Summary: During the adaptation of Pseudomonas aminovorans from growth on succinate to growth on trimethylamine, the following enzymes were synthesized in the lag phase before exponential growth on trimethylamine began: trimethylamine and dimethylamine mono-oxygenases, trimethylamine-N-oxide aldolase (demethylase), glutathione- and NAD-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase, hydroxypyruvate reductase and N-methylglutamate dehydrogenase. Differential plots suggested that the rate of enzyme synthesis in the lag phase exceeded the rate of synthesis during exponential growth. The evidence suggests that the enzymes discussed are essential for growth on trimethylamine, while the NADPH-dependent N-methylalanine dehydrogenase is not involved.
Fish odor syndrome (trimethylaminuria) is a genetic disease. Symptoms are often present from birth. Fish odor syndrome is characterized by an offensive body odor and the smell of rotting fish due...
Increases in total volatile bases and loss of trimethylamine oxide were followed through the processing for canning of albacore using three time/temperature conditions. Increases in the bases up to 500mg kg−1 were associated with retention of good quality ...
Find local Fish Odor Syndrome (Trimethylaminuria) resources for the top U.S. cities - includes physician directory, list of local hospitals, and emergency contacts
The pro-atherosclerotic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular events and a potentially modifiable mediator of chronic inflammation through broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment by changing the microbiome. Whether TMAO is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in acute inflammatory community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients is unknown.; A total of 317 CAP patients from a previous Swiss multicenter trial were prospectively followed for a median of 6.1years. TMAO plasma levels were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used Cox regression models to investigate associations between baseline TMAO levels and all-cause mortality.; Six-year mortality was 45.1%, and 18.9% of the patients had coronary artery disease (CAD). Median admission TMAO (μmolL(-1)) levels were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (4.1 [interquartile range (IQR), 2.2-7.2] vs. 2.5 [IQR, 1.5-4.1]; p,0.001). A ...
The smell of rotten fish is one of the characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV), and is due to trimethylamine (TMA). Trimethylamine can be found in human urine, although most of it occurs as the nonvolatile oxide (TMAO) form. The fraction TMA/TMAO can be expected to be the same in different body fluids if no local production of TMA occurs. In women with BV, TMAO in the vaginal fluid is expected to be chemically reduced by the local bacterial flora to the much more odorous TMA. We have therefore studied the local vaginal production of TMA in vaginal secretion compared to the general TMA-TMAO metabolism that was measured in urine using gas chromatography. Both vaginal fluid and random urine samples were collected from women, with and without BV, attending a Swedish clinic for sexually transmitted diseases, and these samples were analyzed for TMA and TMAO. The results show that a local production of TMA occurs in the vagina that is not part of the general metabolism of TMA-TMAO.. ...
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMA-0) reductase activity of resting cells of Escherichia coli was inhibited by tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na₄EDTA), benzoic acid (BA), and methylparaben (MP). The 50% inhibitory concentrations of Na₄EDTA, BA, and MP were 20.2, 1.2, and 32.4 mM, respectively. BA at pH 6.5 or below most effectively inhibited the TMA-0 reductase. Sorbic acid (SA), up to 0.70 mM, had no effect on TMA-0 reductase activity, but SA inhibited the growth and subsequent TMA production in E. coli at or above 0.35 mM ...
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is the organic compound in the class of amine oxides with the formula (CH3)3NO. This colorless solid compound is usually encountered as the dihydrate. It is a product of the oxidation of trimethylamine, a common metabolite in animals. Trimethylamine N-oxide is an osmolyte found in saltwater fish, sharks, rays, molluscs, and crustaceans. It is considered as a protein stabilizer that may serve to counteract urea, the major osmolyte of sharks, skates and rays. It is also higher in deep-sea fishes and crustaceans, where it may counteract the protein-destabilizing effects of pressure. TMAO decomposes to trimethylamine (TMA), which is the main odorant that is characteristic of degrading seafood. TMAO can be synthesized from trimethylamine by treatment with hydrogen peroxide: H2O2 + (CH3)3N → H2O + (CH3)3NO TMAO is biosynthesized from trimethylamine, which is derived from choline. Trimethylaminuria is a rare defect in the production of the enzyme flavin containing ...
