Ubiquinone (UQ), also called coenzyme Q, and plastoquinone (PQ) are electron carriers in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, respectively. The quinoid nucleus of ubiquinone is derived from the shikimate pathway; 4-hydroxybenzoate is directly formed from chorismate in bacteria, while it can be formed from either chorismate or tyrosine in yeast. The following biosynthesis of terpenoid moiety involves reactions of prenylation, decarboxylation, and three hydroxylations alternating with three methylations. The order of these reactions are somewhat different between bacteria and yeast. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2), and tocopherol (vitamin E) are fat-soluble vitamins. Phylloquinone is a compound present in all photosynthetic plants serving as a cofactor for photosystem I-mediated electron transport. Menaquinone is an obligatory component of the electron-transfer pathway in bacteria ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
eBook: Advances in Biotechnology The results of our investigation on the microbial community of the high-temperature Dagang oilfield (P.R. China) are summarized. Detailed experimental data are provided on syntrophic acetate degradation by thermophilic associations, on the isolation of pure cultures from these associations, their physiological characteristics, and reconstruction of microbial interactions during acetate degradation to methane. The microbial community of the high-temperature Dagang oilfield was investigated by culture-based, radioisotope, and 16S rRNA gene techniques. Cultivable microorganisms (aerobic oil-oxidizing, anaerobic fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic) were found in formation water. Methanogenic enrichments were obtained in media both with Н2+CO2 and acetate. The process of methane production in formation waters was also registered by radioisotope methods with Na214CO3 and 14CH3COONa. However, pure cultures of thermophilic aceticlastic methanogens were not ...
Taking both white noise and colored environmental noise into account, a single-species logistic model with populations nonlinear diffusion among two patches is proposed and investigated. The sufficie
Differentiation of Methanosaeta concilii and Methanosarcina barkeri in anaerobic mesophilic granular sludge by fluorescent in situ hybridization and confocal scanning laser microscopy
A complex network of interacting proteins and enzymes is required for DNA replication. Generally, DNA replication follows a multistep enzymatic pathway. At the DNA replication fork, a DNA helicase (DnaB or MCM complex) precedes the DNA synthetic machinery and unwinds the duplex parental DNA in cooperation with the SSB or RPA. On the leading strand, replication occurs continuously in a 5 to 3 direction, whereas on the lagging strand, DNA replication occurs discontinuously by synthesis and joining of short Okazaki fragments. In prokaryotes, the leading strand replication apparatus consists of a DNA polymerase (pol III core), a sliding clamp (beta), and a clamp loader (gamma delta complex). The DNA primase (DnaG) is needed to form RNA primers. Normally, during replication of the lagging-strand DNA template, an RNA primer is removed either by an RNase H or by the 5 to 3 exonuclease activity of DNA pol I, and the DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragments. In eukaryotes, three DNA polymerases (alpha, ...
Microbial interactions have a key role in global geochemical cycles. Although we possess significant knowledge about the general biochemical processes occurring in microbial communities, we are often unable to decipher key functions of individual microorganisms within the environment in part owing to the inability to cultivate or study them in isolation. Here, we circumvent this shortcoming through the use of single-cell genome sequencing and a novel low-input metatranscriptomics protocol to reveal the intricate metabolic capabilities and microbial interactions of an alkane-degrading methanogenic community. This methanogenic consortium oxidizes saturated hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions through a thus-far-uncharacterized biochemical process. The genome sequence of a dominant bacterial member of this community, belonging to the genus Smithella, was sequenced and served as the basis for subsequent analysis through metabolic reconstruction. Metatranscriptomic data generated from less than 500 ...
Efficiency of feed utilisation is a key economically relevant trait to the beef cattle industry worldwide given that feed typically accounts for the greatest single input cost [24]. Improved feed efficiency is not only linked to increased profitability, but also reduces the environmental burden, with efficient animals producing less nutrient excretion [25] and reduced CH4 emissions [5, 6]. As CH4 is a terminal product of methanogen mediated feed fermentation, recent research has focused on characterising the methanogen population in animals selected for divergent feed efficiency. Studies [17, 26, 27] have identified both a diet effect and a correlation between host feed efficiency and rumen microbial composition. Methanobrevibacter spp. and Methanosphaera sp. are consistently identified as dominant methanogenic archaea in the rumen irrespective of geographical location or dietary feeding regime [17, 27-31]. Rumen methanogens were previously characterised by our group [9] in cattle divergent for ...
