The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris can be used to express recombinant genes at high levels under the control of the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Accurate regulation of the methanol concentration in P. pastoris cultures is necessary to maintain induction, while preventing accumulation of methanol to cytotoxic levels. We developed an inexpensive methanol sensor that uses a gas-permeable silicone rubber tube immersed in the culture medium and an organic solvent vapor detector. The sensor was used to monitor methanol concentration continuously throughout a fed-batch shake-flask culture of a P. pastoris clone producing the N-lobe of human transferrin. The sensor calibration was stable for the duration of the culture and the output signal accurately reflected the methanol concentration determined off-line by HPLC. A closed-loop control system utilizing this sensor was developed and used to maintain a 0.3% (v/v) methanol concentration in the culture. Use of this system ...
Methanol poisoning is a serious public health issue in developing countries, but few data are available in the literature on acute kidney injury (AKI) after methanol intoxication. This study examined the clinical features, spectrum and outcomes of AKI in patients with methanol intoxication and evaluated the predictors of mortality after methanol intoxication. A total of 50 patients with methanol intoxication were seen at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2000 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to the status of renal damage as AKI (n = 33) or non-AKI (n = 19). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. Most patients were middle-aged (47.8 ± 14.9 years), predominantly male (74.0%), and habitual alcohol consumers (70.0%). Most incidents were oral exposures (96.0%) and unintentional (66.0%). Two (4.0%) patients attempted suicide by intravenous injection of methanol. Five (10.0%) patients suffered methanol intoxication after ingestion of methomyl pesticide
Abstract. This work reports the first comprehensive analysis of methanol concentrations in rainwater. Methanol concentrations measured in 49 rain events collected between 28 August 2007 and 10 July 2008 in Wilmington, NC, USA, ranged from below the detection limit of 6 nM to 9.3 μM with a volume-weighted average concentration of 1 ± 0.2 μM. Methanol concentrations in rainwater were up to ~200 times greater than concentrations reported previously in marine waters, indicating wet deposition as a potentially significant source of methanol to marine waters. Assuming that these methanol concentrations are an appropriate proxy for global methanol rainwater concentrations, the global methanol wet deposition sink is estimated as 20 Tg yr−1, which implies that previous methanol budgets underestimate removal by precipitation. Methanol concentrations in rainwater did not correlate significantly with H+, NO3−, and NSS, which suggests that the dominant source of the alcohol to rainwater is not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Real time measurements of methanol crossover in a DMFC. AU - Han, Jiahua. AU - Liu, Hongtan. PY - 2007/1/10. Y1 - 2007/1/10. N2 - Methanol crossover is a serious problem in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), which causes significant voltage loss and waste of fuel. Due to methanol crossover, most DMFCs must operate on a fuel with a very low methanol concentration; yet very low methanol concentration also causes a poor cell performance. Thus, it is very important to find the optimal operating conditions of methanol concentration and other operating parameters. In this research, methanol crossover rate in a DMFC is determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration at the cathode exit in real time. By measuring methanol crossover and cell performances at different inlet methanol concentrations and various operating conditions three types of characteristics are identified in the relationships between methanol crossover and cell current density. Further analysis of these ...
In order to regulate methanol concentration, since the methanol crossover rate is roughly proportional to the methanol concentration at the anode, it is necessary to accurately sense the concentration of methanol in solution. Various types of sensors may be used to measure the concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution. Capacitance devices, which measure the change in the dielectric constant of the methanol solution, can be used as methanol sensors. However, the difference in dielectric constants for a methanol-water system is small leading to less accurate values. A sensing device, in wide range of methanol concentrations, up to about, 10 mol/L, would be very helpful for DMFC optimized operation. A passive mode design, of about 1/10th of a cm area, using a single parameter function, will be designed. The design and simulation would involve optimization of various parameters like the area of the working electrodes and counter electrodes, separation distance and overlap length between ...
