NORMAN, OKLA. - A University of Oklahoma-led study shows that paddy rice (both area and plant growth) is significantly related to the spatial-temporal dynamics of atmospheric methane concentration in monsoon Asia, where 87% of paddy rice fields are situated in the world.. Methane is one of the major greenhouse gases. It has a lifetime of 12.4 years and its global warming potential is approximately 86 times higher than carbon dioxide over a 20-year period.. "Rice paddy is a large source of methane emission; however, it has been a challenging task to attribute relative role of rice paddy in the spatial distribution, seasonal dynamics and interannual variation of atmospheric methane concentration as measured by spaceborne sensors," said Xiangming Xiao, a member of the Earth Observation and Modeling Facility at OU and a professor in the Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology who coordinated this interdisciplinary study.. Over the past few years, researchers at OU developed annual paddy rice ...
Anaerobic bacterial metabolism in the colon produces hydrogen, methane, volatile fatty acids and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen and methane are excreted in flatus and the expired breath. Investigations in this Thesis attempted to identify factors which may influence methane excretion in man and explain why all subjects do not excrete methane. The proportions of methane producing subjects in two healthy populations studied in Edinburgh were 33% and 70% respectively. Age and sex did not significantly alter methane excretion. Dietary intakes, faecal components and bowel function were found to be similar in methane producing and non-methane producing subjects. An association was found between the ingestion of the pentose fraction of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and the concentration of breath methane in methane producing subjects. This association may be the result of a steady metabolic state in the caecum. Ingestion of pentose monomers D(+) xylose and L(+) arabinose increased methane excretion, in ...
An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loadingAn interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loading ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of triclosan, diclofenac, and nonylphenol on mesophilic and thermophilic methanogenic activity and on the methanogenic communities. AU - Symsaris, Evangelos C.. AU - Fotidis, Ioannis. AU - Stasinakis, Athanasios S.. AU - Angelidaki, Irini. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - In this study, a toxicity assay using a mesophilic wastewater treatment plant sludge-based (SI) and a thermophilic manure-based inoculum (MI), under different biomass concentrations was performed to define the effects of diclofenac (DCF), triclosan (TCS), and nonylphenol (NP) on anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Additionally, the influence of DCF, TCS, and NP on the relative abundance of the methanogenic populations was investigated. Results obtained demonstrated that, in terms of methane production, SI inoculum was more resistant to the toxicity effect of DCF, TCS, and NP, compared to the MI inoculum. The IC50 values were 546, 35, and 363mgL-1 for SI inoculum and 481, 32, and 74mgL-1 for MI inoculum for DCF, ...
Methane is a flammable gas that is the main component of natural gas. It is a highly potent greenhouse gas, and accounts for about 20% of greenhouse gas emissions. Methane is routinely flared in many industrial processes without harnessing any of its energy. The environmental impact and wasted energy potential make it highly desirable to find an economically feasible process to use this methane.One possibility is to convert methane into liquid fuels for transportation and energy generation. Current technologies to convert methane gas to liquid fuels (GTL) are complex, and the facilities are only economical at huge scales. Methane gas is very difficult to transport and store, so GTL plants must be located at the source of the methane, typically at large petroleum fields or refineries.Biological conversion of methane to liquid fuels is an attractive alternative to traditional GTL processes, as microbial oxidation of methane can produce liquid fuels (e.g. methanol) at ambient temperatures and ...
The Potential to Feed Nitrates to Reduce Enteric Methane Production in Ruminants. By R A Leng AO, D.Rur.Sc. Emeritus Professor UNE-Armidale. The issues in a nut shell 1. Globally ruminants produce around 80x10 6 tonnes of methane Slideshow 1284979 by gigi
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Please take a moment to fill out a short, 5 minute evaluation of the Global Methane Forum. Your feedback will help determine how GMI plans its future meetings.. The Global Methane Initiative (GMI) and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) were pleased to welcome more than 500 attendees from 62 countries to Washington, DC for the Global Methane Forum and CCAC Working Group meetings. Methane experts and policy-makers from around the world gathered to discuss options for methane reduction and abatement activities.. This unique opportunity granted access to:. ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Mechanisms for inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production in the zone of Fe(III) reduction in sediments were investigated. Addition of amorphic iron(III) oxyhydroxide to sediments in which sulfate reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process inhibited sulfate reduction 86 to 100%. The decrease in electron flow to sulfate reduction was accompanied by a corresponding increase in electron flow to Fe(III) reduction. In a similar manner, Fe(III) additions also inhibited methane production in sulfate-depleted sediments. The inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production was the result of substrate limitation, because the sediments retained the potential for sulfate reduction and methane production in the presence of excess hydrogen and acetate. Sediments in which Fe(III) reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process had much lower concentrations of hydrogen and acetate than sediments in which sulfate reduction or methane production was the ...