Methanogens are prokaryotic microorganisms that produce methane as an end-product of a complex biochemical pathway. They are strictly anaerobic archaea and occupy a wide variety of anoxic environments. Methanogens also thrive in the cytoplasm of anaerobic unicellular eukaryotes and in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. The symbiotic methanogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other methanogenic mammals contribute significantly to the global methane budget. This monograph deals with methanogenic endosymbionts of anaerobic protists, in particular ciliates and termite flagellates, and with methanogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of vertebrates and arthropods. Further reviews discuss the genomic consequences of living together in symbiotic associations, the role of methanogens in syntrophic degradation, and the function and evolution of hydrogenosomes, hydrogen-producing organelles of certain anaerobic protists.
We have evaluated the tumor concentrations of two major cellular FIs, CH2FH4 and FH4, in relation to various pathological features of CRC, the presence of DNA hypermethylation, and to functionally important polymorphisms in methyl-group metabolism genes. Despite the relatively modest sample size (n = 103), strong trends were observed for higher FI levels in tumors from older patients, in tumors originating in the proximal colon, and in those with the MSI+ phenotype (Table 1)⇓ . Similar associations with age, tumor site, and MSI+ have been reported for the CIMP+ CRC subgroup characterized by frequent and cancer-specific hypermethylation of CpG islands (2, 3, 4, 5) . Therefore, it was not surprising to find that higher FI levels were also present in tumors showing frequent methylation of genes classified previously by Toyota et al. (2) as type "C," or de novo methylated in cancer (Table 2)⇓ . Methylation at the individual hMLH1, TIMP3, and ARF sites, and to a lesser extent p16 and MINT2 was ...
The global microbial CH4 production is estimated to reach one billion tons annually. Methanogenic archaea produce CH4 in wetlands, rice fields, ruminant and termite digestive systems and have a decisive impact on the planets atmospheric carbon cycle [42]. At the same time, the industrial scale anaerobic digestion of biomass to CH4 plays a vital role in the future global energy mix. All methanogenic archaea capable of CO2 reduction contain the cofactor F420 as an integral part of the methanogenic pathway. In this study, F420 autofluorescence was tested as a universal marker for methanogenic archaea. Genes encoding for F420 biosynthesis enzymes were identified in 653 bacterial and 173 archaeal species [43]. Non-methanogenic but F420 containing microorganisms have reported F420 concentrations of about one fortieth of the concentrations in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea [19], which is below detection limit of the developed protocol. For the methanogenic archaea, however, the F420 cofactor ...
The population of filamentous acetate-utilizing methanogens in paddy field soils was 2.0×10,SUP,4,/SUP, MPN/g dry soil in the submerged condition. They were able to form colonies in a deep agar medium, but not in a roll tube. Filamentous acetate-utilizing methanogens isolated from Kanagi, Japan (strain K-5) and Tsukuba, Japan (strain T-3) were divided into two types based on length of filaments. One type, strain K-5, formed a short chain which was dispersed easily by weak shaking. The other type, strain T-3, formed a long chain, which formed cotton-like flocs and was not dispersed by weak shaking. They had sheaths composed of a pair of adjacent membranes on the outside of the cell membranes. The 16S rRNA gene similarities of strain T-3 and K-5 to ,I,Methanosaeta concilii,/I, strain Opfikon were 100% and 99.5% respectively. Filamentous acetate-utilizing methanogens were also isolated from paddy field soils in various other regions of Japan. Our results suggest that ,I,Methanosaeta,/I, is ...
