BioAssay record AID 318590 submitted by ChEMBL: Elevation in glycogen level in fasting BALB/c mouse at 5.70 mg/kg, ip after 3 hrs.
An adoptive secondary antibody response to phosphorylcholine (PC) can be generated by the transfer of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-primed T cells, PC-bovine gamma globulin-primed B cells, and PC-KLH into irradiated syngeneic BALB/c mice. If the KLH-primed T-cell donors were pretreated with anti-idiotype antibodies directed against the BALB/c PC-binding myeloma TEPC 15, their T cells were unable to collaborate effectively with PC-primed B cells; moreover, they could suppress the helper activity of T cells from normal mice for the PC-KLH response. The Ly phenotype of these T cells was found to be Ly 1-, 2+. The specificity of the suppressor T-cell population induced by anti-T15 treatment appears to be both for idiotype (hapten) and carrier, since the suppressor T cells fail to interfere with the antibody response to PC on a heterologous carrier, nor do they suppress the response to trinitrophenol-KLH. ...
Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6.3 or 5 mM Tris.HCl, pH 7.4 and 0.1 mg/ml silica over a range of DODAB concentrations (0.001-1 mM) by means of dynamic light scattering for particle sizing and zeta-potential analysis. 0.05 mM DODAB is enough to produce cationic bilayer-covered particles with good colloid stability. Secondly, conditions for maximal adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a recombinant, heat-shock protein from Mycobacterium leprae (18 kDa-hsp) onto DODAB-covered or onto bare silica were determined. At maximal antigen adsorption, cellular immune responses in
It is well established that immunogenic tumors, such as EMT6, induce the generation of tumor-sensitized T lymphocytes in host mice. If the host animals are cured of tumor (e.g., by surgical excision or X-ray treatment), these immune cells will maintain long-term resistance to rechallenge with the same tumor. In experiments combining PDT and adoptive transfer, the presence of tumor-sensitized T cells among the splenocytes of BALB/c mice cured previously from EMT6 tumors, and their absence from naïve BALB/c spleen cell populations, made a critical difference to therapy outcome. Significant levels of cures of PDT-treated EMT6 tumors growing in engrafted scid mice were achieved only in the former case.. Severe deficiency in the activity of lymphoid populations in scid mice (17) is responsible for the absence of cures of PDT-treated EMT6 tumors growing in these animals (11) . It appears that the adoptive transfer of naïve BALB/c splenocytes was inadequate to reconstitute the T-cell activity in scid ...
BALB/c Mouse Intestinal Mesenteric Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from intestinal mesenteric tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Intestinal Mesenteric Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
In this study, we demonstrated the immune mechanisms and protection induced by a novel unencapsulated S. pneumoniae attenuated live SPY1 vaccine. An elevated humoral immune response and Th2, Th17, and modulatory cellular responses were detected in immunized mice. Interestingly, we noticed that the upregulation of IFN-γ in immune splenocyte supernatants in C57BL/6 mice was not SPY1 specific but might be triggered by CT, an adjuvant reported to possess the potential ability to stimulate a Th1 immune subset (26), which was different from the response in BALB/c mice (5). The reasons for these differences may be due to the different genetic backgrounds of the BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice (27, 28). In this study, to further investigate the immune mechanisms mediating protection induced by SPY1, several different types of immune deficient mice with different genetic backgrounds (nude BALB/c mice, B cell-deficient BALB/c mice, IFN-γ-deficient C57BL/6 mice, IL-4-deficient C57BL/6 mice, and IL-17A-deficient ...
Specific unresponsiveness can be induced in neonatal and adult BALB/c mice by antibody against antigen-specific receptor (antireceptor antibody). When heterologous antireceptor antibody is used in the indirect fluorescence technique, the number of fluorescent cells in these animals is significantly lower than in normal animals. Fluorescent cells appear after a relatively brief incubation of cells from adult-suppressed animals, whereas no fluorescent cells are detected when cells from neonatally treated animals are incubated briefly. Evidently, treating neonatal mice with antireceptor antibody specifically depletes the antigen-responsive clone. In contrast, antireceptor antibody causes reversible blockade of responsive cells in adult-suppressed animals. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Oral HIVacc: Oral Mucosal Immunization Approaches for HIV Prevention (R01) RFA-DE-16-006. NIDCR
(A) CBE at the Igκ locus in B cell development. Purified DNA from sorted subpopulations of B cells from wild-type Balb/c mice was subjected to LMPCR to detect
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biological dose response to PM2.5. T2 - Effect of particle extraction method on platelet and lung responses. AU - Van Winkle, Laura S.. AU - Bein, Keith. AU - Anderson, Donald. AU - Pinkerton, Kent E. AU - Tablin, Fern. AU - Wilson, Dennis W. AU - Wexler, Anthony S.. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - Particulate matter (PM) exposure contributes to respiratory diseases and cardiopulmonary mortality. PM toxicity is related to sources and composition, such as abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We exposed adult male BALB/c mice, via oropharyngeal aspiration, to a range of doses of PM2.5 collected during the winter in downtown Sacramento near a major freeway interchange (SacPM). Two preparation methods (spin-down and multi-solvent extraction) were tested to remove particles from collection filters. Three doses were analyzed 24h after treatment for (1) leukocytes and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), (2) airway-specific and whole lobe expression ...
