We have just released a new climatology of temperature and salinity for the Indian Ocean. This climatology improves on the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA) in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone and the rest of the Bay of Bengal. Annual, seasonal, and monthly climatologies of temperature and salinity are available in two sets of files. The first set is for only the Indian Ocean, while the second set merges the new climatologies with WOA to produce merged global climatologies. In addition, we have
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The LCRS is a working group within the Faculty of Geography at the University of Marburg. Research is done in the fields of climatology, remote sensing and numerical modelling, with a focus on atmospheric and boundary layer climatology, climate-ecology and climate change impact assessment.
A feed-forward neural network is used to create a monthly climatology of the sea surface fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) on a 1° × 1° spatial resolution. Using 127 880 data points from 1990 to 2011 in the track-gridded database of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas version 2.0 (Bakker et al.), the model yields a global mean fCO2 increase rate of 1.50 μatm yr−1. The rate was used to normalize multiple years fCO2 observations to the reference year of 2000. A total of 73 265 data points from the normalized data were used to model the global fCO2 climatology. The model simulates monthly fCO2 distributions that agree well with observations and yields an anthropogenic CO2 update of −1.9 to −2.3 PgC yr−1. The range reflects the uncertainty related to using different wind products for the flux calculation. This estimate is in good agreement with the recently derived best estimate by Wanninkhof et al. The model product benefits from a finer spatial resolution compared to the product of Lamont-Doherty Earth ...
Looking for contact anemometer? Find out information about contact anemometer. An anemometer which actuates an electrical contact at a rate dependent upon the wind speed. Also known as contact-cup anemometer Explanation of contact anemometer
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Eventbrite - Netherlands eScience Center presents National eScience Symposium 2017: Science in a Digital World - Thursday, October 12, 2017 at Amsterdam ArenA, Amsterdam, NH. Find event and ticket information.
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Get Complete Study Material and Test Papers for Climatology, weather conditions, atmospheric sciences, Southern Oscillation, The Madden-Julian Oscillation, The North Atlantic Oscillation, The Northern Annualar Mode, The Arctic oscillation, The Northern Pacific, The Pacific Decadal Oscillation, The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, Oscillation,XI/XII Medical / Non-medical
In general, I am a fan of the Berkeley Earth approach for reconstructing past temperature variations - particularly because they present their data in an open user-friendly manner which should have long ago been adopted by some of the other groups. Mathematically the approach they use is fairly solid which allows for a higher spatial and temporal resolution of the end product. However, there are a few concerns that I have - maybe not as strong as to say concerns - but perhaps questions is a better word.. [1] Approach - I believe they create a baseline climatology as a function of lat, long, elev for all land areas using what looks like a form of spline - Anuspline - a program for interpolating temperatures uses a similar approach. The residual from the climatology surface is then kriged and re-added to the climatology. They then subtract the baseline climatology for every station and krige the anomalies back through time. Once anomalies are spatially and temporally kriged they re-add the surface ...
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Nossos profissionais nativos, com títulos de doutorado e mestrado, revisam artigos acadêmicos de Climatology para proporcionar inglês de alta qualidade ao seu manuscrito.
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Abstract. Model Output Statistics (MOS) refers to a method of post-processing the direct outputs of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models in order to reduce the biases introduced by a coarse horizontal resolution. This technique is especially useful in orographically complex regions, where large differences can be found between the NWP elevation model and the true orography. This study carries out a comparison of linear and non-linear MOS methods, aimed at the prediction of minimum temperatures in a fruit-growing region of the Italian Alps, based on the output of two different NWPs (ECMWF T511-L60 and LAMI-3). Temperature, of course, is a particularly important NWP output; among other roles it drives the local frost forecast, which is of great interest to agriculture. The mechanisms of cold air drainage, a distinctive aspect of mountain environments, are often unsatisfactorily captured by global circulation models. The simplest post-processing technique applied in this work was a correction ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measuring flow velocity at elevated temperature with a hot wire anemometer calibrated in cold flow. AU - Benjamin, Stephen F.. AU - Roberts, Carol A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Correction factors enable a hot wire anemometer calibrated at room temperature to be utilised at elevated temperature. This short paper reviews the equations on which those correction factors are based. The standard methods of correction, which work only over moderate temperature changes of a few degrees in the ambient, have been investigated over a greater temperature range. Modified correction factors are effective over a velocity range of 0-14 m/s and temperature range of 300-500 K. The modified method of correction has been developed during research into the warm up of automotive catalysts and this has prescribed the range of velocity and temperature considered. AB - Correction factors enable a hot wire anemometer calibrated at room temperature to be utilised at elevated temperature. This short paper ...