Both gonatid and onychoteuthid squid are known to undertake ontogenetic vertical migrations whereby successive developmental stages occupy progressively greater depths. This migration is believed to end at depths greater than 1500 m, at which spawning and, at least in some cases, egg-brooding take place (Jackson and Mladenov, 1994; Arkhipkin and Bjorke, 1999; Seibel et al., 2000). The high lipid content in gonatid squids accumulates throughout their life and is thought to fuel an extended egg-brooding period (Seibel et al., 2000). The high TMAO values reported for gonatid squids were found in adult specimens. Preliminary measurements suggest that the concentration of TMAO is much lower in smaller individuals of the species (Fig. 5) and, as for lipids, that TMAO accumulates through ontogeny.. Given the ontogenetic descent to great depths undertaken by gonatid squids, an ontogenetic increase in TMAO concentration is consistent with the hypothesis that TMAO counteracts the effects of high ...
3M™ Ammonia Methylamine Filter 60924 is NIOSH approved to help provide respiratory protection against ammonia, methylamine and particulates. Use with 3M™ Half and Full Facepieces 6000, 7000 and FF-400 Series. This ammonia/methylamine cartridge/P100 filter can be used for a variety of applications, including agriculture, chemical manufacturing, laboratories and the food industry. Swept-back design offers enhanced comfort and visibility. When properly fitted, helps provide respiratory protection from ammonia, methylamine as well as non-oil and oil particulates at concentrations up to 10 times the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) with half facepieces or 50 times PEL with full facepieces. Full facepieces must be quantitatively fit tested to claim assigned protection factor above 10 in negative pressure mode. The 3M™ Ammonia/ Methylamine/Filter 60924 is not designed for use in environments that are Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH). Combined ammonia/methylamine cartridge with P100
AmtB is one of the ammonium transporter proteins facilitating the ammonium transport across the cellular membranes. Experimentally, the substrate used in in vitro studies is the radio labeled [14C]methylammonium, rather than ammonium itself. To explore the similarity and difference of the conduction mechanism of methylamine and ammonia molecules through AmtB, molecular dynamics simulations on 22 carefully designed systems were performed, which demonstrated that methylamine could be automatically transported in a very similar way to ammonia. The driving force for the conduction is mainly the hydrogen bond network comprising His168, His318, and Tyr32, working in coordination with NH−π interaction with residue Trp212. Then, Ser263 translocated the substrates from the exit gate into the cytoplasm by hydrogen bond interaction.The aromatic ring of Trp212 acted like a springboard to facilitate the translocation of the substrates from site Am2 to Am4 via NH−π interaction. Without the mediation of ...
Trimethylaminuria (TMAU), also known as fish odor syndrome or fish malodor syndrome, is a rare metabolic disorder that causes a defect in the normal production of the enzyme Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3).When FMO3 is not working correctly, the body loses the ability to properly breakdown trimethylamine.
Trimethylaminuria Prevention and Treatment: treatment - General: There is currently no cure for trimethylaminuria (TMAU), and treatment options are limited. However, with proper treatment or precautions, individuals with TMAU may be able to live normal, healthy lives. Generally, treatment is based on symptom management, although widely varying degrees of effectiveness have been reported. Depending on the type and cause of TMAU, an individual...
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Lung lamellar bodies, the storage organelles for lung surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC), maintain an acidic pH that can be increased with weak bases. This study investigates the effect of a weak base, methylamine, on the pH in lamellar bodies and on the trafficking and packaging of newly synthesized PC in lamellar bodies. Methylamine increased the pH of isolated lung lamellar bodies and of lamellar bodies in intact cells. Metabolic labelling of isolated type II cells with [methyl-3H]choline showed that although methylamine (2.5-10 mM) did not alter the labelling of cellular or microsomal PC and disaturated PC, it decreased the labelling of the PC and disaturated PC in lamellar bodies. The packaging of PC in lamellar bodies (the specific activities ratio between the PC in lamellar bodies and the microsomal PC) also decreased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The cellular synthesis of PC or its packaging into lamellar bodies was unaltered by brefeldin A, suggesting that the Golgi ...