Inefficient experimental designs are common in animal-based biomedical research, wasting resources and potentially leading to unreplicable results. Here we illustrate the intrinsic statistical power of split-plot designs, wherein three or more sub-units (e.g. individual subjects) differing in a variable of interest (e.g. genotype) share an experimental unit (e.g. a cage or litter) to which a treatment is applied (e.g. a drug, diet, or cage manipulation). We also empirically validate one example of such a design, mixing different mouse strains -- C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c -- within cages varying in degree of enrichment. As well as boosting statistical power, no other manipulations are needed for individual identification if co-housed strains are differentially pigmented, so also sparing mice from stressful marking procedures. The validation involved housing 240 females from weaning to 5 months of age in single- or mixed- strain trios, in cages allocated to enriched or standard treatments. Mice were
Read Caraparu virus induces damage and alterations in antioxidant defenses in the liver of BALB/c mice after subcutaneous infection, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
BioAssay record AID 423140 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in hMPV infected BALB/c mouse assessed as body weight loss treated 24 hrs after viral challenge measured after 5 days.
Results C57 mice demonstrated a higher total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and BAL lymphocyte count at 3 and 7 days after intraperitoneal infection compared with BALB mice. There were no differences in BAL cytokine production; however, we were able to demonstrate differences in CMV DNA load in the lungs of BALB mice compared with that of C57 mice. In addition, there appeared to be increased whole-lung production of the TH2 cytokine IL-10 in the BALB mice versus the C57 mice. ...
It is well accepted that Th1 cells play a central role for protection against TB [41]. Therefore, animals that are deficient in IFN-γ, IFN-γ receptor, Stat-4, T-bet, or IL-12 exhibit increased susceptibility to M. tb infection [25], [42], [43]. BCG induces a robust Th1 response, but this does not appear to be sufficient for optimal protection against challenge with virulent M. tb [44]. Abundant Th1 cell responses have been found in TB patients as well as M. tb infected animals [45], [46]. Thus, Th1 cells alone are not sufficient for protection against TB. Therefore, in addition to Th1 cell responses, a vaccine needs to induce additional Th cell response(s) to provide optimal protection against TB. Recently, it has been shown that Th17 cells play an important role in the secondary immune response against TB [16]. However, Th17 cells do not appear to participate in the primary immune response against TB [17]. Our findings clearly demonstrated that BCG and H37RvΔRD1 are unable to induce Th17 ...
Induction of 3 populations of MCs in lung of BALB/c mice 1 to 14 days after challenges. BALB/c mice were sensitized and either not challenged (NC) or challenged
The training was aimed to provide the basic understanding and practical know-how on protection mainstreaming and developing a context analysis that considers threats as well as the needs, vulnerabilities, and capacities of populations in FSL programming.. ...
H2.35 cells were cloned from a colony that arose from the SV40 transformed cells. H2.35 is an epithelial-like cell line derived from a primary hepatocyte culture. Cells were collected from the livers of 6 week old female BALB/c mice, incubated at 33°C, and infected with tsA255 (a temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 virus).
Antibodies, Monoclonal;Antigens, CD;Antigens, CD2;Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte;Drug Synergism;Graft Survival;Heart Transplantation;Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed;Mice, Inbred BALB C;Mice, Inbred C57BL;Mice, Inbred CBA;Receptors ...
Antibodies, Monoclonal;Antigens, CD;Antigens, CD2;Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte;Drug Synergism;Graft Survival;Heart Transplantation;Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed;Mice, Inbred BALB C;Mice, Inbred C57BL;Mice, Inbred CBA;Receptors ...
The mutant showed a different (delayed) course of parasitemia in BALB/c mice and BALB/c mice showed a delayed death from infection. Mutant blood stages showed a restricted host cell range ...
