Although most reports describing patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis have been published in Japan, this concept remains a matter of debate and diagnostic criteria have not yet been defined. The general status of a 74-year-old Japanese man referred to our hospital (day 1) with severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia gradually improved with antibiotic therapy. Thereafter, up to 4 L/day of acute watery diarrhea that started on day 19 was refractory to metronidazole but responded immediately to oral vancomycin. Gram staining stool samples was positive for abundant fecal leukocytes from which dominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (104 CFU/mL) were isolated, suggesting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis. High fever with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia was evident at day 30, and suppurative right hip arthritis developed around day 71. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
Background. Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with high mortality rates, but no treatment strategy has yet been established. We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy of linezolid with or without carbapenem in salvage treatment for persistent MRSA bacteremia.. Methods. All adult patients with persistent MRSA bacteremia for ⩾7 days from January 2006 through March 2008 who were treated at Seoul National University Hospital were studied. The results of linezolid salvage therapy with or without carbapenem were compared with those of salvage therapy with vancomycin plus aminoglycosides or rifampicin.. Results. Thirty-five patients with persistent MRSA bacteremia were studied. The early microbiological response (ie, negative results for follow-up blood culture within 72 hours) was significantly higher in the linezolid-based salvage therapy group than the comparison group (75% vs 17%; P=.006). Adding aminoglycosides or rifampicin to ...
Looking for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus? Find out information about Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: see staphylococcus staphylococcus , any of the pathogenic bacteria, parasitic to humans, that belong to the... Explanation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasal vestibular abscess Marisa A. Earley, MD1 , Mark E. Friedel, MD, MPH1 , Satish Govindaraj, MD2 , Belachew Tessema, MD3 , Jean Anderson Eloy, MD1,4 Background: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a recognized entity that is increasingly responsible for skin and so tissue infections. However, it is not the usual pathogen isolated in nasal vestibular abscess. dominance in nasal vestibular abscess. Clinicians should obtain cultures, modify antibiotic therapy as warranted, and initiate empiric therapy to include MRSA coverage for nasal C 2011 ARS-AAOA, LLC. vestibular abscess. Methods: We present a series of 13 consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary care center with nasal vestibular abscess over a 2.5-year period. Key Words: Results: All abscesses were cultured and 100% (13/13) grew S. aureus. Of the S. aureus isolates, 92% (12/13) were MRSA. Antibiotic susceptibilities ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen with a wide diffusion in Europe (1), as well as in Italy, accounting for about 30% of all invasive S. aureus strains described in Italy to date (2). Resistance to β-lactamases is often due to the mecA gene, which encodes the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a). Ceftobiprole, a fifth-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin, shows activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and is also active against MRSA (3); in particular, it has demonstrated high affinity not only for the common PBPs but also for PBP2a (4). The antibiotic which has recently been approved has been shown to display relative stability against β-lactamases and a low propensity to develop resistance (3), as confirmed by the low rates of resistant staphylococcal isolates found in surveillance studies (5-8). Nonetheless, some papers have described ceftobiprole resistance among MRSA strains (5, 6, 9-11). This resistance is probably due to ...
This is a phase 4 randomized open label prospective pilot study comparing the use of daptomycin versus vancomycin for peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing elective primary knee, hip or shoulder arthroplasty and are at risk for infection with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The study population will include males and non-pregnant, non-lactating females 18 years of age or older, with history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization, and undergoing primary elective hip, knee or shoulder arthroplasty. The target enrollment is 100 patients, who will be randomized to daptomycin or vancomycin in two 50 patient study groups. After signing the informed consent, patients will undergo pre-enrollment nasal screening for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus to identify eligible patients. Patients with positive MRSA nasal screen will proceed with enrollment and get randomized into one of the two study groups. In one group, patients ...