Excessive consumption of diets high in sugars and saturated fat, frequently known as western diet (WD), may lead to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence shows that WD-induced obesity impairs cardiac function, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of specific dietary nutrients, has emerged as a key contributor to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that elevated circulating TMAO levels contribute to cardiac dysfunction in WD-induced obesity. CD1 mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or a WD, without or with 1.0 % 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, an inhibitor of trimethylamine formation) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Compared with mice fed a ND, mice fed a WD showed a significant increase in body weight and dyslipidemia, and had markedly higher plasma TMAO levels at the end of the feeding protocol. Echocardiography revealed that cardiac systolic and diastolic function was impaired in mice
Repeated dose toxicity: oral In 1990, Sarkar et al. investigated the short- and long-term residual effects of methylamine, after oral gavage to rats. Methylamine did not cause adverse effects if administered either by gavage or in diet to rats during 90 days. The test material was administered to the rats by gavage (10 mg/kg bw) daily and in diet (100 mg/kg bw), which is a more relevant appliction route for humans. The rats received the test material during 21, 45, 65 and 90 days. Body weight gains, organs weights and enzyme activities tested were similar to those of controls.The NOAEL identified was 10 mg/kg/day of methylamine. In the OECD 422 Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test in Rats, a daily gavage administration of 0, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day of the test substance Methylammonium chloride, to male and female rats for 98 to 119 consecutive days, resulted in increased liver and kidney weights, squamous metaplasia of the ...
A brave singer has told of her daily battle to stop herself smelling of rotting fish. The stench is so strong that she makes any room that she occupies stink - and has forced her to avoid eating fishy...
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported. The atherogenic effect of TMAO is attributed to alterations in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, activation of inflammatory pathways and promotion foam cell formation. TMAO levels increase with decreasing levels of kidney function and is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. A number of therapeutic strategies are being explored to reduce TMAO levels, including use of oral broad spectrum antibiotics, promoting the
and the trillions of diverse bacteria that are housed in our gut and collectively referred to as the microbiota. Researchers have long known that red meat consumption was associated with increased heart disease. Originally it was thought that it was the saturated fat and cholesterol content of the red meat that was the culprit. However, further studies have shown that contents of these harmful substances werent enough to be the cause and something else was at work. Last year, researchers from the US found that l-carnitine, an amino acid particularly rich in red meat, was converted by the microbiota into a more harmful substance called trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). It is this substance rather than l-carnitine itself that is likely to be the causative factor according to the researchers for clogging up the arteries with cholesterol deposits. The fact that TMAO is formed by the microbes resident in the digestive tract is disturbing since many researchers have long argued that there is an ...
As noted earlier, organic osmolytes are typically called compatible solutes based on the hypothesis that these solutes (other than urea) do not interact with macromolecules in detrimental ways; thus, they can be safely up- and downregulated with little impact on cellular functions (Brown and Simpson, 1972; Yancey et al., 1982). This is in stark contrast to inorganic ions, which at high concentrations typically bind to and destabilize proteins and nucleic acids. Indeed, exposure of some cells to high NaCl medium can produce breaks in DNA (Kültz and Chakravarty, 2001).. In concert with the compatibility hypothesis, most osmolytes are neutral (either zwitterionic or lacking charges) at physiological pH, although some bacterial and archaeal osmolytes are anionic (e.g. diglycerol phosphate; Fig. 2) and are paired with K+ to achieve neutrality (Martin et al., 1999). In its simplest form, the compatibility hypothesis also suggests that organic osmolytes are interchangeable, i.e. that a cell can be ...