Genetic analysis of antibodies reveals how microbes in the intestines impact overall B cell populations and humoral responses to pathogens
The line was produced by fusing P3X63Ag8 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice that had been immunized with influenza virus (A.PR/8/34).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth using a silicalite/silicone membrane. AU - Qureshi, N.. AU - Meagher, M. M.. AU - Hutkins, Robert W. PY - 1999/6/1. Y1 - 1999/6/1. N2 - A silcone-silicalite-1 composite membrane was synthesized to recover acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) from model solutions and the Clostridium acetobutylicum (ABE) fermentation broth. The adsorption capacity of the silicalite-1 in the presence of a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol were 8-12, 85-90 and ,5mg/g, respectively. There was no apparent difference of absorption rate of butanol at 36°C and 79°C and desorption of butanol occurred efficiently at 78°C and 1-3Torr. The silicalite-1 was characterized by chemical analysis, NMR, electron micrographs, surface area and pore size determination and found to have identical properties to other silicalite-1 reported in the literature. The silicalite-1 was incorporated into a silicone membrane in an effort to enhance butanol ...
To understand the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, we examined chemokine and cytokine production in susceptible (C3H/HeN) and resistant (BALB/c) mice after infection with O. tsutsugamushi Gilliam. C3H/HeN mice produced high levels of chemokines macrophage inflammatory proteins 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha ), MIP-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and cytokines gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) in response to O. tsutsugamushi infection, compared to BALB/c mice. Chemokine profiles in infected mice correlated well with the kinetics of inflammatory cell infiltration. Hyperproduction of chemokines and cytokines was observed in another susceptible-infection model (BALB/c-Karp). These results suggest that hyperproduction of chemokines and cytokines are associated with susceptibility during O. tsutsugamushi infection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Congenital toxoplasmosis in the Balb/c mouse. T2 - prevention of vertical disease transmission and fetal death by vaccination. AU - Roberts, C W. AU - Brewer, J M. AU - Alexander, J. PY - 1994/11. Y1 - 1994/11. N2 - Vertical disease transmission only occurs in Balb/c mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii for the first time during pregnancy. This is similar to the situation in humans, where a previous infection with T. gondii tends to give life-long immunity against reinfection and fetal disease transmission. The Balb/c mouse therefore provides a suitable model to study the effectiveness of T. gondii vaccine candidates. A soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAB) preparation was used to vaccinate female Balb/c mice. STAB was inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), emulsified in Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA), or entrapped within non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV). While all inocula induced cellular immunity as measured by parasite-specific spleen ...
Inhibitory Effects of Black currant seed oil on 2,4-D initrochlorobenzene Induced Atopic Dermatitis in BALB/c Mice Model;kpubs;kpubs.org
Results of our chimaera experiments revealed no evidence that BALB/c cells were preferentially allocated to the mTE but indicated they were at a selective disadvantage between E4.5 and E8.5. We confirmed previous reports that preimplantation BALB/c embryos lagged behind embryos of some other strains and showed that the relative stage of development attained by E2.5 embryos of different strains correlated with the contribution they made to chimaeras. This suggests that the poor contribution of BALB/c embryos to aggregation chimaeras is at least partly because they lag behind their partner embryos, due to delayed or slow development.. In principle, heterosis of non-inbred partner embryos might also have contributed to the poor contribution of BALB/c cells in BALB/c↔BF2, BALB/c↔(BF1×TGB) and BALB/c↔(BF1×TP6.3) chimaeras, if hybrid cells outgrow BALB/c cells. However, this does not explain the differences in compositions of (BALB/c×AF1)↔BF2 and (AF1×BALB/c)↔BF2 chimaeras (West et al., ...
Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Species, Research Topics, Locale, Publications about Experts and Doctors on inbred balb c mice in Galveston, Texas, United States
Acute exposure to diesel exhaust particles elicits dose-dependent pulmonary inflammatory and impairment of lung function in naive BALB/C mice
Airborne allergens can induce an immunological chronic disease characterized by airway hyper responsiveness and inflammation, mediated by exaggerated Th2 immune response. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is effective for treating this condition because it is able to modify its natural course by opposing the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and determining immune suppression, immune deviation and tolerance. The rational for the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving allergoid-based IT in terms of efficacy and safety. Recently, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), the active metabolite of vitamin D3, was described to be a potent inducer of T regulatory cells and to be a good adjuvant in AIT settings. We investigated whether the co-administration of VD3 could potentiate the effect of AIT even when added to a low dose of chemically-modified monomeric allergoid of Der p 2 (d2-OID), in a Derp p 2 (d2)-sensitized BALB/c mice model. Control groups where treated with sham, VD3 alone or
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymphokine-activated tumor inhibition in vivo. I. The local administration of interleukin 2 triggers nonreactive lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice to inhibit tumor growth. AU - Forni, G.. AU - Giovarelli, M.. AU - Santoni, A.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - CE-2 is a chemically induced tumor of low immunogenicity in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Nylon wool columns eluting lymphocytes from the spleen of mice bearing clinically evident (5-mm mean diameter) CE-2 tumors (CE-2 TB lymphocytes) do not react with CE-2 cells in vitro, nor are they able to affect their growth in vivo in a Winn-type neutralization assay at 5:1 lymphocyte:tumor cell ratio. However, they become able to inhibit CE-2 tumor growth when 20 U of interleukin 2 (IL 2) in 0.4 ml are injected daily for 10 days at the challenge site. In contrast, mice injected with CE-2 cells and IL 2 only display tumor takes and growth that are not significantly different from those in controls challenged with CE-2 cells alone. This ...