In this work, methanol in crude glycerol solution was used to assist the lipid production with oleaginous yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus cultivated under non-sterilized conditions. The investigated methanol concentration was 0%, 1.4%, 2.2%, 3.3% and 4.4% (w/v). The results showed that methanol played a significant role in the non-sterilized fermentation for lipid production. The optimal methanol concentration was around 1.4% (w/v) in which the growth of T. oleaginosus was promoted and overcame that of the contaminants. The non-sterilized fed-batch fermentation with initial methanol concentration of 1.4% (w/v) was then performed and high biomass production (43.39 g/L) and lipid production (20.42 g/L) were achieved.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Design and fabrication of pumpless small direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications. AU - Shimizu, Takahiro. AU - Momma, Toshiyuki. AU - Mohamedi, Mohamed. AU - Osaka, Tetsuya. AU - Sarangapani, Srinivasan. PY - 2004/10/29. Y1 - 2004/10/29. N2 - This work studied the design, fabrication, and performance evaluation of a 36 cm2, passive, air-breathing, room-temperature, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The cell is completely passive with no external pumps or other ancillary devices. It takes oxygen from the surrounding air, and the methanol solution is stored in a built-in reservoir. The fuel cell runs successfully with methanol concentration ranging from 0.5 to 4 M. It produced a power density of 11 mW cm-2 reached with 4 M methanol at current densities as high as 36 mA cm-2 and at a voltage of 0.3.. AB - This work studied the design, fabrication, and performance evaluation of a 36 cm2, passive, air-breathing, room-temperature, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The cell ...
Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell [email protected]@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell [email protected] nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction ...
Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C), were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA). While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous)/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.
1. The effect of methanol on the β-galactosidase-catalysed hydrolysis of some nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranosides has been studied under steady-state conditions. 2. The initial fractional rate of increase of kcat. as a function of methanol concentration with 2,4- and 3,5-dinitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranosides, but not with the other substrates studied, indicated that degalactosylation of the enzyme was rate-limiting. 3. The decrease in kcat. at high methanol concentrations for these substrates is considered to arise from causes other than galactosylation becoming rate-limiting. 4. Both galactosylation and degalactosylation of the enzyme require protonation of a group of pKa approx. 9.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An NMR study of methanol diffusion in polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes. AU - Every, Hayley A.. AU - Hickner, Michael A.. AU - McGrath, James E.. AU - Zawodzinski, Thomas A.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the Department of Energy, DARPA and the U.S. Army Research Office for financially supporting this research. PY - 2005/3/15. Y1 - 2005/3/15. N2 - Methanol diffusion in two polymer electrolyte membranes, Nafion 117 and BPSH 40 (a 40% disulfonated wholly aromatic polyarylene ether sulfone), was measured using a modified pulsed field gradient NMR method. This method allowed for the diffusion coefficient of methanol within the membrane to be determined while immersed in a methanol solution of known concentration. A second set of gradient pulses suppressed the signal from the solvent in solution, thus allowing the methanol within the membrane to be monitored unambiguously. Over a methanol concentration range of 0.5-8 M, methanol diffusion coefficients ...
Abstract: A binary metallic catalyst (PtSn/C) and a ternary metallic catalyst (PtSnCo/C) with a metal mass fraction of 20% were prepared by borohydride reduction and subsequent hydrothermal treatment in a glycol liquid phase. The structure and composition of the as-prepared electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Their activity and stability for the catalysis of methanol oxidation were evaluated by anodic linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and the anodic stripping of a pre-adsorbed CO monolayer. We found that the PtSnCo/C catalyst gave the best catalytic activity for the methanol oxidation of all the catalysts including the commercial JM-PtRu/C catalyst. After 100 cycles, the peak current of methanol oxidation for the PtSn/C catalyst rapidly decreased to 11% of its initial peak current but PtSnCo/C decreased to only 50%. This result suggests that the PtSnCo/C catalyst has better chemical stability for the ...
