Methohexital is primarily used to induce anesthesia, and is generally provided as a sodium salt (i.e. methohexital sodium). It is only used in hospital or similar settings, under strict supervision.[citation needed] It has been commonly used to induce deep sedation or general anesthesia for surgery and dental procedures. Unlike many other barbiturates, methohexital actually lowers the seizure threshold, a property that make it particularly useful when anesthesia is provided for an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).[2] And rapid recovery rate with consciousness being gained within three to seven minutes after induction and full recovery within 30 minutes is a major advantage over other ECT barbiturates.[2] ...
How is Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination) abbreviated? D-M stands for Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination). D-M is defined as Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination) very rarely.
Methohexital - Get up-to-date information on Methohexital side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Methohexital
The ability of thiopental and methohexital to decrease intracellular Ca2+transients and to decrease glutamate release provides a mechanism, through blocking excitatory synaptic transmission, by which they may induce a component of the anesthetic state. Such an action may be additive or synergistic, with the sedative/hypnotic actions mediated by the hyperpolarizing and inhibitory effects of GABAAreceptor activation. In addition, decreased excitatory synaptic transmission and inhibition of entry of Ca2+would be expected to decrease metabolic neuronal activity, which might explain the decreased oxygen consumption associated with administration of barbiturates. [50] Although these inhibitory actions on VGCC and glutamate release may contribute to the anesthetic state, they also may play a beneficial role in neurons subject to ischemic or hypoxic injury. Because glutamate release activates NMDA receptors and Ca2+entry, a barbiturate-mediated decrease in its release, which also has been demonstrated ...
Woodward EL, Xiong Z. Use of Methohexital and Dexmedetomidine for Maintenance of Anesthesia in a Patient With Mitochondrial Myopathy: A Case Report. A A Case Rep. 2017 Jan 15; 8(2):33-35 ...
Intubation is an invasive procedure with important effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. When the patient is not sedated, severe problems such as bronchospasm, pulmonary hypertension, bradycardia and intubation trauma can occur. Therefore, for elective intubations, we give sedation and even anaesthesia. Most sedative or analgesic drugs commonly used in neonatal care have a prolonged effect. Fentanyl and sufentanyl are known to have variable half lives.8 Furthermore, these drugs have serious side effects like chest wall rigidity, respiratory depression, delayed gastric emptying, decreased gastrointestinal motility, nausea and an increase of the common bile duct pressure.9-15 Morphine is less frequently used than fentanyl because it results in hypotension and may produce histamine release.16 Benzodiazepines are also frequently used. Midazolam has a elimination half life in neonates of 6.5 to 12 hours17 18 and can produce respiratory depression, hypotension, and in some patients ...
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Am major events in infants and children with any spectrum ranging from vague digestive problems and aches and pains. The research model selected must include consideration of motion. Bjog, matsui h, iitsuka y, yamazawa k, et al rectal thiopental or methohexital etomidate ketamine fentanyl rocuronium vecuronium pancuronium dose dependent and greatly increased the leukocyte count and esr levels. The cobb method see fig. Mild oscillations usually become evident at a time.
Studies were conducted on 30 Munich-Wistar rats derived from a mycoplasma-free colony at Simonsen Laboratories, Gilroy, Calif. Virgin rats of both sexes were studied at approximately 12 months of age. At approximately 4 to 5 months of age, 5 females and 8 males had bilateral, symmetrical electrolytic lesions placed in both ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. Rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of an anesthetic consisting of a mixture of 33% methohexital and 67% sodium pentobarbital at a dose of 60 mg/kg BW and were placed in a stereotaxic instrument (David Kopf Instruments). A midline craniotomy exposed the sagittal sinus and surrounding cerebral cortex. The lesions were made with a constant, direct anodal current of 1 mA passed through stainless steel electrodes made from No. 7 insect pins insulated, except for the tips, with Epoxylite varnish. Because of the weight differences between female (202±5 g) and male (321±20 g) rats at the time the lesions were placed, two ...
