peritoneal macrophages, which normally contain few tubular lysosomes and which exhibit relatively inefficient transfer of pinocytosed LY to lysosomes, such treatments had little effect on pinocytosis. However, in J774 macrophages and phorbol ...
Exocrine gland-secreting peptides (ESPs) are a protein family involved in the pheromonal communication of rodents. ESP1 is a lacrimal peptide synthesized by the extraorbital glands of males of specific mouse strains that modulates the sexual behavior in females. Reportedly, BALB/c males, that produce high level of ESP1 in the tear fluid, were shown to enhance the lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 females during mating. In contrast, C57BL/6 and ICR males, both unable to express ESP1, failed to modulate this sexual behavior. Nonetheless, ICR males did become competent to enhance lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 females providing these were pre-exposed to ESP1. To exclude any strain differences, here, we investigated the pheromonal role of the extraorbital glands and indirectly of ESP1 in animals of the same strain. This was performed by applying the lordosis experimental paradigm in BALB/c mice before and after the surgical removal of these glands in males. The excision of the extraorbital glands reduced but did
Animals. Sympathetic ganglia, skeletal muscles, and brains were dissected from timed embryonic or postnatal mice. Mice bearing a targeted mutation of the rapsyn gene have been described previously (Gautam et al. 1995) and were maintained on a 129SV × C57BL6 hybrid background. Homozygous mutants were readily identified because they died within a few hours of birth, but their genotype was confirmed by PCR. Littermates of the rapsyn mutants or wild-type C57BL6 (The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME) or ICR mice (Harlan Sprague Dawley, Indianapolis, IN) were used as controls.. Antibodies. Four rat monoclonal antibodies to AChR subunits were obtained from Jon Lindstrom (University of Pennsylvania) and from the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank (Iowa City, IA). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 35 recognizes mouse AChR α (α1) subunit; mAb 210 recognizes mouse AChR α1 and α5 subunits; mAb 299 recognizes mouse AChR α4 subunit; and mAb 270 recognizes mouse AChR β2 subunit (Lindstrom, 1996). Two ...
J:79832 Hoffman MP, Kidder BL, Steinberg ZL, Lakhani S, Ho S, Kleinman HK, Larsen M, Gene expression profiles of mouse submandibular gland development: FGFR1 regulates branching morphogenesis in vitro through BMP- and FGF-dependent mechanisms. Development. 2002 Dec;129(24):5767-78 ...
Two mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that are resistant to growth inhibition by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-phenylalanine have been isolated. Both mutants were 2- to 3-fold more resistant than wild type to inhibition by IAA-phenylalanine, IAA-alanine, and IAA-glycine in root growth assays. The mutant icr1 (but not icr2) also shows some resistance to IAA-aspartate. Studies using 3H-labeled IAA-phenylalanine showed that the uptake of conjugate from the medium by icr1 was the same as wild type and was reduced by about 25% in icr2. No differences in hydrolysis of the exogenous conjugate were detected between the mutants and their wild-type parents. There was no significant metabolism of the IAA released from the [3H]IAA-phenylalanine, whereas exogenous [3H]IAA was rapidly metabolized to two unidentified products considerably more polar than IAA. Analysis of a cross between icr1 and icr2 indicated that these mutations were at distinct loci and that their effects were additive, and preliminary mapping ...
ICR has also published tens of books and a laymans magazine called Acts & Facts. Last year it participated in making the documentary The Mysterious Islands. ICR has an educational centre in Dallas, Texas, and for 16 years operated the Museum of Creation and Earth History at Santee, California. The museum is currently run by the Life and Light Foundation ...
Publications of the Cellular & Molecular Logic Team, Integrative network biology initiative (INBi) Section of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR)
VANCOUVER, April 3, 2017- Sierra Oncology Collaborator ICR Reports Preclinical Synthetic Lethality Data for Chk1 Inhibitor SRA737 at AACR.
The author recounts his visit to the ICR museum opened in 1992. This article is a mostly impartial description of the museum exhibits and some of its patrons.