In soils and sediments, microbial reduction of iron (hydr)oxides and consequent formation of secondary iron minerals are important factors influencing many biogeochemical cycles and processes that include microbial methanogenesis. Here, we investigated methanogenic activity and microbial community of a paddy soil enrichment in response to different biomineralization pathways of ferrihydrite, which was reduced and transformed to magnetite and vivianite in the absence and presence of phosphate, respectively. For methanogenic degradation of both acetate and propionate, CH4 production rates in the magnetite cultures were significantly enhanced compared with the vivianite cultures. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes from methanogenic soil microbial community indicated that, (i) biomineralization of ferrihydrite was an important factor affecting soil microbial community structure; (ii) Geobacteraceae was only enriched in the vivianite cultures for both acetate- and propionate-fed incubations; and (iii) the
Marsupials are often considered similar to ruminants - a class of mammals that have multiple compartments, including one called a rumen, in their stomachs - because both groups have a digestive system that supports a "pre-digestion" of food by microbes, to process their plant-based diets. And this process, which includes a period of fermentation to break down the foods and release nutrients, causes the animals to discharge methane gas.. Over time, however, researchers have noted that Tammar wallabies in particular produce only about a fifth of the amount of methane produced by livestock ruminants as a result of differences in anatomy and microbial compositions in their guts.. Early research in this area showed that methane emissions from Tammar wallabies amount to 1 to 2 percent of their digestible energy intake, compared to methane emissions of roughly 10 percent of digestible energy intake in sheep. In addition, marsupial and ruminant gut anatomies differ, which influences how quickly food ...
Renewable energy portfolio standard program; coalbed methane gas. Allows electricity generated from the combustion of coalbed methane gas to be counted by an investor-owned electric utility in meeting the goals of the renewable energy portfolio standard program. In conjunction with this change, references to renewable energy in the context of eligible sources of the generation of electricity are revised to refer to renewable or alternative energy.
IBS is the most common functional disorder characterized by the presence of abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. Based on the predominant symptom, IBS is broadly divided to constipation predominant (C-IBS) and diarrhea predominant (D-IBS) syndrome, and evidence is accumulating for a strong association between intestinal methane production and C-IBS.4,5. Overall, the prevalence of methane producers among IBS sufferers varies. It ranges from low (14.5% to 15%)60,61 to higher (23.8% to 34.4%).62,63 Reasons to explain these differences may include among others, varied definitions of IBS status, different mix of the 2 main subtypes of the syndrome, controls "contamination" with quiescent IBS or IBS-like symptoms as well as variability in the detection of methane and in the definition of the methane producer and ethnic differences. Table 4 summarizes studies supporting an association of methane and constipation related disorders: C-IBS and chronic constipation. As early as in 2003, it was shown ...
A piece in the latest issue of Science shows that theres a considerable amount of methane (CH4) coming from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, where it had been trapped under the permafrost. Theres as much coming out from one small section of the Arctic ocean as from all the rest of the oceans combined. This is officially Not Good.. Heres why: methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, significantly more powerful than carbon dioxide. There are billions of tons of methane trapped under the permafrost, and if that methane starts leaking quickly, it would have a strong feedback effect -- warming the atmosphere and oceans, causing more methane to leak, and on and on. The melting of methane ice (aka "methane hydrates" and "methane clathrates") is probably the most significant global warming tipping point event out there. If we see runaway methane from underneath the Siberian permafrost, we could see temperatures increasing far faster than even the most pessimistic CO2-driven scenarios -- perhaps as much ...