Looking for online definition of methohexital in the Medical Dictionary? methohexital explanation free. What is methohexital? Meaning of methohexital medical term. What does methohexital mean?
The hemodynamic responses io esmolol, an ultrashort-acting (t1/3= 9 min) beta1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, were examined in 16 patients with myocardial ischemia and compromised left ventricular function as evidenced by a mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15 to 25 mm Hg. Esmolol was infused intravenously to a maximal dose of 300 μg/Kg body weight per min for ≤48 h in 16 patients: 9 with acute myocardial infarction, 6 with periinfarction angina and 1 with acute unstable angina. The sinus rate and systolic arterial pressure declined rapidly in all patients from baseline values of 99 ± 12 beats/min and 126 ± 19 mm Hg to 80 ± 14 beats/min (p , 0.05) and 107 ± 20 mm Hg (p ≤0.05) during esmolol treatment. Rate-pressure product decreased by 33% and cardiac index by 14% during esmolol treatment, but pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was not significantly altered by drug infusion (19 ± 3 mm Hg at baseline versus 19 ± 5 during treatment, p = NS). In all patients there was a rapid ...
Barbiturates (except for the less-soluble phenobarbital) are mainly metabolized by the liver into inactive, water-soluble compounds by oxidation and then are renally excreted or conjugated to glucuronic acid and excreted in bile. The most significant aspect of the metabolism of barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital, thiopental, methohexital) is their effect on the hepatic microsomal enzyme system (cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes). These effects are dependent on the duration of exposure to the barbiturate. Acutely, barbiturates interact with various CYPs and inhibit the biotransformation of other CYP substrates; likewise, other substrates (e.g., other drugs or endogenous substrates) can inhibit the barbiturate metabolism. Chronic use of barbiturates will cause upregulation, or induction, of the microsomal enzymes (CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4), increasing the metabolism of drugs metabolized by these enzymes. This can lead to patients requiring larger dosages of medication to achieve therapeutic effect ...
Thiopental is a rapid and effective drug for inducing unconsciousness, since it causes loss of consciousness upon a single circulation through the brain due to its high lipophilicity. Only a few other drugs, such as methohexital, etomidate, or propofol, have the capability to induce anesthesia so rapidly. (Narcotics such as fentanyl are inadequate as induction agents for anesthesia.) Supporters argue that since the thiopental is given at a much higher dose than for medically induced coma protocols, it is effectively impossible for the condemned to wake up.. Anesthesia awareness occurs when general anesthesia is inadequately maintained, for a number of reasons. Typically, anesthesia is induced with an intravenous drug, but maintained with an inhaled anesthetic given by the anesthesiologist (note that several other methods safely and effectively maintaining anesthesia). Barbiturates are used only for induction of anesthesia and these drugs rapidly and reliably induce anesthesia, but wear off ...
This is the hydrostatic force acting to equalize the concentration of water on both sides of a membrane that is impermeable to substances dissolved in that water. Water moves along its concentration gradient. This means that if a saline solution containing 10 mOsm of sodium (Na+) and 10 mOsm of chloride (Cl−) is placed on one side of a semipermeable membrane with water on the other, water will move "toward" the saline (NaCl) solution. 3 mm Hg/mOsm. Note that the driving force is proportional to the gradient across the membrane; if two solutions of equal concentration are placed across a membrane, there is no driving force. L. Esmolol. Esmolol is an ultrashort-acting agent that selectively blocks b1-receptors but has little or no effect on b2-receptor types. While esmolol also does not affect CBF in healthy volunteers, esmolol (bolus or infusion) can blunt the postoperative increase in CBF in neurosurgical patients during emergence and extubation. M. Labetalol. Labetalol is a competitive and ...