Background. A 1400-bed tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan was used to conduct an epidemiological study of children hospitalized with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection during a 5-year period.. Methods. Nineteen previously healthy children with predominantly skin and soft-tissue CA-MRSA infections were enrolled into the study. Seventeen CA-MRSA isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing.. Results. A comparison of our results with the reported resistance rates among CA-MRSA isolates from other countries showed uniformly high macrolide resistance (100%). Of the 17 MRSA isolates in our study, all had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-constitutive phenotype and the ermB gene. Moreover, on the basis of molecular typing results, 11 (65%) of 17 CA-MRSA isolates were genetically related (as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis), and multilocus sequence typing revealed a sequence type of 59 in all ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the Texas prison system.. AU - Baillargeon, Jacques. AU - Kelley, Michael F.. AU - Leach, Charles T.. AU - Baillargeon, Gwen. AU - Pollock, Bradley H. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Recent reports indicate that correctional facility inmates may be at elevated risk for contracting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection because of overcrowding, poor hygiene, and high rates of diseases causing immunosuppression. The present study of 299,179 Texas inmates who were incarcerated between 1999-2001 indicated an incidence of 12 MRSA infections/1000 person-years. Inmates with circulatory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, end-stage liver disease, end-stage renal disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and skin diseases all exhibited elevated rates of MRSA infection.. AB - Recent reports indicate that correctional facility inmates may be at elevated risk for ...
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159) to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding a-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and a-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new ...
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a pathogen in individuals without traditional risk factors. Material and methods: MRSA nasal carriage was assessed in individuals consulting at a Primary Health Unit in Brazil. Results: A total of 336 individuals were included: 136 were tested only for MRSA and 200 for any S. aureus. No MRSA was found among the 336 individuals and 23 (11.5%) of 200 were colonized by S. aureus. Discussion: Low prevalence rates have been found in non-hospitalized individuals, but MRSA surveillance should be encouraged to monitor clinical and molecular epidemiology of CA- MRSA ...
The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a novel combination antibiotic treatment (vancomycin/daptomycin + beta-lactam) is superior to the standard antibiotic treatment (vancomycin/daptomycin) for hospitalised adults with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. The hypothesis is that the addition of beta-lactam antibiotics (these are antibiotics from the penicillin family) to the standard therapy will lead to more efficient bacterial killing and hence lead to faster clearance of bacteria from the blood stream and other areas of infection, thereby reducing the risk of the spread of infection and death.. The study design is an investigator-initiated, multi-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. This will include 440 participants diagnosed with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia recruited over a period of 4 years (July 2015 - June 2019) from within Infectious Diseases inpatient units across 21 hospital sites including 18 from within ...
Virulent community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus-aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have spread rapidly in the United States. To characterize the degree to which CA-MRSA strains are imported into and transmitted in pediatric intensive care units (PICU), we performed a retrospective study of children admitted to The Johns Hopkins Hospital PICU, March 1, 2007-May 31, 2008. We found that 72 (6%) of 1,674 PICU patients were colonized with MRSA. MRSA-colonized patients were more likely to be younger (median age 3 years vs. 5 years; p = 0.02) and African American (p<0.001) and to have been hospitalized within 12 months (p<0.001) than were noncolonized patients. MRSA isolates from 66 (92%) colonized patients were fingerprinted; 40 (61%) were genotypically CA-MRSA strains. CA-MRSA strains were isolated from 50% of patients who became colonized with MRSA and caused the only hospital-acquired MRSA catheter-associated bloodstream infection in the cohort. Epidemic CA-MRSA strains are becoming
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first reported in Western Australia in the early 1990s from indigenous peoples living in remote areas. Although a statewide policy of screening all hospital patients and staff who have lived outside the state for MRSA has prevented the establishment of multidrug-resistant epidemic MRSA, the policy has not prevented SCCmec type IV and type V MRSA clones from becoming established. Of the 4,099 MRSA isolates analyzed (referred to the Gram-positive Bacteria Typing and Research Unit) from July 2003 to December 2004, 77.5% were community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Using multilocus sequence/staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec typing, 22 CA-MRSA clones were characterized. Of these isolates, 55.5% were resistant to ,1 non-β-lactam antimicrobial drug. Five Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive CA-MRSA clones were identified. The emergence of multidrug-resistant CA-MRSA clones and the detection of PVL toxin genes in clones ...
Until recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused predominantly healthcare-associated infections. We studied MRSA infections and overall skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in outpatients receiving care at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center Emergency Care Service during 2001-2005. We found an increase in MRSA infections, from 0.2 to 5.9 per 1,000 visits (p < 0.01); most were community-associated SSTIs. Molecular typing showed that > 80% of MRSA infections were caused by USA300. In addition, SSTI visits increased from 20 to 61 per 1,000 visits (p < 0.01). The proportion of SSTI cultures that yielded MRSA increased from 4% to 42% (p < 0.01), while the proportion that yielded methicillin-sensitive S. aureus remained the same (10% to 13%, p = 0.5). The increase in community-associated MRSA infections and the overall increase in SSTIs in our population suggest that USA300 is becoming more virulent and has a greater propensity to cause SSTIs ...