C-(4-FLUORO-BIPHENYL-4-YL)-METHYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE 518357-40-9 route of synthesis, C-(4-FLUORO-BIPHENYL-4-YL)-METHYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE chemical synthesis methods, C-(4-FLUORO-BIPHENYL-4-YL)-METHYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE synthetic routes ect.
(1-METHYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOL-2-YL)METHYLAMINE 20028-40-4 NMR spectrum, (1-METHYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOL-2-YL)METHYLAMINE H-NMR spectral analysis, (1-METHYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOL-2-YL)METHYLAMINE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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Check the Dias lab at http://diascristiano.wixsite.com/cris). Zhaoqian Su, Gopal Ravindhran, and Cristiano Dias, Effects of Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) on hydrophobic and charged interactions, J. Phys. Chem. B 122, 5557 (2018).. Zhaoqian Su, Farbod Mahmoudinobar, and Cristiano Dias, Role of TMAO on the conformation of peptides and its implication for proteins, Phys. Rev. Letters 119, 108102 (2017).. Zhaoqian Su and Cristiano L. Dias, Molecular mechanism of protein unfolding by urea, Journal of Molecular Liquids 228, 168-175 (2017).. Srinivasa R. Jampani, Farbood Mahmoudinobar, Zhaoqian Su and Cristiano L. Dias, Thermodynamics of Abeta16-21 dissociation from a fibril, PROTEIN: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics 83, 1963 (2015).. Cristiano L. Dias and Hue Sun Chan. Pressure-Dependence Properties of Elementary Hydrophobic Interactions: Ramifications for Activation Properties of Protein Folding. J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 7488 (2014).. Chitra Narayanan and Cristiano L. Dias. Hydrophobic ...
Answers for What does it mean if your urine smells like fish:There is a metabolic syndrome called fish odor syndrome(trimethylaminuria)which is caused byl excretion of trimethylamine MORE?
n-methyl-(1-methyl-1h-indol-7-yl)methylamine, 90%, Maybridge Amber Glass Bottle; 1g n-methyl-(1-methyl-1h-indol-7-yl)methylamine, 90%, Maybridge N-alkylindoles
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The effects of methylamine (40 % aqueous solution) on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investiged by Siche, O. and Wydra, V. (2020). The following nominal values (based on growth rate) were determined: EC50 (72h) , 281.8 mg active ingredient/L; EC20 (72 h) = 60.8 mg active ingredient/L; EC10 (72 h) = 20.5 mg active ingredient/L, a LOEC (72h) = 28.2 mg active ingredient/L and a NOEC(72 h) = 8.9 mg active ingredient/L. Furthermore, the following values based on yield were reported: EC50 (72h) = 46.7 mg active ingredient/L; EC20 (72 h) = 20.5 mg active ingredient/L; EC10 (72 h) = 11.9 mg active ingredient/L, a LOEC (72 h) = 28.2 mg active ingredient/L and a NOEC(72 h) = 8.9 mg active ingredient/L. In addition, there is a supporting QSAR calculation available. The result is an estimation by Ecosar v1.11 using an extensive set of structure-activity relationships (SARs). The substance methylamine is classified as Aliphatic Amine. The EC50 estimated for green algae is 43 mg/L. This value is significantly ...
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Latest evidence has implicated the gut microbiota within the susceptibility to coronary disease (CVD). Metabolomics research identified choline and its own derivative trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) as metabolites that predispose to CVD and thrombosis.1,2 The gut microbiota play an intermediate function in converting choline to trimethylamine (TMA). This metabolite after that undergoes oxidation within the liver organ by flavin-monooxygenase enzymes (FMOs) to TMAO, that is released in to the circulation finally.3 Within a mouse super model tiffany livingston vunerable to atherosclerosis, increased eating choline led to elevated plasma degrees of TMAO and accelerated plaque advancement.4 Dietary contact with TMAO elicited significant alterations in sterol/cholesterol fat burning capacity, accounting for elevated atherosclerosis. On the other hand, mice deprived from the intestinal flora, either treated or germ-free with antibiotics, demonstrated decreased circulating TMAO atherosclerosis and ...