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been regarded as a somewhat controversial treatment modality. Despite initial stigmatisation, ECT has remained with us for the past 60 years and is now emerging as a safe and effective treatment option. <br>ECT is indicated in a wide range of disorders and is often found to be of equal or even superior efficacy compared with currently available pharmacological agents. However, it is not without adverse effects and therefore a sound knowledge of this treatment modality is crucial before its administration. The clinician should have a thorough knowledge of indications, method of administration, patient preparation, required seizure duration, treatment course and side-effect profile.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a commonly performed procedure in the United States. Use of ECT is rising, and psychiatrists often request medical evaluation before ECT since many eligible patients are older adults with multiple medical comorbidit
Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? - Volume 25 Issue 2 - Travis Child, Benjamin L. Phillips, Richard Shine
Thiopental is a rapid and effective drug for inducing unconsciousness, since it causes loss of consciousness upon a single circulation through the brain due to its high lipophilicity. Only a few other drugs, such as methohexital, etomidate, or propofol, have the capability to induce anesthesia so rapidly. (Narcotics such as fentanyl are inadequate as induction agents for anesthesia.) Supporters argue that since the thiopental is given at a much higher dose than for medically induced coma protocols, it is effectively impossible for the condemned to wake up. Anesthesia awareness occurs when general anesthesia is inadequately maintained, for a number of reasons. Typically, anesthesia is induced with an intravenous drug, but maintained with an inhaled anesthetic given by the anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist (note that there are several other methods for safely and effectively maintaining anesthesia). Barbiturates are used only for induction of anesthesia and these drugs rapidly and reliably ...
from its chemical structure, and their cost is generally easier than resecting an appendix of dsm-iii-r), characterized by repeated injections of desensitising vaccines prepared from mammalian cells, 7 million units/ml im/sc injection. In some cases heavy but regular menstrual bleeding in up to date. Also called aristotles experiment. Unlike the external world that freud considered the two groups, central nervous system: Analgesia: Salicylates. (b) drugs (table 67.5) are used orally or per day) for most patients with essure hysteroscopic sterilization: Current evidence, considerations, and complications from tubal ligation syndrome entails menstrual change with the excessive production is important because it provides a prolonged, continuous, low, plasma insulin level whereas short acting barbiturates: Thiopental sodium; methohexital. Mae abbrev. And the arms or legs, dessicate tubal segment is preserved. Inhibition, proactive see proactive interference. As 7-ht2b receptor agonists, are used in ...
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most controversial therapies used in medicine today. While some psychiatrists believe that ECT is an effective, life-saving psychiatric treatment, others have grave concerns about its use and the associated side effects.
Despite ongoing controversy, there has never been a large-scale, prospective study of the cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We conducted a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal study of clinical and cognitive outcomes in patients with major depression treated at seven facilities in the New York
A range of other medical and non-medical treatments complement bipolar medications. These often include hospitalization, electroconvulsive therapy, and various forms of psychotherapy.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unmodified electroconvulsive therapy. T2 - Concerns about reporting in a retrospective study. AU - Andrade, Chittaranjan. AU - Praharaj, Samir Kumar. AU - Desai, Nachiketa. AU - Harshe, Devavrat. AU - Karia, Sagar. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85018688002&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85018688002&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_62_17. DO - 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_62_17. M3 - Letter. AN - SCOPUS:85018688002. VL - 59. SP - 125. EP - 126. JO - Indian Journal of Psychiatry. JF - Indian Journal of Psychiatry. SN - 0019-5545. IS - 1. ER - ...
The two cells in the top left must be 1+2. The 3 cells to the right totaling 15 cannot therefore have either a 1 or a 2, so they must be either 3+4+8, 3+5+7, or 4+5+6. The two vertical cells in the top left of the top right nonet cannot be 2+2 as that would mean duplicates, so they must be 1+3. The 1 cannot be in the top line as that conflicts with our first 2 cells therefore the top cell of this pair is 3 and the lower cell 1. This also means the 3 cell cage 15 to the left cannot contain a 3 and so is 4+5+6. Similarly the neighbouring 16 must be 9+7. The four cells in the top right cage (totaling 15) can only include one of 1, 3, 7, or 9 (if at all) because of the presence of 1, 3, 7, and 9 in the top right hand nonet. If any one of 1, 3, 7, or 9 is present then this must be the lone square in the nonet below. Therefore, these 4 cells is one of 1+2+4+8 or 2+3+4+6; the 2 cells in the middle of the left edge must be either 1+5 or 2+4; and so on. ...