... This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Biogas Plants in US$ Million. The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, - Market research report and industry analysis - 12399232
Acid crisis characterized by acid accumulation and/or low pH is a common reason for the failure of anaerobic digestion (AD), which is usually applied for wastewater and waste treatment. Acid-tolerant methanogens are rarely reported to be active in the artificial anaerobic digester. In this study, we observed that the thermophilic methanogenesis by a consortium in the form of flocs and not granules could still be recovered during long-term operation at acetate concentration of up to 104 mM and pH 5.5 by adjusting the pH gradually or directly to pH 5.5 or 5.0. The acclimation process involving the gradual decrease in pH could enhance the resistance of the consortium against extreme acidification. The stable isotopic signature analysis of biogas revealed that Methanosarcina, which produced methane through acetoclastic methanogenesis (AM) pathway, was the predominant methane producer when the pH was decreased gradually to 5.0. Meanwhile, the abundance of Coprothermobacter increased with a decrease in pH.
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Mec niques Segal s S.L we have specialised in slurry, digestates for biogas plants, the recovery of by-products and the contents of containers of swine liquid feed.
It was recognized only recently that subglacial ecosystems support considerable methanogenic activity, thus significantly contributing the global methane production. However, only limited knowledge is available on the physiological characteristics of this kind of methanogenic community because of the technical constraints associated with sampling and cultivation under corresponding environmental conditions. To elucidate methanogenesis beneath the glacial margin in East Antarctic Ice Sheet, we took an integrated approach that included cultivation of microbes associated with the sediment samples in the lab and analysis of mcrA gene therein. After seven months of incubation, the highest rate of methanogenesis [398 (pmol/day)/gram] was observed at 1 °C on a supply of H2. The rates of methanogenesis were lower on acetate or unamended substrate than on H2. The rates on these two substrates increased when the temperature was raised. Methanomicrobiales predominated before and after prolonged incubation,
Biogas plants produce nutrient rich digestates as side products, which are usually used as local fertilisers. Yet the large amount and regional gradients of biogas plants in Germany necessitate management, conditioning, and transportation of digestates, in order to follow good fertilising procedure and prohibit local over-fertilisation. With a membrane-based treatment chain, i.e. centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, digestates can be separated into a solid N,P-fertiliser, a liquid N,K-fertiliser, and dischargeable water. Up to now, the high energy demand of the process chain, in particular the ultrafiltration step, limits the economical market launch of the treatment chain. A reduction of the energy demand is challenging, as digestates exhibit a high fouling potential and ultrafiltration fluxes differ considerably for digestates from different biogas plants. In a systematic screening of 28 digestate samples from agricultural biogas plants and 6 samples from bio-waste biogas ...
Process monitoring in biogas plants Bernhard Drosg Technical Brochure written by: Bernhard Drosg Copyright 2013 IEA Bioenergy. All rights reserved. First electronic edition produced in 2013 A catalogue
This study aimed to analyse the effect of sudden temperature increases (in the range of 45-65 °C) on the performance and the microbial community structure of a hybrid anaerobic reactor. The reactor recovered with time after every temperature shock up to the operating temperature of 55 °C. At 55 °C, a 10 °C shock resulting in an operating temperature of 65 °C, deteriorated the reactors performance. At this condition, both, the diversity and the relative abundance of methanogenic groups, especially of Methanosaetaceae, were significantly affected as observed by DGGE fingerprinting and quantitative PCR. In contrast, at lower temperatures (i.e., 45 and 55 °C), thermal shocks seemed to have less effect due to the presence and maintenance of thermophilic strains, which prevented system deterioration. At 65 °C, the absence of any acetoclastic methanogen is assumed to be the cause of system failure.
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Effect of temperature on carbon and electron flow and on the archaeal community in methanogenic rice field soil
The biogas production in Sweden year 2014 was 1,8 TWh where almost 1 TWh was upgraded to biomethane for use in vehicles. The production of biomethane is mainly located at the biogas plants that have a production over 200-400 Nm3/h. This is mainly due to the fact that the investment and operating costs becomes too high for the small producers with low biogas flows. The government of Sweden has a highly ambitious goal of having a vehicle fleet that runs on at least 80 % renewable fuels in the year 2030. To reach that goal even the small biogas producers needs to start upgrading their gas to be able to replace fossil fuels with renewable biomethane.. The aim of this master thesis has been to supply enough information to Norrmejerier about whether or not to upgrade the biogas by summarizing relevant research papers and calculate energy flows and costs for each upgrading technology.The limitation of the thesis has been that the production of biogas with different incoming substrates have been ...