The epidemic of USA300-0114 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the USA has been remarkable for its virulence and for its ability to cause infections in both the community and healthcare settings. Although it has mainly been associated with skin and soft tissue infections, particularly furunculosis, it has also caused severe life-threatening conditions such as necrotizing pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis. This strain or a closely related Latin American variant has now spread to multiple countries on five continents, where associated clinical and epidemiological features have been in keeping with those seen in the USA. Furthermore, it has become the dominant community-associated MRSA strain in five countries. It is now a major international epidemic strain, but whether it will supplant established community-associated strains in other countries remains to be seen ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in a rural state. AU - Polgreen, Philip M.. AU - Beekmann, Susan E.. AU - Chen, Yiyi. AU - Doern, Gary V.. AU - Pfaller, Michael A.. AU - Brueggemann, Angela B.. AU - Herwaldt, Loreen A.. AU - Diekema, Daniel J.. PY - 2006/3. Y1 - 2006/3. N2 - BACKGROUND. Most data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) isolates come from large tertiary care centers. Infection control personnel need to understand the epidemiology of MRSA and VRE across the continuum of care, including small rural hospitals, to develop effective control strategies. OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of MRSA and VRE in Iowa. SETTING. Fifteen hospitals in Iowa. METHODS Between July 1998 and June 2001, a total of 1,968 S. aureus isolates and 1,845 Enterococcus isolates from patients infected with these pathogens were examined. Multivariate models were ...
[70 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast - 2025 report by Delve Insight. DelveInsight s Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections - Market...
We studied a dataset of care episodes in a regional Swedish hospital system. We followed how 2,314,477 patients moved between 8,507 units (hospital wards and outpatient clinics) over seven years. The data also included information on the date when patients tested positive with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. To simplify the complex flow of patients, we represented it as a network of units, where two units were connected if a patient moved from one unit to another, without visiting a third unit in between. From this network, we characterized the typical network position of units with a high prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and how the patients location in the network changed upon testing positive. On average, units with medium values of the analyzed centrality measures had the highest average prevalence. We saw a weak effect of the hospital systems response to the patient testing positive - after a positive test, the patient moved to units with a lower ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicenter evaluation of BBL CHROMagar MRSA medium for direct detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surveillance cultures of the anterior nares. AU - Flayhart, Diane. AU - Hindler, Janet F.. AU - Bruckner, David A.. AU - Hall, Geraldine. AU - Shrestha, Rabin K.. AU - Vogel, Sherilynn A.. AU - Richter, Sandra S.. AU - Howard, Wanita. AU - Walther, Rhonda. AU - Carroll, Karen C. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - Active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is among the strategies recommended by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America for control of nosocomial MRSA infections. Infection control and laboratory personnel desire rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive methods to enhance surveillance activities. A multicenter study was performed to evaluate a new selective and differential chromogenic medium, BBL CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA) medium (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), which enables recovery and concomitant identification of ...
Background Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA) has traditionally been related to skin and soft tissue infections in healthy young patients. However, it has now...
Since the first discovery of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961 in England, MRSA has become one of the most prevalent pathogens that cause nosocomial infections (13). MRSA produces a specific penicillin-binding protein (PBP) called PBP 2′ (or PBP 2a) that possesses reduced affinities for binding to β-lactam antibiotics (2, 7, 22). PBP 2′ is encoded by the mecA gene, which is carried by a large mobile genetic element that is designated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and that is integrated on the chromosomes of MRSA strains isolated from hospitals in various countries throughout the world (11, 12, 14, 15).. Recently, MRSA infections have increasingly been reported among groups of patients with no apparent connection to hospitals (4). Those strains, designated community-acquired MRSA (C-MRSA) strains, have been reported in various countries such as Australia (16, 18), New Zealand (19), the United Kingdom (20), Canada (5), and the United States (6, 8). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased prevalence of and associated mortality with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized IBD patients. AU - Nguyen, Geoffrey C.. AU - Patel, Harshna. AU - Chong, Rachel Y.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Objectives: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has become increasingly prevalent in US hospitals, and the impact of MRSA on hospitalized inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is unknown. Methods: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify admissions for IBD (n116,842) between 1998 and 2004. We compared prevalence and in-hospital mortality of MRSA among IBD, non-IBD gastrointestinal (GI), and general medical inpatients. Results: MRSA prevalence increased from 4.5/10,000 to 19.0/10,000 over the 7-year period (P0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, IBD inpatients were at increased risk of MRSA compared with the non-IBD GI (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-1.96) and general ...