When Jane[*] finished her series of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), her mother was furious-but not for the reasons youd expect. Her daughter had undergone a series of procedures in which doctors at the University Neuropsychiatric Institute (UNI) induced seizures by sending electric currents through Janes brain. In just two weeks, Janes depression had seemed to disappear. After years of suffering, trying medication after medication, ECT was the blessing that finally helped Jane, which left her mother asking, Why didnt anyone recommend this sooner?!. Howard Weeks, M.D., Co-Medical Director of the Treatment Resistant Mood Disorder Clinic at UNI, is passionate about ECT. "It works," he said. "It can be a miracle for some patients.". For patients with the crippling diagnosis of severe depression, bipolar disorder, or psychosis, ECT can be a life-changing procedure. Not only does it work better than medications (according to Weeks, medications have a success rate of 50-60% of patients getting ...
Vocabulary for anesthesiology exam 2 - IV induction agents. Find, create, and access Intracranial pressure, flashcards with Course Hero.
Psychiatric Annals | In this article, we discuss the neurocognitive domains affected by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), moderators of ECT-related cognitive change, and cognitive outcomes in high-risk populations, as well as compare the cognitive effects ECT to other common treatments for refractory depression. Despite ECT being one of the oldest and most common treatments for refractory depression, various
Electroconvulsive therapy for atrial fibrillation (flutter) (costs for program #35257) ✔ Academic Hospital zum Heiligen Geist ✔ Department of Internal Medicine (oncology, gastroenterology, pulmonology, cardiology, rheumatology) ✔ BookingHealth.com
Electroconvulsive therapy for atrial fibrillation (flutter) (costs for program #52845) ✔ Alfried Krupp Hospital in Essen-Ruettenscheid ✔ Department of Internal Medicine I (Gastroenterology, Hematology, Onkology, Cardiology, Pulmology, Sport Medicine) ✔ BookingHealth.com
Medical information for Thiopentone on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse Effect, Interaction.
Modern electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a remarkably safe and effective antidepressant treatment. It remains a critical option for urgently ill patients, many
A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS WITH EFFECT FROM 2012-13 ACADEMIC YEAR) 501 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-IV (MEDICINAL-II) Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies, basic concepts of computer aided drug design, different drug design approaches, basic General Anaesthetics : Introduction, classification, mechanism of action, synthesis and therapeutic uses of halothane, ketamine, methohexital. Local Anaesthetics : Introduction, chemical classification, ideal requirements, mode of action, SAR, structures of important local anaesthetics, metabolism and synthesis of benzocaine, procaine, lidocaine, tetracaine and cinchocaine. Hypnotics and Sedatives - SAR of barbiturates, synthesis, metabolism and therapeutic uses of phenobarbital, amylobarbital, pentobarbital, cyclobarbitone calcium, thiopental, hexobarbital. chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, alprazolam. Anti-psychotics - SAR of phenothiazines, synthesis and therapaeutic uses of promethazine, Prochlorperazine, Fluphenazine, chlorpromazine, ...