The early life period represents a time of immunological plasticity whereby the functionality immature immune system is highly susceptible to environmental stimulation. Perennial aeroallergen and respiratory viral infection induced sporadic episodes of lung inflammation during this temporal window represent major risk factors for initiation of allergic asthmatic disease. Murine models are widely used as an investigative tool to examine the pathophysiology of allergic asthma; however, models in current usage typically do not encapsulate the early life period which represents the time of maximal risk for disease inception in humans. To address this issue, this protocol adapted an experimental animal model of disease for sensitization to ovalbumin during the immediate post-weaning period beginning at 21 days of age. By initially sensitizing mice during this early life post-weaning period, researchers can more closely align experimental allergic. ...
DTA-1 mAb abrogates suppression mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cells. (A) CD4+ CD25- or CD4+ CD25+ T cells (gated as a or b, respectively) were purified by cell-sorter from BALB/c spleen cells. (B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells (open square and closed square) or CD4+ CD25- T cells (open circle and closed circle) purified from 2-month-old BALB/c mice, or these two populations mixed in equal amounts (open triangle and closed triangle), were stimulated for 3 days along with MMC-treated spleen cells as APC in the absence or presence of graded amounts of DTA-1 mAb. Incorporation of [3H] thymidine by proliferating lymphocytes during the last 6 hr of the culture was measured. (C) Spleen cell suspensions prepared from 2-month-old BALB/c mouse were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD25 and DTA-1. Expression of GITR (DTA-1) on CD4+ CD25+ T cells or CD4+ CD25- T cells is shown in the histogram. The dotted lines represent control staining with an irrelevant Ab.. ...
Cytokines have important roles in the control of bacterial and viral infections such as HIV-1. Interleukin 17 which is secreted by Th17 is one of these cytokines with a special role in controlling microbial infections. In the present study, adjuvant activity of Alum and Naloxone mixture has been studied on immune responses, especially IL-17 cytokine. Naloxone and Alum adjuvant are mixed with 10 µg of recombinant vaccine HIV-1-gag-pol-tat-env. Experimental groups, consisting of 36 inbred male Balb/c mice divided into six groups, were injected subcutaneouslyat days 0, 14 and 28 with total volume of 200 µl. 2 weeks after final injection, mouse spleens were removed in sterile conditions and used to prepare suspensions. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were evaluated with Brdu test and evaluation of cytokines IL-4, IL-17 and INF-γ were completed using ELISA kit, plus total antibody and antibody isotopes IgG1 and IgG2a using ELISA test. All results show that the mixture of Alum with Naloxone
BALB/c Mouse Mammary Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from breast tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Mammary Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Animal models. The mouse model of podocyte injury and proteinuria was established by intravenous injection of ADR as described previously (23). Male BALB/c mice weighing 20-22 g and 24-week-old db/db mice were obtained from the Envigo. For pharmacologic inhibition experiments, CPN was intraperitoneally injected daily at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight after ADR or 2 weeks before sacrifice in db/db mice. CPN was complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBC; MilliporeSigma). A CPN/HBC stock solution was prepared by suspending 1 mg CPN in 1 ml 45% HBC in sterile PBS and stirring at 65°C for 60 minutes. Three groups of BALB/c mice were used: (a) sham control (n = 5-6), (b) ADR mice injected with vehicle (n = 6), and (c) ADR mice treated with CPN (n = 6). ADR (doxorubicin hydrochloride; MilliporeSigma) was administered by a single intravenous injection at 10 mg/kg body weight. At 1 and 5 weeks after ADR injection, all mice were euthanized. At 2 weeks after CPN injection, db/db mice were killed. ...