Meteorology. Who Meteorologists What Meteorology Etymology Meteoro- Broader Term Natural Sciences Atmospheric Physics Narrower Terms Meteorological Library of Congress Scope Note Narrower Term: Aeronautics in meteorology Narrower Term: Air Pollution Meteorological aspects Narrower Term: Art and meteorology Narrower Term: Astrology and meteorology Narrower Term: Astronautics in meteorology See Also: Atmosphere Narrower Term: Atmospheric circulation Narrower Term: Atmospheric nucleation Narrower Term: Atmospheric pressure Narrower Term: Atmospheric temperature Narrower Term: Baroclinicity Narrower Term: Classification Books Meteorology Narrower Term: Climatology Narrower Term: Clouds Narrower Term: Cooling power (Meteorology) Narrower Term: Dew Narrower Term: Dust-fall Narrower Term: Dynamic meteorology Narrower Term: Engineering meteorology Narrower Term: Evaporation (Meteorology) Narrower Term: Fog Narrower Term: Forest meteorology Narrower Term: Fronts (Meteorology) Narrower Term: Humidity ...
The Climatology, Hydrology and Paleo-Environmental Lab (CHAPEL) was started in January, 2017. Research in CHAPEL is focused on North American climatology and hydrology of the past 2000 years, the present and the near future. Our goal is a better comprehension of decadal-to-centennial climate variability, just beyond the scale of instrumental records, yet vital for our understanding of regional climate and hydrology, anthropogenic global warming impacts, and water management for infrequent extremes, such as sustained droughts and floods.. We use a wide variety of methods and approaches. For paleoclimate and paleo-hydrology reconstructions, we use tree-rings, pollen preserved in lake sediments, and other biological and physical proxies from lake sediments (i.e., diatom and varved sediment analysis). Research tools that we use for modern and near-future projected climatology and hydrology include: instrumental climatological and hydrological databases and archived GCM and RCM runs. Our research is ...
A. HadCRUT3 is an anomalies dataset, and all the uncertainties apply to the anomalies. If you are interested in year-to-year changes its best to use the anomalies if you can. So before you start using the actuals, think hard to check you cant use the anomalies instead. We can make actuals - we merge the SST climatology from the HadSST2 dataset and the land climatology from CRU high resolution dataset (New et al 2002 - see http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg.htm), to make a climatology for HadCRUT3 and add this to the anomalies dataset. But this has two problems: it adds an additional source of uncertainties which we dont allow for, so our uncertainty analysis is no longer valid; also land surface actuals vary over short distances because of large changes in altitude: so the actual range of temperatures in a 5 degree grid box can be large, and the mean value is not always useful. The absolute global-average annual temperature and the absolute hemisphere-average annual temperatures for ...
eEcoLiDAR, eScience infrastructure for ecological applications of LiDAR point clouds: reconstructing the 3D ecosystem structure for animals at regional to continental ...
Project Lead: Amanda Tan, Department of Oceanography, University of Washington eScience Liaisons: Rob Fatland, Anthony Arendt. A dynamic information framework (DIF) is a decision support structure centered on earth system science models and data resources used to address policy challenges in water resources caused by population growth, socio-economic development and climate change, particularly in developing nations. This decision support tool is particularly useful in developing nations because such a framework encourages open data sources, transparency and also, by putting such a framework in the cloud, it eliminates the need for standalone infrastructure.. The AralDIF project aims to inform policy challenges in water resources in the Aral Sea Basin; bridging the information gap between decision makers and scientists. The goal of this project is to better inform policy challenges in the area by providing a scalable and flexible framework for data storage and tools for data visualization and ...
As available data grows exponentially, researchers must apply computational and data management approaches to their research. Access to computer science expertise is key to this endeavor. The eScientists at the eScience Institute act as matchmakers, helping domain scientists apply the most appropriate technology to their research. The eScience team consists of individuals with backgrounds in physics, astronomy, bio-engineering, bioinformatics, data management techniques, and computer science. Their approach is to engage early and often.. The eScience Institute launched in July 2008, dedicated to the support of research computing and to leadership in key areas of eScience expertise, including data mining, machine learning, and sensor networks. Their emphasis is on the emerging need to support data-centric high performance computing.. ...
UW team lead: Eli Shlizerman (1), eScience Fellow Collaborators: James Phillips-Portillo(2), Daniel B. Forger(3), Steven M. Reppert(1) (1) […]. READ MORE ...