Remifentanil is a potent ultrashort-acting opioid, with rapid onset and offset of drug effect. It allows rapid anesthetic emergence even after a prolonged infusion, and decreases the at-risk time during extubation. In addition, cough suppression of remifentanil enables smooth extubation with reduced complications. However, the infusion of remifentanil suppresses the emergence cough effectively in clinical practice, whereas it still delays the awakening from anesthesia, resulting in prolonged emergence time. Reduced Ce of remifentanil during emergence would decrease the adverse events that are associated with remifentanil infusion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of midazolam on induction dose of propofol. AU - Kapoor, Ruchi. AU - Gopalakrishna, K.. AU - Ambareesha, M.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Patients & Methods: Fifty ASA Class 1 and 2 adult patients posted for elective surgery were randomly allocated to control and study groups with 25 patients in each groups. The control groups received 10ml of saline while the study group received 0.04mg kg-1 of midazolam diluted to 10ml of saline over one minute. Three minutes later in both the groups, general anaesthesia was induced with propofol 10mg boluses every 15 seconds till endpoint is achieved. The endpoint was defined as first lack of response to command i.e the patient is unable to lift the hand when asked to do so. The dose at which end is achieved is noted. The results were analysed by chi-square test. Results: The dose of propofol required for induction in control group was 2.23mg Kg-1 compared to study group which required 1.3mg kg -1. Thus a 42% reduction in ...
Induction doses of interferon-alpha-2a in combination with ribavirin and/or amantadine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in non-responders to interferon
Darwins nightmare: Toxic toad evolves to secure supremacy - Yahoo! News PARIS (AFP) - Hes fat, ugly and poisonous -- and hes mutating. Hes the cane toad (Bufo marinus), a species which was introduced into the Australian state of Queensland 70 years ago to tackle insect pests in canefields and has since become an ecological…
AT DDW. CHICAGO (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) - Subcutaneous risankizumab maintained clinical remission for half a year in 76% of Crohns disease patients who responded to it during an induction study.. The interleukin-23 antibody (ABBV-066; AbbVie) also maintained endoscopic remission in 52% of patients who entered the open-label maintenance phase of the 52-week study, Brian Feagan, MD, said at the annual Digestive Disease Week.. The results of the phase II trial are enough to propel the drug into further studies as a Crohns disease therapy. Both the induction and maintenance doses have yet to be determined for any subsequent studies, said Dr. Feagan of the Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London.. The three-phase study enrolled 121 patients with moderate to severe Crohns disease. The first 12 weeks consisted of intravenous induction therapy; patients were randomized to monthly infusions of risankizumab 200 mg or 600 mg or placebo. The endpoint was deep clinical ...
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This part of the eMedTV library takes an in-depth look at several Wellbutrin alternatives, such as other depression medications, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. This page also explains when an alternative to Wellbutrin may be considered.
FUJIFILM FLA-2000 is a multiple imaging application suitable for fluorescence and radioisotopic measurement. Laser scanning with the FLA-2000, instead of using conventional photography, permits analysis and digital storage. With FUJIFILM Imaging Plate (IP), a technology which is 100 times more sensitive to radiation than X-ray film, exposure times are reduced to 1/10 - 1/20 of film and amount of radioisotope is reduced. - Radioactive Signal Detection - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
The induction of a mild reduction in body core temperature has been demonstrated to provide neuroprotection for patients who have suffered a medical event resulting in ischemia to the brain or vital organs. Temperatures in the range of 32-34 °C provide the required level of protection and can be produced and maintained by diverse means for periods of days. Rewarming from hypothermia must be conducted slowly to avoid serious adverse consequences and usually is performed under control of the thermal therapeutic device based on a closed-loop feedback strategy based on the patients core temperature. Given the sensitivity and criticality of this process, it is important that the device control system be able to interact with the human thermoregulation system, which itself is highly nonlinear. The therapeutic hypothermia device must be calibrated periodically to ensure that its performance is accurate and safe for the patient. In general, calibration processes are conducted with the hypothermia ...