Methyl alcohol poisoning has been mainly reported in community. Two cases of methyl alcohol poisoning occurred in a small-sized subcontracted factory which manufactured smartphone parts in Korea. One young female patient presented with dyspnea and visual disturbance. Another young male patient presented with visual disturbance and myalgia. They treated with sodium bicarbonate infusion and hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis. In addition, he received ethyl alcohol per oral treatment. Her and his urinary methyl alcohol concentration was detected as 7.632 mg/L, 46.8 mg/L, respectively, although they were treated hemodialysis. Results of the working environment measurement showed that the concentration of methyl alcohol (1030.1-2220.5 ppm) in the air exceeded the time weighted average (200 ppm). They were diagnosed with optic neuropathy due to methyl alcohol poisoning and still have visual impairment. Workers who hired as dispatched employees in a small-sized subcontracted factory were exposed to high
A patient who is suspected to suffer from methanol toxicity should be brought to the hospital as soon as possible. Information such as the type of methanol the patient was exposed to, the amount and the time the exposure occurred will be helpful in the management of the toxicity [2].. Once the patient arrives at the hospital, the priority is to establish the airway and breathing. Intubation may be required if there is acute pulmonary distress or pulmonary edema. An intravenous access will also be established to administer fluid and medications. If the ingestion occurred less than 60 minutes prior, a tube may be inserted through the patients nose to remove any remaining poison in the stomach. Once the patient is stable, antidotes may be given to the patient.. The antidotes used for methanol toxicity are ethanol or fomepizole. These substances delay the metabolism of methanol until it is removed from the body either naturally or through the help of hemodialysis. Delayed metabolism of methanol ...
The electrochemical and in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques were used to investigate the electrooxidation behavior of methanol in acidic, neutral and alkaline media at a Pt-Ru nanoparticle modified glassy carbon (Pt-Ru/GC) electrode. The results showed that methanol could be dissociated spontaneously at the Pt-Ru/GC electrode to produce a strongly adsorbed intermediate, CO. It was found that CO could be oxidized more easily in the alkaline medium than in the acidic and neutral media. The peak potential of methanol oxidation was shifted from 0.663 and 0.708 V in the acidic and neutral media to -0.030 V in the alkaline medium, which is due to that the adsorption strength of CO on the Pt surface in the alkaline medium is weaker than that in the acidic and neutral media. The final product of the methanol oxidation is C02. However, in the alkaline medium, CO2 proCO(2) duced would form CO32- and HCO3- resulting in the decrease in the alkaline concentration and then in the ...
Global Sodium Methoxide Market is segmented, By product Type into Caustic soda, Methanol as Raw Materials, Sodium Metal, Methanol as Raw Materials. Sodium Methoxide is a compound with molecular formula CH3ONa. It is also termed as Sodium methylate. This is a colorless solid, white to pale yellow in color, present in the powdered form; and a chemical compound, which is formed by the process of deprotonation of the methanol; or also, it is produced by the exothermic reaction within the elemental sodium and methanol; which is a widely used reagent in the industry and the chemical laboratory.. Full Research Report On Global Sodium Methoxide Market Analysis available at: https://www.millioninsights.com/industry-reports/sodium-methoxide-methylate-market. Sodium methoxide is used as the catalyst in the production of the biodiesel. It is a flammable compound, but not explosive. When exposed to high heat it can be decomposed. It is available in the liquid and solid form; for e.g. vitamin A1, B1, ...
Methanol crossover on the cathodes causes significant performance loss in direct methanol fuel cells, and the parasitic current induced by the electrochemical oxidation of methanol on the cathodes is believed to be the cause. Palladium cathodes are known to bear resistance to methanol but not platinum cathodes. By means of the density functional theory (DFT), the distorted molecular structure of the adsorbed methanol on platinum was revealed, and this distorted molecular structure indicates that platinum makes methanol has a tendency toward the elimination of the first hydrogen (involved in the first step of electrochemical oxidation of methanol) in electric neutrality, and loss of an electron can reinforce this tendency. However, palladium cannot distort the molecular structure of the adsorbed methanol, even in the loss of electron condition. The activation energies and the reaction energies calculated by means of DFT also show that after losing an electron, the elimination of the first ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical characterization of PtRu/C electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction. AU - Lin, Yan. AU - Luo, Jin. AU - Maye, Mathew M.. AU - Kariuki, Nancy N.. AU - Wang, Lingyan. AU - Njoki, Peter N.. AU - Han, Li. AU - Schadt, Mark. AU - Zhong, Chuan Jian. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Direct methanol fuel cells are increasingly considered as an attractive power source for mobile applications because of the high energy density. The binary PtRu nanoparticle catalyst on carbon support is currently one of the most-studied electrocatalysts showing a bifunctional catalytic mechanism. A systematical electrochemical characterization of PtRu/Vulcan carbon catalysts (E-tek) for methanol oxidation under various conditions was carried out. The results revealed some initial insights into the experimental conditions for comparing the catalytic activities of different electrocatalysts. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 228th ACS National Meeting (Philadelphia, PA ...