Cold seeps in the Aleutian deep-sea trench support prolific benthic communities and generate carbonate precipitates which are dependent on carbon dioxide delivered from anaerobic methane oxidation. This process is active in the anaerobic sediments at the sulfate reduction-methane production boundary and is probably performed by archaea working in syntrophic co-operation with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of archaeal origin include irregular isoprenoids such as 2,6,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane (crocetane) and 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethylicosane (PMI) as well as the glycerol ether lipid archaeol (2,3-di-O-phytanyl-sn-glycerol). These biomarkers are prominent lipid constituents in the anaerobic sediments as well as in the carbonate precipitates. Carbon isotopic compositions of the biomarkers are strongly depleted in 13C with values of δ13C as low as −130.3‰ PDB. The process of anaerobic methane oxidation is also reflected in the carbon isotope composition of organic matter ...
As landfills get older, more and more of them are producing low methane concentration landfill gas which once collected can still provide meaningful power outputs. Some types of internal combustion engines can run with methane concentrations as low as 25 % meaning even smaller landfill sites can be useful as fuel sources provided there is a reliable and inexpensive way to monitor the "quality" of the methane being produced.. The local regulation may require from a landfill operator to quantify the emissions, of methane (CH4) in particular, due to inefficiencies in the extraction / collection / soil cover design. The INNOVA 1512 photoacoustic gas monitor is designed for applications like this. via www.lumasenseinc.com. Biogas, and particularly landfill gas, or LFG, is usually heavily contaminated with VOCs (Volatile Organic Contaminants). VOC levels can exceed 1,000 ppmv, and are usually at least 50 ppmv, requiring removal by specialized treatment equipment so LFG can be used as a reliable fuel. ...
Authors: C. E. Brechtel (AAI) and E. D. Thimons (USBM). Cooperative research efforts by the Bureau of Mines and Agapito & Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO, used a one-dimensional, finite-element computer model to simulate turbulent mass transfer in face ventilation of oil shale mines. The objective was to study the dilution of methane released by rubbled oil shale during blasting. A methane release rate function was developed from the back-analysis of field measurements, and the finite-element model was calibrated using tracer gas characterization data from tests of full-scale face ventilation systems.. ...
Also, the plan is to incorporate the management of methane emissions in maintenance plans, and the design and construction of their new projects. The companies have also committed to encourage these actions in non-operated assets.. Furthermore, the eight have pledged to reduce venting, fugitive methane emissions, and to improve combustion efficiency.. Also, they promised to implement systematic leak detection and repair programmes, prioritising potential higher emitting sources.T They will also focuse on implementing and further development of effective technologies and practices for monitoring and reducing methane emissions, and consider them in them project engineering and design.. The eight energy firms have said they would provide financial and operational support for the development and deployment of innovative technologies and approaches that monitor and reduce methane emissions.. "Numerous studies have shown the importance of quickly reducing methane emissions if were to meet growing ...
Successful regulation of greenhouse gas emissions requires knowledge of current methane emission sources. Existing state regulations in California and Massachusetts require ∼15% greenhouse gas emissions reductions from current levels by 2020. However, government estimates for total US methane emissions may be biased by 50%, and estimates of individual source sectors are even more uncertain. This study uses atmospheric methane observations to reduce this level of uncertainty. We find greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and fossil fuel extraction and processing (i.e., oil and/or natural gas) are likely a factor of two or greater than cited in existing studies. Effective national and state greenhouse gas reduction strategies may be difficult to develop without appropriate estimates of methane emissions from these source sectors.. ...
Methane is a component of natural gas thats frequently wasted through leaks or intentional releases during drilling operations. The gas is considered a more potent contributor to climate change than carbon dioxide, although it occurs in smaller volumes.. Under President Donald Trump, both the Interior Department and the EPA have proposed a series of rules - some blocked by courts - to loosen regulations of methane emissions.. Environmental advocates expected the new methane plan to go further than previous proposals, with a goal of exempting companies from requirements to detect and stop methane leaks at existing oil and gas sites.. For the EPA, part of the goal is "they want to get rid of direct regulation of methane," said Matt Watson, a vice president of the energy program at the Environmental Defense Fund, an advocacy group.. The oil and gas industry is the nations primary source of methane emissions, according to the EPA, accounting for nearly one-third in 2016. ...
The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is responsible for oxidizing nearly all of the 70.3 to 85.3 Tg of methane produced in anoxic marine sediments per year globally (50). In addition to its importance in controlling greenhouse gases, AOM has implications for investigations of early life on Earth, since anaerobic methane oxidizers and methanogens comprise a methane cycle suitable for oxidant-poor, early-Earth-like environments (19). The presence of isotopically light organic carbon in the Archean Eon suggests that AOM may have been an important microbial pathway on early Earth (19).. Although the organisms responsible for AOM in marine sediments are not yet isolated in pure culture, stable carbon isotopic studies and environmental genomic studies have shown that the process relies on archaea capable of reverse methanogenesis that often form close associations with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (5, 14, 18, 21). The archaeal anaerobic methane oxidizers (ANMEs) fall into three phylogenetic ...