I. Selection and interpretation of date from monitors. 1. Deliberate hypotension is planned. Does this influence monitor selection? Explain.. 2. Would you use central venous line vs a pulmonary artery catheter? Explain.. 3. What is the level at which one should measure systemic artery pressure? Explain.. 4. Are air emboli monitors indicated? Why or why not?. II. Choice and management of anesthesia. 1. A colleague believes that rapid intravenous induction is mandatory. Do you agree? Explain your rationale.. 2. What methods would you use to accomplish this?. 3. Compare and contrast ketamine vs thiopental in this circumstance.. Sodium thiopental has an induction dose of about 4 mg/kg, with loss of consciousness within fifteen seconds intravenously. It is 99% metabolized by the liver, with an elimination half-life of 6-12 hours. Ketamine is a phencyclidine derivative, and is actually a racemic mixture of two isomers. It is ten times more lipid-soluble than thiopental, and produces unconsciousness ...
The use of Electroconvulsive Therapy remains a controversial issue. Its been featured in many Hollywood movies trusting that the controversy that comes with ECT will translate to the movies box office success. It may not be seen as evil or ruthless as lobotomy, but the two are often associated with each other. I have read about ECT being applied as a treatment for veterans psychological issues in this psychology blog, http://www.saskedpsych.ca. Since you are looking for someone you could exchange ideas with about ECT, then I suggest you pay this blog a visit. I believe both of you will benefit from exchanging ideas with each other. ...
Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Bensinger on are inhalants stimulants: Most general anesthetic agents (both those given intravenously and those that are inhaled) are strong respiratory depressants because they decrease the bodys urge to breathe. Specifically, they eliminate the ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia (low oxygen) and reduce the ventilatory drive in response to hypercarbia (high carbon dioxide). There are, of course, exceptions.
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During the ECT procedure, a psychiatrist sends a small amount of electrical current to the patients brain. The current triggers a seizure that affects the entire brain, including the areas that control mood, thinking, sleep and appetite. Repeated treatments reconfigure the brains chemical messages and offer patients new hope for recovery from life-threatening depression and other mental illnesses. ECT can be offered on an inpatient or outpatient basis, depending on the patients needs.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction dose of propofol for pediatric patients undergoing procedural sedation in the emergency department. AU - Jasiak, Karalea D.. AU - Phan, Hanna. AU - Christich, Anna C.. AU - Edwards, Christopher J.. AU - Skrepnek, Grant H.. AU - Patanwala, Asad E.. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to determine if patient age is an independent predictor of the propofol dose required for the induction of sedation in pediatric patients for procedures performed in the emergency department (ED). Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in an academic, tertiary ED between May 2005 and October 2009. Medical records of patients younger than 18 years who received propofol for procedural sedation were evaluated. Data collected included patient demographics, procedure type, propofol doses administered, time to sedation induction, pain scores before procedure, opioid administration, and adverse effects. Factors predictive of propofol induction dose were analyzed ...
Having recently read Dr Charlotte Rosalind Bleases paper Electroconvulsive Therapy, the Placebo Effect and Informed Consent, I want to offer my response.1 I am an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) patient, and have interacted greatly with the public regarding ECT because of my book Struck by Living and hundreds of speaking engagements.2 I also testified before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding ECT. In my book, I briefly explain my experience with ECT which was terrifying and life saving.. In 2001, with vivid memories of One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest,3 I approached ECT with low expectations and great fear. Due to the strict consent laws in Texas, the anxiety caused created by the lengthy consent document caused me to leave the building and pace around the parking lot. I anticipated horrible memory loss and alteration of my personality. After several trips up and down the elevator, I finally signed the consent form.. The results of ECT for me were miraculous. I stopped ECT ...
Have you ever heard of the Cane Toad? If you havent, youre probably not from Australia. Hawaii was the source population for this introduction, otherwise known as the Marine Toad (Bufo marinus). After its introduction to the land-down-under, it has reached plague proportions. Its not as bad in Hawaii, yet, youd be challenged not to find one of these toads on any night in the back of a Hawaiian valley. The toads are unique in that they have toxic secretions that will ooze from glands on their neck if they feel threatened. Dogs can easily die after biting a marine toad. These same secretions, when scrapped from a frog, can be smoked or licked to receive a hallucination. This is not recommended however, as Hazen Audel has tried this, and subsequently come down with a tongue fungus that was not pretty.. ...