The role of methanol produced in-situ in the liquid phase methanol synthesis process has been experimentally examined. The catalyst crystallite size is found to be more stable when the produced water and methanol are consistently removed from the catalyst active sites. The experimental evidence shows that in-situ produced water is not the only culprit for the catalyst crystallite size growth, rather, methanol is also responsible for contributing to crystallite growth and therefore catalyst deactivation. Hydrothermal leaching of the catalyst was also determined to be an active participant in catalyst deactivation. Two experimental designs were run to assess the influence of temperature, leaching solution concentration and pretreatment conditions on the extent of leaching of the methanol synthesis catalyst. Water and methanol were found to be active participants in the reduction of catalyst activity. Hence, the methanol/water solutions serve as potentially harmful agents in the leaching of aluminum and
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Methanol prices, methanol reports, methanol market intelligence, methanol directory, methanol buy sell offers, methanol news, methanol articles, methanol market analysis, Methanol import, methanol export, methanol trade, Acetic acid, acetic acid prices, acetic acid ...
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The flowing electrolyte-direct methanol fuel cell (FE-DMFC) is a type of fuel cell in which a flowing liquid electrolyte is used, in addition to two solid membranes, to reduce methanol crossover. In this study, FE-DMFCs having new materials and design were manufactured and studied. In this design, the flow field plates were made of stainless steel 2205 and had a pin type flow structure. PTFE treated carbon felts were used as the backing layers as well as the flowing electrolyte channel. Nafion® 115 or Nafion® 212 was used as the membranes. The polarization curves and methanol crossover current densities under different methanol concentrations and flow rates of sulfuric acid were measured using fully automated DMFC test stations. The performances of the FE-DMFCs were compared with those of the DMFCs having a single or double membrane. This study is, to the authors knowledge, the first experimental study on measuring the methanol crossover in a FE-DMFC. The results of this study demonstrate that this
Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory have made significant contributions to our understanding of metal oxides, their surfaces, and the binding of molecules at these surfaces. In this paper we investigate the binding of methanol at the alpha-Al2O3(0001) surface using first-principles density functional theory. We calculate the molecular adsorption energy of methanol to be E^g_ads=1.03 eV/molecule. Taking the methanol-methanol interaction into account, we obtain the adsorption energy E_ads=1.01 eV/molecule. Our calculations indicate that methanol adsorbs chemically by donating electron charge from the methanol oxygen to the surface aluminum. We find that the surface atomic structure changes upon adsorption, most notably the spacing between the outermost Al and O layers changes from 0.11 Angstrom to 0.33 Angstrom.
The methanol-induced conformational transitions under acidic conditions for beta -lactoglobulin, cytochrome c, and ubiquitin, representing three different classes of proteins with beta -sheets, alpha -helices, and both alpha -helices and beta -sheets, respectively, are studied under equilibrium conditions by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The folding states of proteins in solution are monitored by the charge state distributions that they produce during ESI and by hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange followed by ESI-MS. The changes in charge state distributions are correlated with earlier studies by optical and other methods which have shown that, in methanol, these proteins form partially unfolded intermediates with induced ct-helix structure. Intermediate states formed at about 35% methanol concentration are found to give bimodal charge state distributions. The same rate of H/D exchange is shown by the two contributions to the bimodal distributions. This suggests the ...
The answer is Maybe 0.3% will probably be fine, but it depends on the cell line a lot. Note that if the drug is soluble in methanol, it will also be soluble in ethanol, which might be less toxic.. ...
Acid-Treated Nickel-Rich Platinum-Nickel Alloys for Oxygen Reduction and Methanol Oxidation Reactions in Alkaline MediaAcid-Treated Nickel-Rich Platinum-Nickel Alloys for Oxygen Reduction and Methanol Oxidation Reactions in Alkaline Media ...