A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO|SUB|2 |/SUB| by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments. Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles, radiotracer experiments and stable carbon isotope data. But the elusive microorganisms mediating this reaction have not yet been isolated, and the pathway of anaerobic oxidation of methane is insufficiently understood. Recent data suggest that certain archaea reverse the process of methanogenesis by interaction with sulphate-reducing bacteria. Here we provide microscopic evidence for a structured consortium of archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria, which we identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. In this example of a structured archaeal-bacterial symbiosis, the archaea grow in dense aggregates of about 100 cells and are surrounded by sulphate-reducing bacteria. These aggregates were abundant in gas-hydrate-rich
Global methane emissions soar to record high The pandemic has tugged carbon emissions down, temporarily. But levels of the powerful heat-trapping gas methane continue to climb, dragging the world furt
Russian Arctic researchers say they have found the most powerful methane gas fountain ever monitored escaping from thawing permafrost. The Tomsk polytechnic study team found the methane seep east of the island of Bennett in the East Siberian Sea with bubbles making the water look like it was boiling. Methane levels were recorded at up to 16 parts per million or more than nine times higher than the global atmospheric average. The next day, the expedition said it found another giant seep of around the same size, even though discovering seeps on the rough ocean is normally highly unusual. Clear and odourless methane is flammable and is a powerful greenhouse gas. In a 100-year time span, methane traps about 28 times more heat than carbon dioxide. "This is the most powerful seep I have ever been able to observe," said scientist Igor Semiletov, who has made 45 Arctic expeditions. "No one has ever recorded anything similar.". Semiletov has said gases from underwater permafrost could harm oil and gas ...
Active and stable metal-free heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 fixation are required to reduce the current high level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is driving climate change. In this work, we show that defects in nanosilica (E′ centers, oxygen vacancies, and nonbridging oxygen hole centers) convert CO2 to methane with excellent productivity and selectivity. Neither metal nor complex organic ligands were required, and the defect alone acted as catalytic sites for carbon dioxide activation and hydrogen dissociation and their cooperative action converted CO2 to methane. Unlike metal catalysts, which become deactivated with time, the defect-containing nanosilica showed significantly better stability. Notably, the catalyst can be regenerated by simple heating in the air without the need for hydrogen gas. Surprisingly, the catalytic activity for methane production increased significantly after every regeneration cycle, reaching more than double the methane production rate after eight ...
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 25 times more powerful than Carbon Dioxide, but thankfully, nowhere near as abundant. Greenhouse gases are gases that trap heat from the sun in the Earths atmosphere, just like glass traps heat in a greenhouse. Here at sea level, methane is emitted as a byproduct of any number of industries, from landfills and agriculture, to oil and gas resources. The industrial sources of methane are worrying, but of even greater concern are natural sources of methane that have been locked deep under oceans and ice for a very long time. When methane interacts with water at very low temperatures it forms a solid called methane hydrate, a lattice-like structure that traps the methane. Now, at least some of these frozen prisons seem like theyre starting to melt. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationships between odd- and branched-chain fatty acid profiles in milk and calculated enteric methane proportion for lactating dairy cattle. AU - Montoya, J. Castro. AU - Bhagwat, Aditya. AU - Peiren, N.. AU - De Campeneere, S.. AU - De Baets, B.. AU - Fievez, V.. PY - 2011/6/23. Y1 - 2011/6/23. N2 - The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) in milk with calculated enteric CH4 production for lactating dairy cows using multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares regression (PLS) and a genetic algorithm approach (GA). A dataset collected from 13 experiments containing 224 paired observations of measured acetate, propionate and butyrate proportions in rumen fluid VFA and 7 measured OBCFA was used. Methane proportion (mmol/mol VFA) was calculated from acetate, propionate and butyrate and expressed relative to the sum of these volatile fatty acids (VFA). Calculated CH4 production was related to milk ...