The enzyme isolated from the methanogenic archaea Methanogenium liminatans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of various secondary and cyclic alcohols to the corresponding ketones ...
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Schlüter, A., Bekel, T., Diaz, N.N., Dondrup, M., Eichenlaub, R., Gartemann, K.-H., Krahn, I., Krause, L., Kroemeke, H., Kruse, O., Mussgnug, J.H., Neuweger, H., Niehaus, K., Pühler, A., Runte, K.J., Szczepanowski, R., Tauch, A., Tilker, A., Viehöver, P., Goesmann, A.: The metagenome of a biogas-producing microbial community of a production-scale biogas plant fermenter analysed by the 454-pyrosequencing technology. Journal of Biotechnology. 136, 77-90 (2008 ...
One of biggest problems in countries across the world, is effectively disposing of waste. Putzmeister piston pumps are used on a massive scale in biogas plants to pump bulky, wet & pasty material.
ENSPAR Biogas - Ihr Partner für die Energie der Zukunft. ENSPAR ist ein inhabergeführtes, international tätiges Unternehmen mit Sitz im nordrhein-westfälischen Bad Wünnenberg.
Himark BioGas Inc. is a leading Waste-to-Energy technology and engineering services company. Himark has over 13 years of in-depth experience and operational know-how in bioengineer
Unison Solutions, Inc. offers maintenance services for all of the equipment and systems we sell. Whether itís as straightforward as biogas testing and evaluation or as technical as a generator rebuild, Unison has the experience and expertise to meet your needs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of triclosan, diclofenac, and nonylphenol on mesophilic and thermophilic methanogenic activity and on the methanogenic communities. AU - Symsaris, Evangelos C.. AU - Fotidis, Ioannis. AU - Stasinakis, Athanasios S.. AU - Angelidaki, Irini. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - In this study, a toxicity assay using a mesophilic wastewater treatment plant sludge-based (SI) and a thermophilic manure-based inoculum (MI), under different biomass concentrations was performed to define the effects of diclofenac (DCF), triclosan (TCS), and nonylphenol (NP) on anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Additionally, the influence of DCF, TCS, and NP on the relative abundance of the methanogenic populations was investigated. Results obtained demonstrated that, in terms of methane production, SI inoculum was more resistant to the toxicity effect of DCF, TCS, and NP, compared to the MI inoculum. The IC50 values were 546, 35, and 363mgL-1 for SI inoculum and 481, 32, and 74mgL-1 for MI inoculum for DCF, ...
The flammable gas methane is the product of the energy-generating metabolism of the methanogenic Archaea. Most of the methanogenesis on earth occurs in anaerobic habitats where intermediates in the breakdown of organic matter are converted to methane. You can observe the accumulation of methane in sediments in the Volta experiment. Some methanogenesis on earth today (and perhaps most of it on the ancient earth) occurs in geothermal habitats such as hydrothermal vents. In the diagram of methanogenesis below, the pathway with hydrogen and carbon dioxide or with formate is shown. In hydrogenotrophic methanogens, no electron transport chain is present. Energy is conserved by sodium ion export to generate a chemiosmotic membrane potential. In addition, energy coupling occurs by electron bifurcation, making the pathway cyclical. In addition to electron equivalents needed for methanogenesis, an anaplerotic supply electrons is necessary ...
Anaerobic digestion trials can improve biogas plant performance. See our case study, making changes from feedstock mix to digestate processing equipment.