The human gut is home to a vast number of commensal microorganisms, the intestinal microbiota, which influence physiology and metabolism within the body. Not only is the gut microbiota important for metabolism of xenobiotics, amino acids and carbohydrates, but its dynamic nature, especially in response to changes in diet, has fuelled research investigating a potential role in susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and obesity. Indeed, recent evidence has implicated the gut microbiota in insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease.1,2 Increasingly, research suggests that the gut microbiota appear to function at the intersection between host genotype and diet to influence host metabolism. Studies have adopted a metabolomics approach to identify small molecules that may act as potential triggers for cardiovascular disease. The most recent candidate is trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) which is a metabolite of dietary choline (major sources eggs, liver, beef and pork).3 The gut microbiota ...
Osmolytes are low molecular weight soluble organic molecules involved in cell osmosis. They have a primary role in maintaining cell volume and fluid balance, especially in stressful situations or in any pathological condition. In mammals, osmolytes are of particular importance in kidney cells.. Furthermore, these molecules help to provide stability to the proteins of the cytoplasm and, above all, protect these proteins from incorrect folding, which nullifies the activity or purpose of that protein. Osmolytes predominantly affect the protein skeleton; the balance between the osmolyte-skeleton interactions and the interactions of the amino acid side chain with the solvent, determine the correct folding of the proteins.. Apart from this intervention in protein folding, some of them intervene, such as Betaine in the DNA and RNA replication processes. Betaine has been a component used in performing PCR, due to its positive effect on increasing sequence amplification.. Natural osmolytes that can act ...
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Suppliers List, E-mail/RFQ Form, Molecular Structure, Weight, Formula, IUPAC, Synonyms for (1-ETHYL-3,5-DIMETHYL-1H-PYRAZOL-4-YL)METHYLAMINE (CAS No. 936940-14-6)
trans-N-(o-chlorobenzyl)-N-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1,4cyclohexanebis(methylamine) dihydrochloride | C22H37Cl3N2 | CID 77088 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
(2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylamine | C9H10N4 | CID 599268 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
This MassBank Record with Accession KO004177 contains the MS2 mass spectrum of Trimethylamine N-oxide with the InChIKey UYPYRKYUKCHHIB-UHFFFAOYSA-N.
This MassBank Record with Accession KO004180 contains the MS2 mass spectrum of Trimethylamine N-oxide with the InChIKey UYPYRKYUKCHHIB-UHFFFAOYSA-N.
I have also learned it is important to eat some choline foods because if one eliminates it all together one develops a choline and lecithin deficiency which I have suffered for some years untill i realized i had to eat some choline foods and I am healing from that now. -Canna Lily
Case A 9-year-old boy was admitted to general paediatric clinic. The presenting complaint was a two year history of distinctive fish-like smell from his hands, feet, breath and sometimes urine. He was full term normal vaginal delivery with no developmental concerns. There were no other medical problems. He was the first child to consanguineous parents. To note, his 14-year-old cousin was thought to have a similar problem.. ...
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明: ​中文名称:一甲胺 英文名称:Methylamine 分子式:CH5N·H2O 分子量:31.06 所属类别:脂肪胺 本产品为无色透明液体,有氨的气味;相对密度(-11℃)0.699,熔点-93.5℃,沸点-6.3. 基于138个网页-相关网页. ...
1977, National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) - Culture Collections of Public Health England, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NBSC) (Pseudomonas aminovorans)
The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine recommends that men over the age of 18 years consume 550-3,500 milligrams of choline daily; women aged 18 years old are advised to consume 400-3,000 milligrams of choline daily, while those who are older may consume 425-3,500 milligrams. Pregnant women are advised to consume 450 milligrams of choline daily, while breastfeeding women are advised to consume 550 milligrams daily. Higher doses are not recommended for people with the metabolic disorder trimethylaminuria, kidney disease, liver disease, depression, or Parkinsons disease ...
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