Methane emissions due to human-related activities, shown to the right of the volcano, account for approximately 70 per cent of the total emissions (Reeburgh 2007; Colwell and Ussler III 2010). Gas Hydrates are currently estimated to contribute about 5 Tg (Tg = 1012 grammes) of methane (3.5 Tg carbon) per year to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2007). Emission rates for gas hydrates are highly speculative, however, and may overestimate the atmospheric methane contribution by not fully accounting for methane consumed by microbes in the sediment and water column. Additional research will be required to constrain the methane flux from gas hydrates that reaches the atmosphere. For any form of publicat...
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Permafrost in this area is melting in response to the rapid warming of the Arctic. The most likely cause of this crater is a methane explosion. [...] If Dr Kurchatovas explanation is correct, the consequences are profound. It means that there are vertical structures where salt accumulated as methane ices formed in permafrost. Layers of permafrost may have salty vertical zones of weakness in them that will allow sudden release of methane trapped below the permafrost layer as the climate warms. Vast quantities of methane trapped in river deltas in the Arctic ocean on the Siberian shelf may be unstable. This crater appears to be evidence that the methane is not protected by a very slowly melting solid layer of permafrost. Methane bubbles recently observed in the Laptev Sea, reported on by the National Science Foundation, could be the beginning of the release of an enormous amount of subsea methane ...
Carbon isotopic analysis of methane has become a popular technique in the exploration for oil and gas because it can be used to differentiate between thermogenic and microbial gas and can sometimes be used for gas-source rock correlations. Methane-oxidizing bacteria, however, can significantly change the carbon isotopic composition of methane; the origin of gas that has been partially oxidized by these bacteria could therefore be misinterpreted. We cultured methane-oxidizing bacteria at two different temperatures and monitored the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of the residual methane. The residual methane was enriched in both 13C and D. For both isotopic species, the enrichment at equivalent levels of conversion was greater at 26??C than at 11.5??C. The change in ??D relative to the change in ??13C was independent of temperature within the range studied. One culture exhibited a change in the fractionation pattern for carbon (but not for hydrogen) midway through the...
The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a globally significant sink that regulates methane flux from sediments into the oceans and atmosphere. Here we examine mesophilic to thermophilic AOM in hydrothermal sediments recovered from the Middle Valley vent field, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Using continuous-flow sediment bioreactors and batch incubations, we characterized (i) the degree to which AOM contributes to net dissolved inorganic carbon flux, (ii) AOM and sulfate reduction (SR) rates as a function of temperature and (iii) the distribution and density of known anaerobic methanotrophs (ANMEs). In sediment bioreactors, inorganic carbon stable isotope mass balances results indicated that AOM accounted for between 16% and 86% of the inorganic carbon produced, underscoring the role of AOM in governing inorganic carbon flux from these sediments. At 90°C, AOM occurred in the absence of SR, demonstrating a striking decoupling of AOM from SR. An abundance of Fe(III)-bearing minerals resembling ...
Methane is a colorless, odorless gas with a wide distribution in nature. At room temperature, methane is a gas less dense than air. It melts at -183°C and boils at -164°C. It is not very soluble in water. Methane is combustible, and mixtures of about 5 to 15 percent in air are explosive. Methane is not toxic when inhaled, but it can produce suffocation by reducing the concentration of oxygen inhaled.. ...
Anomolies in the atmospheric methane distribution over Lake Baikal have been studied with a diode gas analyzer having the threshold sensitivity of 0.04 ppm. Local areas, in which the methane concentration two to three times exceeded the background value equal to 2.00 ± 0.16 ppm, were detected ...
Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic) proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR). This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling.
If atmospheric temperatures rise, the hydrate stability zone will shift upward, leaving in its stead a layer of methane gas that has been freed from the hydrate cages. Pressure in that new layer of free gas would build, forcing the gas to shoot up through the HSZ to the surface through existing veins and new fractures in the sediment. A grain-scale computational model developed by Juanes and recent MIT graduate Antone Jain indicates that the gas would tend to open up cornflake-shaped fractures in the sediment, and would flow quickly enough that it could not be trapped into icy hydrate cages en route. ...
Global methane levels have risen over the past few years and, without action, levels of methane in the atmosphere can be expected to continue to rise. There are some well-known sources of methane that are causing this increase, such as the growing number of vehicles around the world that are powered by fossil fuel and an increase in the number of coal-fired power plants in Asia. Lesser-known causes are emissions due to wildfires, fracking and a growing appetite for meat in developing countries. Some of the least-reported causes include increased methane levels in the atmosphere due to ...