Methanol toxicity is poisoning from methanol.[1] Symptoms may include a decreased level of consciousness, poor coordination, vomiting, abdominal pain, and a specific smell on the breath.[1][2] Decreased vision may start as early as twelve hours after exposure.[2] Long-term outcomes may include blindness and kidney failure.[1] Toxicity and death may occur even after drinking a small amount.[1] Methanol poisoning most commonly occurs following the drinking of windshield washer fluid.[2] This may be accidental or done purposefully in an attempt to die by suicide.[1] Toxicity may also rarely occur through extensive skin exposure or breathing in fumes.[1] When methanol is broken down by the body it results in formaldehyde, formic acid, and formate which cause much of the toxicity.[2] The diagnosis may be suspected when there is acidosis or an increased osmol gap and confirmed by directly measuring blood levels.[1][2] Other conditions that can produce similar symptoms include infections, exposure to ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Solving environmental problems of breathing gases purification from methanol. AU - Bochkarev, V. V.. AU - Kukurina, O. S.. AU - Vdovin, A. S.. PY - 2012/12/1. Y1 - 2012/12/1. N2 - The true reasons of decrease in efficiency of breathing gases cleaning of tanks and railway tanks from methanol on CJSC Methanol (Tomsk, Russia) are determined. Platinum catalyst aging is caused by sintering and partial destruction of ceramic blocks owing to excess of ultimate service temperature, blocking of the active centers by coke, nonoptimum working of the catalytic installation. The economic way of block platinum catalysts regeneration is developed. Also the kinetics of the methanol deep oxidation on platinum and metal-complex catalysts is investigated. Moreover optimal operation of installation for breathing gases purification is defined.. AB - The true reasons of decrease in efficiency of breathing gases cleaning of tanks and railway tanks from methanol on CJSC Methanol (Tomsk, ...
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This PhD thesis deeply analyzes the mechanistic and kinetic behavior of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) in the industrially relevant Methanol-To-Hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction, which employs zeolitic materials as catalysts. Industrial MTH processes use methanol, DME or combined methanol/DME feeds over zeolitic catalysts. Methanol and its dehydration product, DME, are conventionally attributed an analogous behavior in MTH; however, a thorough investigation on the theme was missing even though the MTH reaction has been studied for 40 years already. By means of mechanistic and kinetic studies, methanol has been found to negatively impact catalyst stability as compared to DME. This is rationalized based on the ability of methanol to form formaldehyde, a molecule that can act as coke promoter. Furthermore, the work presented in this PhD thesis suggest different strategies to reduce the impact of methanol on catalyst deactivation, thereby optimizing the lifetime of the catalyst during MTH operation ...
This study aims at investigating the emissions of cathode gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) at different operating parameters (methanol concentration, methanol flowrate, oxygen flowrate, and cell temperature). At the standard test condition (run A1), the concentrations of stage 1 (S1) and S2 PAHs ranged from non-detect (ND) to 10.3 ± 2.54 (Nap) and ND to 0.148 ± 0.047 (IND) µg Nm-3, respectively; furthermore, the Total-PAHs and Total-BaPeq concentrations of S1 + S2 were 21.2 ± 4.48 µg Nm-3 and 409 ± 226 ng Nm-3, respectively. The operating parameters significantly influenced the patterns of PAH concentration profiles. Decreasing with increasing methanol flowrate and concentration or decreasing oxygen flowrate and cell temperature, the ranges of Total-PAHs and Total-BaPeq concentrations of S1 + S2 for different runs were (36.4 ± 10.9)‒(0.98 ± 0.21) µg Nm-3 and (409 ± 226)‒(98.7 ± 30.3) ng Nm-3, respectively, with corresponding
Background: Acute methanol poisoning is a fatal illness. Several Atypical presentations could make it difficult to suspect the diagnosis.. Case Report: A 50 years old male known chronic alcoholic presented to the emergency department with severe acute abdominal pain nausea and vomiting. He rapidly deteriorated within 2 hours to develop confusion and seizures, was found to have double gap severe metabolic acidosis and elevated serum methanol. The patient was managed with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) and supportive measures. He gradually improved and was discharged with no neurological or visual complications.. Conclusion and Recommendations: Acute methanol toxicity should be expected if the alcoholic patient develops a rapid neurological deterioration and shows double anion gap acidosis.. Health authorities should provide the serum formic acid test for diagnosis and the fomepizole as a preferable antidote. Until then, supportive treatment, intravenous ethanol and CRRT should be ...