Methane is a key intermediate in the carbon cycle and biologically produced by methanogenic archaea. Most methanogens are able to conserve energy by reducing CO2 to methane using molecular hydrogen as electron
Press release - Global Market Insights, Inc. - Europe Biogas Market Key participants in Europe biogas market includes EnviTech, Schmack, IES Biogas, Agrinz Technologies, Agraferm Technologies AG, BDI- Bioenergy International, Weltec, BTS-biogas - published on openPR.com
A. An assembly for consultation, a council (in concreto; on the contrary consilium signifies the counsel in abstracto that is taken in such an assembly. The meanings, however, often pass over to each other; hence in MSS. and edd. a freq. confusion of the two words; cf. "consilium)," Caes. B. G. 1, 30 fin.; cf. id. ib. 7, 1: "(opiniones), quae in senatu, quae apud populum, quae in omni coetu concilioque proferendae sunt," Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 77: "inire," Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 33: "habere," id. Mil. 3, 1, 3: "convocare," Caes. B. G. 1, 40; 2, 10; 3, 3: "vocare," Verg. A. 10, 2: "cogere," id. ib. 11, 304: "dimittere," Caes. B. G. 1, 18; 1, 33 al.; Cic. Leg. 2, 12, 31 al.: "transferre Lutetiam," Caes. B. G. 6, 3: "in posterum diem differre," Curt. 6, 11, 9: "dare legatis," Liv. 43, 17, 7: "indicere," id. 1, 50, 4: "constituere diem concilio," Caes. B. G. 1, 30: "Messene ab Achaeis, quod concilii eorum recusaret esse, oppugnari coepta est," i. e. a member of the Achaian league, Liv. 36, 31, 1: "concilio ...
The Register of Deeds is another type of land record. In the strictest sense of the word, the register of deeds was used to preserve any legal, written agreement. In addition to land transactions, you will find marriage contracts, contracts of partnership, contracts of sale, bonds, and so forth. If a land transaction was recorded with a deed, you should also find a reference to the transaction in Sasine records. Before 1532, deeds are scattered through the Notarial Protocol books. In 1532 when the Court of Session was established, the deeds were recorded in the session and the register was called Acta Dominorum Concilii et Sessionis. In 1542 it was changed to the Acts and Decreets, which covers up to the year 1581. The National Archives of Scotland (NAS) holds the actual Register of Deeds cataloged under "RD" which stands for Register of deeds. RD1 begins in 1554, but deed transactions were not regularly recorded until 1661. The 1554 register was kept in three series: ...
Consider the following reaction scheme:. \(\ce{As + Cl2 -, X}\). \(\ce{X + CH3MgBr -, Y}\). \(\ce{X} \overbrace{\ce{-,}}^{\text{reduction with }\ce{LiAlH4}} \ce{Z} \). ...
Before they got married, Presbyterian missionaries Aaron and Rachel Halbert knew they wanted to adopt a black child. In an article written for The Washington Post, Aaron explains how he and Rachel not only had difficulty conceiving naturally, but they also came to understand that white children are more likely to be adopted. They felt a calling to provide a home for a...
Foaming incidents have been recorded in many biogas plants causing severe operational, economical and environmental problems (Kougias et al., 2014). However, the foaming phenomenon in biogas reactors fed with agro-industrial wastes has not been extensively investigated, especially with respect to the microbial composition of the digesters (Moeller et al., 2012). In the cited literature, it has been reported that specific microorganisms, which are mainly filamentous (e.g. Gordonia species, Microthrix parvicella), are attached to biogas bubbles and transferred to the air/liquid interface of sludge reactors or wastewater treatment works (Ganidi et al., 2009). Once these microorganisms accumulate on the liquid surface, they initiate biosurfactants production due to their metabolic activity, leading to the decrease of the surface tension and thus generate foaming. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial diversity in the liquid versus the foaming layer in manure-based biogas ...
Methanogenic metabolism of organic matter is a key process in both natural and engineered systems. Methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is an important biogeochemical process in the deep subsurface, and subsurface hydrocarbon contamination is frequently remediated by methanogenic processes. Despite the importance of methanogenic processes in hydrocarbon-impacted systems, we currently have an incomplete understanding of the hydrocarbon activation and degradation pathways used by the syntrophic bacteria, the roles of the non-hydrocarbon degrading syntrophs, which are often present in high abundance, and the ways in which syntrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea establish and maintain relationships that allow them to coordinate their metabolism. By studying methanogenic hydrocarbon degrading enrichment cultures, we remove many complicating features of natural systems and can gain a basic understanding of the primary factors governing hydrocarbon metabolism under methanogenic conditions. In this ...