Antibiotic resistance genes can be targeted by antisense agents, which can reduce their expression and thus restore cellular susceptibility to existing antibiotics. Antisense inhibitors can be gene and pathogen specific, or designed to inhibit a group of bacteria having conserved sequences within resistance genes. Here, we aimed to develop antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) that could be used to effectively restore susceptibility to β-lactams in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Antisense PNAs specific for conserved regions of the mobilisable gene mecA, and the growth essential gene, ftsZ, were designed. Clinical MRSA and MRSP strains of high oxacillin resistance were treated with PNAs and assayed for reduction in colony forming units on oxacillin plates, reduction in target gene mRNA levels, and cell size. Anti-mecA PNA at 7.5 and 2.5 μM reduced mecA mRNA in MRSA and MRSP (p | 0.05). At these PNA concentrations, 66
The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater.,We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants.,We collected wastewater samples from two Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest wastewater treatment plants between October 2009 and October 2010. Samples were analyzed for MRSA and MSSA using membrane filtration. Isolates were confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Sensititre® microbroth dilution. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) screening, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed to further characterize the strains. Data were ...
Cefazolin potency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a microbiologic assessment in support of a novel drug delivery system for skin and skin structure infections David P Nicolau,1 Barry N Silberg2 1Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Sonoma West Medical Center, Sebastopol, CT, USA Introduction: Despite aggressive medical and surgical management, the resolution of skin and skin structure infections is often difficult due to insufficient host response, reduced drug penetration, and a high prevalence of resistance organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). As a result of these factors, conventional management often consists of prolonged broad-spectrum systemic antimicrobials. An alternative therapy in development, ultrasonic drug dispersion (UDD), uses a subcutaneous injection followed by external transcutaneous ultrasound to deliver high tissue concentrations of cefazolin with limited
BioAssay record AID 518814 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of MIC for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus COL grown at 37 degC and measured at 37 degC to MIC for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus COL grown at 37 degC and measured at 15 degC by Etest.
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus PBP2a. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 19-348 of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus PBP2a. (MAB1706) - Products - Abnova
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Testing Market: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Testing Industry Analysis, Regional Outlook, Market Revenue, Competitor Analysis, and Industrial Growth by Future Market Insights
Objective: Increasing length of hospital stay is associated with methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition. The exact risk of becoming colonized with MRSA on a given day has not been clearly elucidated. We determined the hazard of MRSA acquisition in relation to the length of time spent in an intensive care unit in which only standard precautions were used for MRSA‐colonized and MRSA‐infected patients.. Methods: This study took place at a tertiary referral hospital intensive care unit in which patients were screened for MRSA at hospital admission, at hospital discharge, and twice weekly during intensive care unit stay. We analyzed the hazard of MRSA acquisition by using a statistical smoothing kernel for hazard with a width of 5 days. Patients were stratified according to age, sex, medical unit, and length of hospital stay.. Results: Of the patients who were at risk of colonization or infection, 12.8% acquired MRSA. The mean length of stay in the intensive care unit ...
From the Departments of Medicine (A.R.) and Pathology (R.B.T., L.R.P.), Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, and the Department of Medicine (G.G.), the Division of Infectious Diseases (A.R.), the Division of Microbiology (R.B.T., L.R.P.), and the Center on Outcomes, Research, and Education (J.L.B.), NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois.. Objective. We evaluated the usefulness of topical decolonization therapy for reducing the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among MRSA-colonized inpatients. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting and intervention. Three hospitals with universal surveillance for MRSA; at their physicians discretion, colonized patients could be treated with a 5-day course of nasal mupirocin calcium 2%, twice daily, plus chlorhexidine gluconate 4% every second day. Patients and methods. MRSA carriers were later retested for colonization (407 subjects; study 1) or followed up for development of MRSA ...
CAMERA2-combination antibiotic therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial Journal Articles Refereed ...