Background: Food allergy is considered as resulting from an impaired development or a breakdown of oral tolerance. We aimed to induce oral tolerance to the major cows milk allergen bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) or corresponding trypsin hydrolysates (BLG-Try) and to investigate the mechanisms involved.. Methods: Wild-type BALB/cJ mice were gavaged on days 1-3 and 8-10 with different doses of native BLG (nBLG) or with nBLG-Try and were then sensitized on day 14 by i.p. administration of BLG in alum. Sensitization was assessed by measurement of BLG-specific antibodies in sera and of cytokines secreted by BLG-reactivated splenocytes. Elicitation of the allergic reaction was assessed by measurement of cytokines and mMCP-1 in sera collected 35 min after an oral challenge. Cellular and biochemical markers of the allergic reaction were also analysed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BAL) collected 24 h after intra-nasal challenge. Analysis of the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in different organs obtained 3 ...
RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Current researches in vitro confirm that RBM5 can suppress the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis. There is still no effective model in vivo, however, that thoroughly investigates the effect and molecular mechanism of RBM5 on lung adenocarcinoma. We established the transplanted tumor model on BALB/c nude mice using the A549 cell line. The mice were treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce the overexpression of RBM5 in tumor tissues. RBM5 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. H&E staining was performed to observe the histological performance on plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining with a TUNEL detection kit. Apoptosis-regulated genes were detected by Western blot. We successful established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model in vivo. The growth of
Supplementary Components1. that NK cell HLI 373 effector features against Ab-coated tumor cells had been improved via binding of MICA on monocytes to NK cell NKG2D receptors. Ways of block MICA-NKG2D relationships led to reductions in IFN creation. Depletion of monocytes led to decreased IFN creation by murine NK cells upon contact with Ab-coated tumor cells. In mice getting IL12 and trastuzumab therapy, monocyte depletion led to higher tumor development compared to mock-depleted settings ( 0 significantly.05). These data claim that NK cell-monocyte relationships enhance NK cell antitumor activity within the establishing of monoclonal Ab therapy for tumor. research, wild-type BALB/c splenocytes had been cocultured with CT-26HER2/neu tumor cells. Tradition supernatants were examined for muIFN by ELISA. NKG2D knockout mice had been supplied by Dr. David Raulet. For the murine tumor research, mice received we.p. shots of control or clodronate-containing liposomes (1 mg/kg in 100 uL PBS) on times 0 ...
In vitro PMA/ionomycin treatment for 5 h, which activates a signal transduction step down-stream of ZAP-70 and therefore equally activates SKG and BALB/c T cells, revealed that a significant fraction of LN CD4+ T cells from nonarthritic SKG mice in an SPF environment were producing IL-17A (hereafter IL-17), whereas SKG or BALB/c CD4-SP thymocytes or BALB/c CD4+ T cells were not (Fig. 1 A and Fig. S1, which is available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/jem.20062259/DC1). Such IL-17-producing SKG CD4+ T cells also produced at a single cell level TNF-α and IL-2, but not IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-10, a profile distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells and similar to that of Th17 cells (Fig. 1 A; references 7-9). CD4+ T cells freshly prepared from nonarthritic SKG mice also actively transcribed IL-17 and IL-23R mRNA (Fig. 1 B). In arthritic SKG mice raised in a conventional environment, arthritic joints actively transcribed IL-17 mRNA, whereas nonarthritic ones did not (Fig. 1 C). Correspondingly, CD4+ T cells ...
It has recently been shown that dermal application of the commonly used antimicrobial compound triclosan, enhanced allergic responses in a mouse asthma model. To help elucidate the mechanisms of this augmented allergic response, we investigated the early immune-related effects of dermal triclosan exposure in mice. Triclosan was applied daily to the dorsal surface of the ears of BALB/c mice at conc
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alloreactivity and tumor antigens. T2 - Generation of syngeneic antilymphoma killer lymphocytes by alloimmunization of mice with normal cells. AU - Sensi, M. L.. AU - Parenza, M.. AU - Parmiani, G.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The possibility of obtaining a syngeneic antitumor effect by immunization with normal allogeneic cells was investigated by tests of the lytic activity of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) of BALB/c mice immunized with lymphoid cells of either a single strain or a pool of six different allogeneic strains on the syngeneic Moloney virus-induced lymphoma YC8 target and on one of its clones designated YC8-D1. Significant cytotoxicity on both targets but not on two other BALB/c lymphomas was obtained with PEC of BALB/c mice singly immunized to the non-H-2-incompatible but H-2-compatible DBA/2 or B10.D2 lymphoid cells. The lack of lysis of YC8 cells by PEC of BALB/c mice immune to B10.A (H-2(k.d)) suggests that the in vitro killing was restricted by K(d)-IE(d) region ...