Downloadable! In this paper we investigate how changes in the support scheme may affect electricity generation from agricultural Combined Heat and Power (CHP) biogas plants in Germany. A recursive Multi-Agent System (MAS) for investment decision-making is coupled with GIS data. The spatial-temporal diffusion model accounts for the limited availability of substrate resources, alternative plant sizes and different heat use combinations. For illustration, we apply the model to the German federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria, for which we estimate an additional economic capacity potential of 409 MWel. Overall, we conclude that current feed-in payments per unit of electric power provided are probably not too far off the optimum level, if one considers the maximum diffusion of CHP units possible. However, the current feed-in system may overtly favor small generating units, thereby failing to incentivize coordination among farmers for joint resource use in larger and more efficient plants. In
Converting waste into energy and more specific agro waste like manures and high-quality energy crops is an established renewable energy option through-out the world.. Typically, biogas plants are characterized by large capital investment due to long retention times that require large plants with high operating costs. This means that as an investor large portion of investment is skunked into fixed assets leading to high risk. Further up to 50% of the substrate is never converted by tradition AD (anaerobic digestion) process, these materials are cellulose and hemicellulose.. ...
countries and other applications.. Through the biogas process, waste food and agricultural products are converted to natural gas through bacterial digestion. The BioSPR makes the fats, sugars, proteins and starches more accessible to the bacteria, which increases yield and can reduce viscosity. The Italian biogas market is one of the worlds largest with more than 700 plants.. "Three-Es offers their customers a beautifully engineered SPR solution that, as ...
I. The Mercuric Acetate Oxidation of Medium Rings Containing Tertiary Nitrogen. Ii. A New Route to Oxazolidines and Tetrahydro-1,3- ...
China 1200kw Biogas Generator Set CHP Genset, Find details about China 1200 Kw Biogas Generator Set, Biogas Generators from 1200kw Biogas Generator Set CHP Genset - Jinan Lvneng Power Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd.
A feasibility assessment of a system integrating an ethanol manufacturing facility, a confined feedlot operation (CFO) and a biogas plant.
Biogas is one of the most untapped sources of natural and sustainable energy available. It is used all over the world and by far the largest number of biogas plant (technically known as anaerobic digestion plants) are relatively small installations and are found in the developing nations. India for instance has more than 12 million digesters). The Africa Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP) 70,000 biogas plants in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Senegal and Burkina Faso. That project alone will be expected to be providing about half a million people access to a sustainable source of energy by this year 2013. Biogas plants can be useful resources wherever you are. An example of this is the Mount Everest area. It is a destination for climbers and trekkers from all over the world. While visiting our worlds highest mountain, climbers, trekkers, and walkers take away great memories, lots of photos and new friends, but leave behind their untreated waste. At the Mount Everest Biogas Project they are ...
This gene encodes a member of the ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) family of electron transferases. This protein functions in the synthesis of methionine by regenerating methionine synthase to a functional state. Because methionine synthesis requires methyl-group transfer by a folate donor, activity of the encoded enzyme is important for folate metabolism and cellular methylation. Mutations in this gene can cause homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia, cbl E type. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015 ...
The research objectives of the project are to develop genetic and molecular techniques that will permit the detection, isolation, and cloning of genes that are regulated during acetate catabolism. These studies should provide a firm basis for understanding the regulation of acetate utilization in the methanogen, Methanosarcina acitivorans. We have concentrated on three areas of study in the first year of the contract. They are; 1)development of cell plating methods for the methanosarcina, 2) screening and isolation of plasmids from the acetogenic methanogens, and 3) construction of gene libraries for M. acetivorans. It is anticipated that techniques developed in these studies will facilitate genetic study of other methanogenic organisms. Keywords: Archaebacteria, Methanogens, Acetate Utilization, Genetic Regulation, Plasmids, Nutrition.*ACETATES
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...