The effects of embryo number and incubation volume on the development of mouse embryos were evaluated. The growth rate of two-cell mouse embryos to attached blastocyst stage and the growth rate of blastocysts to early somite stage were assessed after culture in different incubation volumes and embryo densities. Embryos were collected from ICR female mice superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated by ICR males. In experiment 1, groups of one, five, ten, twenty 2-cell embryos were cultured in 10-, 50-, 500-, 1000-microliter drops of BWW media under mineral oil at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. As the incubation volume decreased, significantly ( ...
The effect of chronic (CCR) and intermittent (ICR) caloric restriction on serum adiponectin and leptin levels was investigated in relation to mammary tumorigenesis. 10-wks old MMTV-TGF-alpha female mice were assigned to ad libitum-fed (AL) (AIN-93M diet), ICR (3-wks 50% caloric restriction, AIN-93M-mod diet, 2x protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals followed by 3-wks 100% AL consumption of AIN-93M), and CCR (calorie and nutrient intake matched for each 6-wks ICR cycle, ~75% of AL) groups. Mice were sacrificed at 79 (end of restriction) or 82 (end of refeeding) wks of age. Serum was obtained in cycles 1, 3, 5, 8, 11 and terminal. Mammary tumor incidence was 71.0%, 35.4%, and 9.1% for AL, CCR and ICR mice, respectively. Serum adiponectin levels were similar among groups with no impact of either CCR or ICR. Serum leptin level rose in AL mice with increasing age but was significantly reduced by long-term CCR and ICR. The ICR protocol was also associated with an elevated adiponectin:leptin ratio. In ...
Bacterial infection is one of the major factors contributing to the compromised healing in chronic wounds. Sometimes bacteria biofilms formed on the wound are more resistant than adherent bacteria. Cold atmosphere plasma (CAP) has already shown its potential in contact-free disinfection, blood coagulation, and wound healing. In this study, we integrated a multimodal imaging system with a portable CAP device for image-guided treatment of infected wound in vivo and evaluated the antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa sample in vitro.15 ICR mice were divided into three groups for therapeutic experiments:(1) control group with no infection nor treatment (2) infection group without treatment (3) infection group with treatment. For each mouse, a three millimeters punch biopsy was created on the dorsal skin. Infection was induced by Staphylococcus aureus inoculation one day post-wounding. The treated group was subjected to CAP for 2 min daily till day 13. For each group, five fixed wounds ...
ICR Concreting and Landscaping P/L in Acacia Gardens, NSW, 2763. Business contact details for ICR Concreting and Landscaping P/L including phone number, reviews & map location - TrueLocal
Terpos, E; Morgan, G; Dimopoulos, MA; Drake, MT; Lentzsch, S; Raje, N; Sezer, O; García-Sanz, R; Shimizu, K; Turesson, I; Reiman, T; Jurczyszyn, A; Merlini, G; Spencer, A; Leleu, X; Cavo, M; Munshi, N; Rajkumar, SV; Durie, BGM; Roodman, GD (2013-06) ...
This study compared the in-vitro properties and in-vivo effects of Escherichia coli filaments, spheroplasts and normal cells in a murine thigh infection model. E. coli was exposed to ceftazidime, meropenem or saline to obtain filaments, spheroplasts or normal bacilli, which were then injected into neutropenic mice. After 24 h, morphology, CFUs, local and circulating endotoxin levels, cytokine levels and mortality were recorded, and correlations between bacterial and host parameters of infection were investigated. Filaments and spheroplasts contained more endotoxin/CFU than controls. Histological studies showed that morphologically altered bacteria changed into rod-shaped cells in the absence of antibiotics. Bacterial spread to the liver was significantly higher in mice challenged with rod-shaped cells, compared with antibiotic-exposed bacteria (p 0.007). Muscle endotoxin levels correlated significantly with circulating interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and both ...