LPS pretreatment by the oral route protects against sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Regulation of proinflammatory response and IgM anti-LPS antibody production as associated mechanisms. F. Massó; R. Hernández-Pando; L. Montaño; R. Springall; L. Amezcua-Guerra // Inflammation Research;Sep2007, Vol. 56 Issue 9, p385 Abstract. Objective:Â Â To explore the efficacy of prophylactic oral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Material:Â Â Male Balb/c mice. LPS serotype O55: B5 Treatment:Â Â Mice were treated every 4 days for a total of 5 times with 50... ...
Mice and treatments. BALB-neuT mice were bred and maintained in the animal facility at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to the national and institutional guidelines. Normal 8 to 10-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were purchased from Charles River. F1 hybrids were obtained by mating BALB-neuT males with C57BL/6 or FVB females. The hemizygous transgenic females were identified by PCR performed at age 3 weeks ( 24).. MMP-9+/− mice on C57BL/6 background were kindly provided by Dr. Leif Lund (Panum Institute, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) as N17 generation. They were backcrossed to BALB/c and the N6 generation, intercrossed to obtain either homozygous MMP-9−/− and heterozygous MMP-9+/− offspring to be used as bone marrow donors.. Zoledronate (Zometa; Novartis Europharm, Ltd.) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg or pamidronate (Faulding Pharmaceuticals) at a dose of 2 mg/kg were diluted in saline and administered daily s.c. 5 days a week. ...
Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum (PPBC) have poorer prognosis than age matched nulliparous women, even after controlling for clinical variables known to impact disease outcomes. Through rodent modeling, the poor prognosis of PPBC has been attributed to physiologic mammary gland involution, which shapes a tumor promotional microenvironment through induction of wound-healing-like programs including myeloid cell recruitment. Previous studies utilizing immune compromised mice have shown that blocking prostaglandin synthesis reduces PPBC tumor progression in a tumor cell extrinsic manner. Given the reported roles of prostaglandins in myeloid and T cell biology, and the established importance of these immune cell populations in dictating tumor growth, we investigate the impact of involution on shaping the tumor immune milieu and its mitigation by ibuprofen in immune competent hosts. In a syngeneic (D2A1) orthotopic Balb/c mouse model of PPBC, we characterized the impact of mammary
All types of cancer include cancer cells that do and do not express tumor antigens. In previous cancer immunotherapies, activated immune cells attacked only one of these two types of tumor cells, whereas in NKT cell-targeted cancer chemotherapy, adjuvant effects are induced which in turn simultaneously activates both the innate immune system, involving NK cells, and the acquired immune system, involving CD8T cells (killer T-cells). The adjuvant effects are in fact mediated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) which is produced by NKT cells, and thus effectively attacks and eliminates both types of tumor cells. In addition, its efficacy is not restricted by anti-tumor antigens and it is therefore expected to have anti-tumor efficacy against all types of tumor cells including expressing neo-antigens. ...
Azoxymethane (AOM) is a colon carcinogen that is used to study the pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer. We have evaluated differential susceptibility to AOM in inbred mice used as progenitors of recombinant/transgenic lines. In experiment 1, male FVB/N, 129/SvJ, C57Bl/6J mice were treated i.p. with 10 mg/kg AOM once per week for 4 weeks and sacrificed after 20 weeks. Only AOM-treated FVB/N mice developed tumors (3.6 tumors/mouse) in distal colon. In experiment 2, A/J, AKR/J, Balb/CJ mice were treated with AOM for 6 weeks and sacrificed after 24 weeks. AOM-treated A/J and Balb/CJ mice developed 9.2 and 1 tumor/mouse, respectively. Despite these differences, tumors had similar morphology regardless of strain. Immunohistochemistry with β-catenin resulted in marked nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of tumor cells in FVB/N. However, fainter and heterogeneous β-catenin staining was observed in A/J tumors, suggesting distinct pathways of tumorigenesis in different strains. Irrespective of ...
We previously demonstrated that the chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung and liver metastases of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. To examine early transcriptional responses to tumour progression in the liver and lungs of HFD-fed mice, 4-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: sham-injected, control diet (CD)-fed; sham-injected, HFD-fed (SH); 4T1 cell-injected, CD-fed (TC); 4T1 cell-injected, HFD-fed (TH). Following 16 weeks of either a CD or HFD, 4T1 cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice in the TC and TH groups and all mice were continuously fed identical diets. At 14 d post-injection, RNA was isolated from hepatic and pulmonary tissues for microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Functional annotation and core network analyses were conducted for the TH/SH Unique gene set. Inflammation in hepatic tissues and cell mitosis in pulmonary tissues were the most significant biological functions in the TH/SH Unique gene ...