In the February and May 2010 tips of the month (TOTM) we presented the distribution and concentration of sulfur compounds in an NGL Fractionation Train (NFT) using commercial simulation software [1-3]
In the February and May 2010 tips of the month (TOTM) we presented the distribution and concentration of sulfur compounds in an NGL Fractionation Train (NFT) using commercial simulation software [1-3]
Objective: Methanol-induced optic neuropathy is a visual impairment that results from damage to the optic nerve fibers caused by methanol. It is frequently bilateral with permanent visual deterioration. According to the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT), methanol-poisoned patients who present with ocular manifestations should be treated with fomepizole, ethanol, or hemodialysis, which do not remove the metabolites from the optic nerve. High-dose intravenous steroid treatment has been proposed in several studies to salvage vision because of its anti-inflammatory effect. This article examines the existing literature on the efficacy of high-dose intravenous steroid treatment in patients with methanol-induced optic neuropathy. ...
One of the reasons why Methanol has the potential to be an enduring solution to human energy needs is because the beltched out C02 (greenhouse gas emission) both from using Methanol and while producing Methanol can be tapped back to produce Methanol. Thereby a seamless loop of CO2 sequestration cycle is created to perpetually burn fuels without polluting the environment at all. C02 from steel plants, Thermal Power plants, Cement Plants etc. can be tapped in large quantities to produce Methanol. The Technology has acquired commercial maturity and countries like Iceland are producing in meaningful quantities already.. NITI Aayog has drawn out a comprehensive plan to replace 20% of crude imports from Methanol alone. Adopting Methanol in this scale would bring down pollution in the country by more than 40% and not to forget the benefits from import substitution. Over a period of time of time diesel can completely be done away with. Indian Railways alone burns three billion litres of diesel every ...
Press Release issued Apr 9, 2015: A Detailed analysis of the international and China Sodium Methoxide market is presented in the Global Sodium Methoxide Industry 2015. The report analyses of the Sodium Methoxide market based on a variety of important industry verticals such as variety of products, key applications, developments, key market trends, key technologies in the marketplace, and the competitive landscape.
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Improving the electrocatalytic activity and durability of electrocatalysts is of vital importance to the direct methanol fuel cells. PtRu materials are the most effective catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in an acidic medium, but they still exhibits partial defects, such as limited catalytic ac Journal of Materials Chemistry A HOT Papers
CAS No. 67-56-1. Methyl alcohol (CH 3 OH) is a colorless liquid with a strong odor. It is a poisonous substance that can be absorbed through the eyes, skin, lungs, and digestive system. Overexposure can cause death. Workers may be harmed by exposure to methyl alcohol. The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done ...
Methanol enters in our every days life with a vast variety of applications: from paints, to fibres, resins, coatings and many more. For instance, it can be found in computers, in our homes and cars, in the garments we wear, in the appliances we use and in our furniture.. But not only: it holds the promise to play a key role in a much-needed greener future. Its simple molecule, easy to make out of a wide variety of feedstocks - whether solid, liquid or gaseous, including renewables - in fact makes it an excellent energy carrier. It can be easily blended directly with gasoline or turned into diesel or olefins and such new fuel applications account for most part of the current growth in the methanol consumption, especially in the bustling Asian megacities.. Casale can deliver several methanol solutions, ranging from very efficient and highly reliable processes for new plants up to technologies for revamping existing facilities. Each one can be tailored to meet the specific needs of our ...
Theres a useful general principle in chemistry where like dissolves like relative to polarity of solids and liquids. The light fraction of petroleum, literally it weighs less by volume, is hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are considered non-polar molecules. The petroleum distillates in petrol (gasoline) are also non-polar hydrocarbon molecules. Methanol alcohol is a hydroxide group bonded to a carbon atom with three hydrogen atoms also bonded to the carbon atom. A result is methanol is a polar molecule, it also participates in hydrogen bonding. Where like dissolves like, methanol is not like hydrocarbons relative to polarity. So methanol is not very miscible (soluble) in pure hydrocarbons. Pour lighter fluid into a jar with methanol and you will see, pure methanol doesnt dissovle much in lighter fluid. But methanol dissolves in biodiesel, and kerosene (hydrocarbon) is miscible (dissolves) to a degree in biodiesel ...