Taha, Haider, and Robert Bornstein. Urbanization of meteorological models: implications on simulated heat islands and air quality. Proceedings of the International Congress of Biometeorology and International Conference on Urban Climatology (ICB-ICUC) 1999. ...
Restricted Use of Materials from GCEP Site: User may download materials from GCEP site only for Users own personal, non-commercial use. User may not otherwise copy, reproduce, retransmit, distribute, publish, commercially exploit or otherwise transfer any material without obtaining prior GCEP or author approval ...
FEATURES* Anemometer & Humidity meter are combined into one * The portable anemometer provides fast, accurate readings,  meter, intelligent design. P712505
Omni Instruments can provide a calibration certificates for our ultrasonic anemometers, WindSonic, WindObserver and WindMaster anemometers. Calibration are done in a wind tunnel and units can be fixed with a varied wind speed, or rotated with fixed wind s
To optimize the measurement results of the anemometer of the PerforManD system, the sensor is calibrated with a Laser-Doppler-Anemometer (LDA). The LDA is a high-tech anemometer which allows measuring the wind speed contactless. This means that the LDA is not influencing the flow. It is the perfect instrument for such calibration.. ...
Global Pressure Anemometers Market Overview:Global Pressure Anemometers Market analysis report provides a detailed analysis of market size, regional and country-level market size, share, Revenue, comp...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spectrum analysis of turbulence in the canine ascending aorta measured with a hot-film anemometer. AU - Yamaguchi, Takami. AU - Kikkawa, Sho. AU - Tanishita, Kazuo. AU - Sugawara, Motoaki. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - We measured turbulence velocity in the canine ascending aorta using a hot-film anemometer. Blood flow velocity was measured at various points across the ascending aorta approximately 1.5-2 times the diameter downstream from the aortic valve. The turbulence spectrum was calculated and its characteristics were examined in connection with the mean Reynolds number and/or measuring positions. In the higher wave number range the values of the turbulence spectra were higher at larger mean Reynolds number. In the higher wave number range, the values of the turbulence spectra were higher at points closer to the centerline of the aorta, when the mean Reynolds number was relatively large. The patterns of the turbulence spectra at various points outside the boundary layer on the ...
The HIH-40104020/4021 Series Humidity Sensors are designed specifically for high volume OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) users. Direct input to a controller or other device is made possible by this sensors near linear voltage output. With a typical current draw of only 200 µA, the HIH-4010/4020/4021 Series is often ideally suited for low drain, battery operated systems. Tight sensor interchangeability reduces or eliminates OEM production calibration costs. Individual sensor calibration data is available. The HIH-4010/4020/4021 Series delivers instrumentation-quality RH (Relative Humidity) sensing performance in a competitively priced, solderable SIP (Single In-line Package). The HIH-4010 is an uncovered integrated humidity sensor, the HIH-4020 is a covered integrated circuit humidity sensor, and the HIH-4021 is a covered, condensation-resistant, integrated circuit humidity sensor. All three products are available in two lead space configurations. The RH sensor is a laser trimmed, ...
A study was made of the diurnal and seasonal variations of the vertical dewpoint gradient based on measurements taken at 1.2, 9.4 and 131 ft above ground at the Argonne National Laboratory during the period 1 December 1960 through 30 November 1965. The results of this study are used to assess the effects of the dewpoint temperature inversion on vegetative growth, dew formation and corrosion.. Case studies employing time series presentations are used to relate the magnitude and direction of the dewpoint gradient with other meteorological variables such as air and soil temperature, pressure, solar radiation, net radiation flux, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and stability. These analyses illustrate the processes operating to influence the magnitude and direction of moisture flux in the lower atmospheric layers.. Joint frequency distributions are presented relating the vertical dewpoint temperature gradient with each of the variables-air temperature between 144 and 5.5 feet, relative ...
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. The Pacific Ocean signatures, El Niño and La Niña are important temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. The name El Niño, from the Spanish for the little boy, refers to the Christ child, because the phenomenon is usually noticed around Christmas time in the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America.[5] La Niña means the little girl.[6] Their effect on climate in the subtropics and the tropics are profound. The atmospheric signature, the Southern Oscillation (SO) reflects the monthly or seasonal fluctuations in the air pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. The most recent occurrence of El Niño started in September 2006[7] and lasted until early 2007.[8]. ENSO is a set of interacting parts of a single global system of coupled ocean-atmosphere climate fluctuations that come about as a consequence of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. ENSO is the ...