Background: Proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib and the tetrapeptide epoxyketone carfilzomib, have shown strong antitumor activity in patients with multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Anti‐tumor responses are due to direct tumor cell cytotoxicity but may also involve effects on growth factors, angiogenesis and stromal cell interactions. The effect of proteasome inhibitors on metastatic spread has not been well studied in pre‐clinical models. PR‐047 is a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, that is structurally related to carfilzomib. PR‐047 has demonstrated potent anti‐tumor activity in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors of multiple histotypes.. Aim: To evaluate the effect of PR‐047 on metastatic spread in mice bearing tumors of the 4T1 mammary carcinoma, an invasive tumor cell line that can spontaneously metastasize from the primary tumor to multiple sites.. Methods: 6-8 week old female BALB/c mice were challenged in the mammary fat pad (metastatic ...
The present study aims to investigate the long-term histopathological, and physiological effects of different concentrations of a commercially available energy drink (Tiger) on liver and kidney of young mice. Sixteen Balb/c male mice,6 -week old, were divided into 4 groups (n=4). Two groups consumed the energy drink at a concentration of 28µl energy drink/ml water. One group were killed after 10 days (T1), another group were killed after 20 days (T2). Other group of mice consumed the energy drink at a final concentration of 14µl/ml for 20 days (T3). The last group was provided only with water and served as control. Mice of all groups drank around 3 ml per day. The histopathological study on liver of treated groups showed many changes such as inflammatory cells infiltration and aggregation with hepatocyts necrosis, some of these necrosis replaced by RBCs and inflammatory cells, while the pathohistological changes in kidney of treated groups limited to aggregation of RBCs and inflammatory cells ...
Mice and virus. Specific pathogen-free human DPP4-KI mice were generated as described earlier (10). Male and female mice, 8-12 weeks of age, were used for these studies. B6, B6-Ly5.1, and BALB/c mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratories. MAVS-/- mice on a B6 background and TLR7-/- mice on a BALB/c background were a gift from Michael Gale Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA) and Westley Reeves (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, with permission from Shizuo Akira, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan), respectively. TLR7-/- mice were re-derived by crossing them with Charles River BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories). Mice were bred and maintained at the University of Iowa animal care facility. The MERS-CoV-MA15 strain was generated as described earlier (10). Mice were anesthetized using xylazine-ketamine and i.n. infected with a 200 to 250 PFU (sublethal), 500 PFU (LD50), or 1000 PFU (lethal) dose of MERS-CoV-MA in 50 μL DMEM. All work with MERS-CoV was ...
18. Kahsay GEBRETSADIK (postgraduate student, Ethiopia): Evaluation of in vivo antifibrogenic properties of the HDAC inhibitors TSA and 4-Me2N-BAPH in the CCl4-induced Balb/C mouse model of hepatic fibrosis (2000 ...
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The modified Gompertz equation has been proposed to fit experimental data for direct current treated tumors when multiple-straight needle electrodes are individually inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. The aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of direct current generated by multiple-electrode arrays on F3II mammary carcinoma that grow in the male and female BALB/c/Cenp mice, when multiple-straight needle electrodes and multiple-pairs of electrodes are inserted in the tumor. A longitudinal and retrospective preclinical study was carried out. Male and female BALB/c/Cenp mice, the modified Gompertz equation, intensities (2, 6 and 10 mA) and exposure times (10 and 20 min) of direct current, and three geometries of multiple-electrodes (one formed by collinear electrodes and two by pair-electrodes) were used. Tumor volume and mice weight were measured. In addition, the mean tumor doubling time, tumor regression percentage, tumor growth delay, direct current overall
Female Balb/c mice were oxvariectomed at lactation day 2, pups forced weaned at lactation day 12 to initiate mammary involution. At 24 hours post-weaning, mice were treated with anti-Ly6G antibodies or isotype control. At 48 hours post-weaning, mice were treated with 20µg/kg of body weight estrogen or vehicle control. Mice sacrificed after 24 hours estrogen treatment and mammary sample collected and frozen. Mammary samples were extracted for total RNA using Trizol reagen and then treated ...