Instructions and application forms for RGGI CO2 offset allowances under the category of landfill methane gas capture and destruction
Scientists are discovering that abundant quantities of methane gas are continually seeping from the seafloor throughout the oceans. This widespread but overlooked natural phenomenon has potentially dramatic implications on world energy supplies, life in the oceans, and Earths climate. (Illustration by Jayne Doucette, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) ...
Available information regarding methane emissions from extractive industries is relatively sporadic and often based on estimates/guesstimates. There is neither a common technological approach to monitoring and recording methane emissions, nor a standard method to reporting them. The extent of the challenge and opportunity to manage such emissions remains largely undefined. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Committee on Sustainable Energy recommended that work be done to agree on common philosophies, standards, and technologies for monitoring, recording, and reporting methane emissions at each stage of production, processing, storage, transmission, distribution, and use of fossil fuels, whether coal, oil, or natural gas, while recognizing that there will be adaptation to specific situations. Additionally, it was agreed there is a need to mitigate methane emissions, including identifying appropriate mechanisms for mobilizing needed resources, and to fund a detailed study on ...
Conventional methane gas sensors based on catalytic combustion have the drawbacks of high working temperature, low thermal stability and small measurement range. To improve their performance, cerium, which possesses high oxygen storage and release ability, was introduced via nanotechnology to prepare Ce-contained nanostructure elements. Three kinds of elements with different carriers: Al2O3, n-Al2O3 and n-Ce-Al2O3 were prepared and separately fabricated (Pt-Pd/Al, Pt-Pd/n-Al, Pt-Pd/n-Ce-Al). The performances of Wheatstone Bridges with three different catalytic elements were tested and compared. The results indicated that the cerium-containing element exhibited better performance than other elements regarding activity, anti-sulfur ability and thermal stability. Moreover, a constant temperature circuit was also applied in this system. The measurement range was extended from 4% to 10% by automatically decreasing the working current in a reasonable range. The maximum error for 0%-10% CH4 was controlled
Potentially explosive methane gas leaking from energy wells may travel extensively through groundwater and pose a safety risk, according to a new study by University of Guelph researchers.
By Brian Vastag Washington Post Staf Writer Thursday, January 6, 2011; 3:19 PM Last August, just two days into a research cruise to study methane gas spewed
Part of a Queensland river bubbling with methane gas bursts into flames after being ignited by a Greens MP, who blames nearby coal seam gas operations for the tragedy in the Murray-Darling Basin.
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Nearly a year after the Aliso Canyon methane gas leak was permanently plugged, a local doctor is asking why these symptoms dont seem to be going away.
It was recognized only recently that subglacial ecosystems support considerable methanogenic activity, thus significantly contributing the global methane production. However, only limited knowledge is available on the physiological characteristics of this kind of methanogenic community because of the technical constraints associated with sampling and cultivation under corresponding environmental conditions. To elucidate methanogenesis beneath the glacial margin in East Antarctic Ice Sheet, we took an integrated approach that included cultivation of microbes associated with the sediment samples in the lab and analysis of mcrA gene therein. After seven months of incubation, the highest rate of methanogenesis [398 (pmol/day)/gram] was observed at 1 °C on a supply of H2. The rates of methanogenesis were lower on acetate or unamended substrate than on H2. The rates on these two substrates increased when the temperature was raised. Methanomicrobiales predominated before and after prolonged incubation,
As climate change creates larger open water areas in the Arctic for longer periods of time, erosion of these shelves increase the release of these carboniferous materials into the ocean. Microbial consumption of these materials produces carbon dioxide and methane. The release of carbon dioxide and methane vent to the atmosphere. Massive deposits of methane hydrates are also known to exist in the form of methane hydrates are trapped in a frozen state beneath the Arctic tundra. Coastal erosion due to increased tidal activity combined with warming will bring these coastline and sea based deposits to the mix. Since methane has approximately 20-23 times greater impact on warming, meaning it traps much more heat, the ramifications of large scale emissions of methane into the atmosphere further exacerbate the positive feedback loop effect. ...
Over the past few months, reporting stations around the Arctic have shown a ramping rate of atmospheric methane accumulation. The curves in the graphs are steepening, hinting at a growing release of methane from a warming Arctic environment. * * * * (Alert, Canada methane graph shows atmospheric methane increases in the range of 20…