The reports market outlook delivers an understanding of the country-specific revenue and share by analyzing the performance of the current therapies and potential uptake of new products. The in-depth analysis helps to recognize the growing demand of the market by evaluating the annual cost of therapy, compliance rate, competition with other therapies, covered patient segment, impact of emerging technology in the forecast period. The views from the key opinion leaders adds more value to the analysis. This segment provides the relevant graphs and tables to have an effective outline of the Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections market ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), besides having established itself as a major hospital pathogen, is now beginning to prevail in the wider community as well (1, 3-5). However, we do not know if the subgroup of MRSA designated community-acquired MRSA (C-MRSA) share a common origin of derivation with the other subgroup of MRSA in hospitals, namely the health-care-associated MRSA (H-MRSA). The majority of H-MRSA strains carry one of the three types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) as the methicillin resistance determinant on their chromosomes (19, 22). However, members of our group have recently identified a novel SCCmec, designated type IV, in the C-MRSA strains isolated at a Chicago childrens hospital (23). This raised a possibility that C-MRSA might have an origin of derivation distinct from that of H-MRSA, and type-IV SCCmec could be its unique genetic marker (14). To further test this view, we now analyzed 23 well-characterized C-MRSA strains (2-4, 24-26, ...
Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections Pipeline 2017, report provides comprehensive insights about marketed and pipeline drugs across this Mechanism of action.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a human pathogen, representing an infection control challenge. Conventional MRSA screening takes up to three days, therefore development of rapid detection is essential. Real time-PCR (rt-PCR) is the fastest method fulfilling this task. All currently published or commercially available rt-PCR MRSA assays relay on single or double-locus detection. Double-locus assays are based on simultaneous detection of mecA gene and a S. aureus-specific gene. Such assays cannot be applied on clinical samples, which often contain both coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and S. aureus, either of which can carry mecA. Single-locus assays are based on detection of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element and the S. aureus-specific orfX gene, assuming that it is equivalent to mecA detection. Parallel evaluation of several published single and double-locus rt-PCR MRSA assays of 150 pure culture strains, followed by analysis of 460 swab-derived
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia is a serious infection resulting in 20-50 % 90-day mortality. The limitations of vancomycin, the current standard therapy for MRSA, make treatment difficult. The only other approved drug for treatment of MRSA bacteraemia, daptomycin, has not been shown to be superior to vancomycin. Surprisingly, there has been consistent in-vitro and in-vivo laboratory data demonstrating synergy between vancomycin or daptomycin and an anti-staphylococcal β-lactam antibiotic. There is also growing clinical data to support such combinations, including a recent pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) that demonstrated a trend towards a reduction in the duration of bacteraemia in patients treated with vancomycin plus flucloxacillin compared to vancomycin alone. Our aim is to determine whether the addition of an anti-staphylococcal penicillin to standard therapy results in improved clinical outcomes in MRSA bacteraemia. We will perform an open-label, parallel
Introduction, 2005 Table 1: List of Reportable Diseases, 2005. Table 2: Cases of Selected Communicable Diseases Reported, 2005. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to methicillin and all beta-lactam antibiotics are referred to as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Traditional risk factors for health care-associated (HA) MRSA include recent hospitalization or surgery, residence in a long-term care facility, and renal dialysis.. In 1997, MDH began receiving reports of healthy young patients with MRSA infections. These patients had onset of their MRSA infections in the community and appeared to lack the established risk factors for MRSA. Although most of the reported infections were not severe, some resulted in serious illness or death. Strains of MRSA cultured from persons without health care-associated risk factors for MRSA are now known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA).. CA-MRSA is defined as: a positive culture for MRSA from a specimen obtained , 48 hours ...
This case reports the presence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a colony of cetaceans maintained under human care. MRSA isolates of the same strain were cultured from multiple organs of two dolphins that died with septicaemia. Following these mortalities and in consideration of the zoonotic potential of this pathogen, a decolonisation protocol was developed and applied to reduce the risk of exposure to humans and animals. After monitoring for MRSA presence in the animals, environment and staff, a strict sanitation protocol was applied for 15 months, with the aim of controlling MRSA. This protocol reduced the incidence of this pathogen and its involvement in acute clinical cases. The transmission between cetaceans and the implication of human reservoirs are discussed as important issues for veterinarians, facility managers and public health officials. ...
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Types. Community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Hospital associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). Detection. Treatment.
Over a period of three years the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA isolates in 11 hospitals in the greater D sseldorf area was observed. From a total of 7,814 S. aureus isolates, 489 6.3% were methicillin resistant. From 198 different patients, MRSA first isolates and 291 second isolates could be cultured....