The aim of this research I to determine, at the ultrastructural level, the localization and distribution of individual sugar sugar moieties and terminal sialylated sequences of the secretory products of the mouse SMG of both sexes. We therefore investigated the lectin receptors of control and sialidase-treated sections by a post-embedding approach using horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugates (PNA, DBA, LTA, WGA, Con A), anti-HRP antibody and protein A-gold. Qualitative and quantitative differences occurred in the acinar products of males and females. Sialidase digestion revealed that the acceptor sugar for terminal sialic acids exhibit a different expression in the electron-lucent granules of acinar cells. The occurrence of terminal sialic acid-alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine disaccharide was prominent in male acinar cells in contrast to a modest presence in female. In addition, the terminal sequence sialic acid beta-galactose showed a homogeneous location in the male secretory products and a ...
References:. Nakayama K, Kagawa Y, et al.:A single nucleotide polymorphism in the FADS1/FADS2 gene is associated with plasma lipid profiles in two genetically similar Asian ethnic groups with distinctive differences in lifestyle. Hum Genet. In press. 2010. Munkhtulga, L.Kagawa, Y.: Regulatory SNP in the RBP 4 gene modified the expression in adipocytes and associated with BMI. Obesity in press, 2009. Higuchi, T., Kagawa, Y. et al. : Levels of plasma @insulin, leptin and adiponectin, and activities of key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and liver in fasted ICR mice fed dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Nutr. Biochem. 19: 577-586 2008.. Nakayama, K., Kagawa, Y. et al.: Comparative study of polymorphisms on genes associated with lifestyle related diseases in Asian and Pacific Populations. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health.,20, Supplement, 173-179 2008. Kageyama, M., Hiraoka, M., Kagawa, Y.: Relationship between genetic polymorphism, serum folate and homocysteine ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-Bromodeoxyuridine/BrdU Antibody (BU1/75 (ICR1)) [Biotin]. Proliferation Marker. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Mouse, Non-species specific. 100% Guaranteed.
canSAR Cancer Drug Discovery Platform | ICR CRUK Cancer Therapeutics Unit | Cancer | Browse Molecular targets, 3D Structures, Protein families, Compound, Diseases, PDB, Genes
canSAR Cancer Drug Discovery Platform | ICR CRUK Cancer Therapeutics Unit | Cancer | Browse Molecular targets, 3D Structures, Protein families, Compound, Diseases, PDB, Genes
Study Flashcards On ICR - Pleuritis (rb) at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Enjoy ICR resources in bite-size amounts. If you have some ICR resources at home, see how you can integrate them into your creation teaching time. (If you dont have any, visit ICR.org/store to order.) Books in our Science for Kids and Guide to series cover a new topic on every page. Consider reading it aloud together each day. Our DVD series, like Uncovering the Truth about Dinosaurs, are broken into 22-minute episodes. If they watch one episode daily, you can finish most series in just a few days ...
Scientists have succeeded in making mice cerebral cortex grow dramatically more convoluted. They developed a line of transgenic mice that carried a variant of a
Harel, I; Maezawa, Y; Avraham, R; Rinon, A; Ma, H-Y; Cross, JW; Leviatan, N; Hegesh, J; Roy, A; Jacob-Hirsch, J; Rechavi, G; Carvajal, J; Tole, S; Kioussi, C; Quaggin, S; Tzahor, E (NATL ACAD SCIENCES, 2012-11-13) ...
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Spammers have clearly rallied following the McColo takedown, and overall spam volume growth during Q1 2009 was the strongest its been since early 2008, increasing an average of 1.2% per day. To put that number into
The influence of dosing time on the antitumor effect and the rhythm disturbance effect of melatonin (MLT) was investigated in ICR male mice under a light/dark (12:12) cycle. In tumor-bearing mice, the antitumor effect of MLT (1 mg/kg intraperitoneal) was most effective in the dark phase; and the rhythm disturbance effect of MLT on the locomotor activity was more serious in the light phase than in the dark phase. The antitumor effect and the rhythm disturbance effect of MLT increased when the specific binding of MLT receptor in target tissues, tumor or suprachiasmatic nucleus, increased and they decreased when the level decreased. Furthermore, because luzindole, an MT1 and MT2 blocker, caused the antitumor effect or rhythm disturbance effect of MLT to decrease, it is suggested that the time-dependent change of the pharmacological effects of MLT were influenced by that of MLT receptor(s) function. On the other hand, there was no significant dosing time-dependent change of MLT concentration in ...