We previously demonstrated that culturing antigen-sensitized draining lymph node (DLN) lymphocytes from BALB/c mice in interleukin (IL)-7/15 after activation with bryostatin/ionomycin (B/I) is superior to culture in IL-2 for expansion, differentiation to cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ cells and anti-tumor activity. We sought to determine whether the substitution or addition of IL-21 to culture had a similar effect. DLN lymphocytes were antigen-sensitized with 4T1 mammary carcinoma 10 days prior to harvest, activated with B/I, and expanded in culture for 7 days with either IL-2, IL-21, IL-2/21, IL-7/15, or IL-7/15/21. Cellular expansion, phenotype, interferon (IFN)-γ responses, and in vivo anti-tumor activity were compared. We found that T cells grown in IL7/15/21 demonstrated significantly greater lymphocyte expansion than IL-2, IL-21, IL-2/21, and IL-7/15 (38.4-fold vs. 5.5, 6.6, 9.5, and 23.9-fold, respectively). Of these expanded cells, IL-7/15/21 significantly expanded the greatest percentage of
In the last part the differential response of splenic mature B cells to the mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. It was known that frequencies of LPS-reactive B cells in C57BL/6 mice is higher than in BALB/c mice. In this study, it could be shown that actually the FOB cells of C57BL/6 respond stronger to LPS in vitro than FOB cells of the BALB/c strain. In addition, MZB cells of both mouse strains showed a stronger response to LPS than the FOB cells. However, in contrast to the observation in FOB cells, MZB cells of both tested strains responded equally strong. A genetic approach did not lead to the identification of a responsible locus for the observed differential response in FOB cells, but indicated that most probably multiple genes control the response in a differential fashion in FOB cells in the tested mouse strains. Furthermore, the results suggest that the stronger response of FOB cells from C57BL/6 mice either involves components within the MyD88-dependent pathway or ...
(Reuters) - Early results from tests for a coronavirus vaccine being developed by the University of Oxford, in collaboration with AstraZeneca Plc, show it produces a robust immune response in elderly people, the group at
While Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have been shown to be effective as a cancer immunotherapy [1], especially when used in combination with N-BPs [5-15], little is known about the in vivo behaviour of human γδ T cells in murine models. This is important to find out if a correlation between the number of γδ T cells in tumour mass and the success of the therapy can be established. While the use of human γδ T cells in cancer therapy is well established, yet questions remain concerning mechanisms involved in recruiting these cells to specific tumours in different tissues. This is an important issue since localisation to the tumour mass is thought to be required for efficacy. Previous studies where human γδ T cells were adoptively transferred in different tumour models established in mice mostly used qualitative, histological approaches to address tumour accumulation [7, 10]. In this work a highly quantitative and unbiased approach is used to measure human γδ T cell accumulation in tumours grown in ...
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors. Furthermore, this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells. These results suggest that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.. ...
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CD4 T cells inhibit in vivo the CD8-mediated immune response against murine colon carcinoma cells transduced with interleukin-12 genes.: Retroviral-mediated cyt
We also use the Cre-loxP system, in which a gene of interest is engineered to contain loxP sites flanking a critical region of the gene. A mouse containing the floxed gene is normal, because the loxP sites are silent. Upon expression of the Cre recombinase, which removes DNA sequences flanked by loxP sites, that gene is inactivated. We use three methods for inducing Cre in a region-specific manner in brain. In one, we breed mice containing a floxed gene to mice in which Cre is inducibly expressed under the tetracycline system described above. In the second, we breed them to mice that express modified forms of Cre, which can be activated upon local injection of a chemical in brain. In the third, we use viral vectors encoding Cre to create localized knockouts of the floxed gene. Together, these various approaches enable us to exert powerful control over a drug- or stress-regulated protein ...
Immunization of Balb/c mice ( up to 5 animals) with antigen to stimulate antibody production. You may choose to follow our standard immunization protocol, or work with our staff to use your own protocol. We typically inject mouse every two weeks for 6 weeks before taking a test bleed. The test bleed serum samples are analyzed for antibody production using ELISA. If desired, clients can request up to 0.5 ml serum sample/per mouse for their own additional characterization. ELISA will be used to determine the highest titer mice to be used for cell fusion. Immunization may continue longer if response is not optimal. ...
By Phage do you mean a plasmid? if this this so it could be some kind of DNA immunization. I have done it in the past for one of my research project. I wanted the BALB/c mouse to produce antibody against a complicated molecule that couldnt be purified and injected because the configuration could changed once the molecule was purified. Therefore, we decided to express the original molecule in mice by plasmid injection and immunization and have mice make the antibody against the foreign molecule expressed in the body ...
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Figure 2: Toxoid specific antibody response (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA) elicited after oral immunization in mice. BALB/c mice (n=6) were orally immunized with a single dose of BSA (80 μg) either free or adjuvanted with 10 μg of CT (Cholera Toxin) or rVTX1 (recombinant verotoxin). Antibody response against the corresponding protein-adjuvant was determined up to 5 weeks. Significant differences between CT and rVTX1 groups are indicated by asterisks (*P. 0.05 ...