BACKGROUND: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. OBJECTIVE: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a well-known nosocomial pathogen of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients and can cause both serious infections in preterm neonates and prolonged MRSA outbreaks in NICUs. Our objectiv
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen that has exploded into clinical prominence in a short period. New medications are available for the treatment of MRSA infections, each with its own pitfalls and caveats. However, the resistance profile of the bacteria is becoming more complex. Recent guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America provide an evidence-based framework for the management of MRSA infections. This article provides additional practical advice on approaches to MRSA, including the detection, prevention, and management of a variety of its common presentations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. ...
BioAssay record AID 432443 submitted by ChEMBL: fT>MIC in neutropenic Swiss mouse thigh model infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate 604 assessed as maximal effect on bacterial count reduction at 1.5 to 200 mg/kg, ip administered 2 hrs postinfection measured after 24 hrs.
[428 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs and estimate the impact of this animal reservoir on human healthcare. Nasal swabs were derived from 1,600 pigs at 40 German farms. The MRSA were characterized using S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and detection of toxin genes. In a retrospective case control study, we compared risk factors for the carriage of MRSA between patients carrying spa types found among regional pigs and patients with other MRSA molecular types. Pigs carrying MRSA were identified on 70% of the farms (spa types t011, t034, t108, t1451 and t2510, all associated with MLST sequence type ST398). Contact to pigs and cattle were independent risk factors for the carriage of these spa types in patients at hospital admission. Our results indicate that livestock represents a relevant reservoir for the import of MRSA into regional German hospitals ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognised as an important cause of hospital-associated infections in humans for several decades. MRSA is resistant to the most commonly used antibiotics. The MRSA lineage ST398 (MRSA ST398) has been recently described as a cause of infection for people occupationally exposed to pigs, by direct or indirect contact. MRSA ST398 can occasionally be introduced into hospitals as a result of community-acquired human infections. To assess the occurrence and the diversity of MRSA in pig primary production, a European Union-wide preliminary survey was carried out in parallel with a baseline survey on Salmonella spp. in holdings with breeding pigs to determine the prevalence of holdings positive for MRSA and MRSA ST398.. ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognised as an important cause of hospital-associated infections in humans for several decades. MRSA is resistant to the most commonly used antibiotics. The MRSA lineage ST398 (MRSA ST398) has been recently described as a cause of infection for people occupationally exposed to pigs, by direct or indirect contact. MRSA ST398 can occasionally be introduced into hospitals as a result of community-acquired human infections. To assess the occurrence and the diversity of MRSA in pig primary production, a European Union-wide preliminary survey was carried out in parallel with a baseline survey on Salmonella spp. in holdings with breeding pigs to determine the prevalence of holdings positive for MRSA and MRSA ST398.. ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is involved in increasing number of serious infectious with high risk for morbidity and mortality and it is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections [1]. Although the active surveillance and the impact of MRSA colonization on the occurrence of S. aureus infections are unclear, some studies described that asymptomatic colonization with MRSA is a risk factor for in a subsequent MRSA infection patients [2, 3].. In Brazil, a considerable number of hospital infections have been caused by an unique multi-resistant MRSA clone designated as the Brazilian epidemic clone (BEC) [4]. SCCmec typing revealed that Brazilian clone isolates harbor SCCmec III [5].. During a study on hand hygiene compliance, samples were obtained by nasal swab every four days from 446 patients admitted patients at two step-down units (SDUs) of a private tertiary care hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Blood Culture samples were also obtained at an intensive care unit ...
TMP-SMX: TMP-SMX is a potentially useful bactericidal antibiotic used for the treatment of CA-MRSA infections. Although this agent is not FDA approved for the general treatment of staphylococcal infections, several successful cases of its use as MRSA treatment have been reported.10,15 TMP-SMX is a two-component antibiotic that works through inhibition of folic acid synthesis at two separate pathways, thereby inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis.24 Although large, randomized studies have yet to be conducted to directly evaluate TMP-SMXs efficacy in CA-MRSA, a recent literary analysis of reported data proposed its potential use in high dosages for susceptible MRSA isolates. The analysis concluded that TMP-SMX was useful for a majority of patients and, therefore may therefore be especially beneficial as an oral option for patients with susceptible isolates.10 Conversely, another small retrospective analysis that reviewed 39 outpatients with MRSA infections found a higher rate of recurrence in the ...