The discovery may also spur research leading to biofuel applications in the future. Methanol can be considered a baby sugar molecule and is rapidly consumed in the ocean by abundant bacteria - called methylotrophs - which specialize in this type of food, said Dr. Tracy Mincer, WHOI associate scientist and lead author of the paper.. However, up until now, the thought was that methanol in the ocean came from an overflow of terrestrial methanol in the atmosphere. So, this discovery reveals a huge source of methanol that has gone completely unaccounted for in global methanol estimates.. Mincer first became interested in the idea of biologically-produced methanol in the ocean through previous work where he found methanol-nibbling bacteria in a phytoplankton culture he was growing. Intrigued, he extracted the microbe s DNA and its barcodes matched up with a well-known methylotroph in the ocean. Once we were able to characterize this bacteria, I wanted to explore the idea of plankton-produced ...
ANCHORAGE - BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. has agreed to pay $675,000 to the state to settle claims and cleanup monitoring costs from a pipeline leak on the North Slope last year that spilled crude oil and methanol.
One of the prerequisites for the detailed understanding of heterogeneous catalysis is the identification of the dynamic response of the catalyst surface under variable reaction conditions. The present study of methanol oxidation on different model Ru pre-catalysts, performed approaching the realistic catalyt
The molecular weight of Methanol is 32.04 g/mol. in new window. But somewhere in the Internet I found that methanol can dissolve some non polar molecules as well. In addition, no difference was observed in polar bear hair washed with methanol compared with isopropanol, which serves as further evidence that methanol is not extracting internal hair shaft cortisol. Die polare Hydroxygruppe ist dafür verantwortlich, dass Wasserstoffbrücken ausgebildet werden können, weswegen Ethanol wasserlöslich ist. The combination of carbons and hydrogens as in hydrocarbons A practical reality check for the answer is also this: methanol dissolves in water! in new window. Methanol is protic whereas acetone is aprotic. The chemical is also used to produce biodiesel via transesterification reaction. a small polar effect. From each of these structures we can see that they too, have a polar Oxygen-Hydrogen bond, which looks similar to what water has, but the other side have Carbon-Hydrogen bonds, which are very ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen bonding and dynamics of methanol by high-pressure diamond-anvil cell NMR. AU - Okuchi, Takuo. AU - Cody, George D.. AU - Mao, Ho Kwang. AU - Hemley, Russell J.. PY - 2005/8/1. Y1 - 2005/8/1. N2 - Liquid methanol at densities up to ρ ρ 0 =1.7 was studied by NMR in a specially designed diamond-anvil cell. Methyl and hydroxyl resonances have been separately observed at pressures to 43 kbars which exceeds equilibrium freezing pressure of methanol. The chemical shift difference between methyl and hydroxyl protons increases nonlinearly with increasing density, indicating a noticeable decrease in hydrogen bond length. The analyses of spin-lattice relaxation rates of both hydroxyl and methyl protons indicate that compression enhances intermolecular proton exchange and selectively reduces motion of the hydroxyl protons. Collectively these observations reveal that hydrogen bonding interaction in liquid methanol noticeably increases with compression, inhibiting the liquid-solid ...
Due to high potential of pollution risk of the untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME), it can be treated and converted into methane gas and with a further conversion that can produce into methanol. Previously, methanol is widely used in domestic and industrial applications as a solvent. It has a unique characteristic, which are colourless, flammable, volatile, odourless liquid that is readily miscible in water and has boiling point approximately 64.5˚C. Nowadays, the methanol has more been used in transportation and energy production. In future, it is predicted that the use of methanol in fuel applications will generate a huge demand. This study targets to design the process of transforming carbon dioxide, captured from the biogas through anaerobic digestion into synthesizing the methanol with the aim to produce 200 tonnes of methanol per year. This expectation is due to several advantages offered by the use of methanol, which less polluted to the environment, economically attractive, less ...