Solar radiation (200-4,000 nm) is very important for the climate system on Earth. It provides heat and drives the photosynthesis in plants to fuel all life. It plays a major role in the original synthesis of biomolecules and in the evolution of life on Earth. Many acute and chronic health damages to the skin, eyes, and immune system of humans are caused by prolonged exposure to solar UV radiation. The most well-known impacts on human health from exposure to UV radiation are skin aging, sunburn, and skin cancer. The atmosphere has a big impact on the transfer of energy between the Sun and the Earths surface. It serves to maintain thermal equilibrium and to control the climate. The UV irradiance decreases strongly at wavelengths below 330 nm due to absorption by atmospheric ozone. This absorption occurs in the UV-A and UV-B regions (280-400 nm), which is also called biologically active dose rate region. Although the absorption of UV-B radiation only is a small part of the total absorption in the ...
It is now widely recognised that we are facing a climate crisis, with an urgent need to take strong action and achieve net zero emissions to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. However, the scale of change required is challenging, and success will require participation from everyone (whether... ...
These writings and posts are directed toward my awareness of the most challenging quagmire ever encountered by civilization, climate change. Have our societies caused the shift from normal to abnormal or is our current climate shift just business as usual for mother earth, and the sparks of life in general? The following links are great…
Global Temperature: NCAR/UCAR, NCDC, and NASA GISS Analysis: The current analysis uses surface air temperatures measurements from the following data sets: the unadjusted data of the Global Historical Climatology Network (Peterson and Vose, 1997 and 1998), United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) data, and SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research) data from Antarctic stations. The basic analysis method is described by Hansen et al. (1999), with several modifications described by Hansen et al. (2001) also included. Modifications to the analysis since 2001 are described on the separate Updates to Analysis.
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MEaSUREs 2012 project focused on creating and archiving a long-term consistent SO2 ESDR combining measurements from BUV, IR, and MW instruments.
Thats the word from Australian scientist William de la Mare, who studied more than 40,000 records of whaling kills in an attempt to fill in the blanks about the ice. His theory was that while ships never left the water, they hunted close to the ice, where whales found the most food. Therefore, ship positions indicated the position of the ice edge. And since the whaling records began in 1931, they would reveal the decade to decade shifts in ice.. Writing in Nature (Sept. 4, 1997, pp. 57-60, see also pp. 20-21), de la Mare, whos with the Australian Antarctica Division of the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories, found that the edge of the summer ice moved almost 3 degrees south between the mid-1950s and early 1970s.. Thats a big shift -- almost 200 miles -- enough to reduce the area of the sea ice by 25 percent.. Does de la Mares finding signals an increase in planetary temperature? Perhaps, but even though scientists have recently reported disturbing shrinkage of glacial ice in ...
For more than two decades, Terrain.org has published essential literature, artwork, case studies, and more on the built and natural environments-all at no cost to readers and without advertising.. ...
By: Heather Maclean During the covid-19 pandemic we have seen people both suffer and struggle with what is going on around them. They have lost […]. ...
Copulas are a useful tool to model multivariate distributions. While there exist various families of bivariate copulas, much fewer has been done when the dimension is higher. In this paper we propose a class of multivariate copulas based on products of transformed bivariate copulas. No constraints on the parameters refrain the applicability of the proposed class. Furthermore the analytical forms of the copulas within this class allow to naturally associate a graphical structure which helps to visualize the dependencies and to compute the likelihood efficiently even in high dimension. Numerical experiments are conducted both on simulated and real data thanks to a dedicated R package.
Key players in the industry are profiled in the report that give strategic insights of the companies with their top line and plans of expansion in near tern with M&A policies. Profiles of companies will help user to understand the most revenue generating segments for the companies including products, region.. Global Automotive Rain, Light, Humidity Sensor Market is expected to reach US$ XX Mn by 2026 from US$ XX Mn in 2020 at a CAGR of XX% during the forecast period.. The report has covered the market dynamics including demand drivers, restraints and opportunities by region. External factors and internal factors of companies affecting the growth of the companies and ultimately adding the total market are analysed in the report.. Request For View Sample Automotive Rain, Light, Humidity Sensor Market Report Page :https://www.maximizemarketresearch.com/request-sample/92103. Global Automotive Rain, Light, Humidity Sensor Market Key Competitors: The major players covered in the Automotive Rain, ...
The humidity sensors of the SHT1x series are surface-mountable relative humidity sensors. The SHT1x was the first digital humidity sensor on the market.
A UV Index estimate of 8 to 10 represents a very high health risk from the exposure to the Sun Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis. The humiditys likely to be around 52% and UV levels are moderate to high, which means sunblock is a must. Makadi Bay average November sea temperature. Here you will find the 14 day weather forecast for Makadi Bay. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 54°F to 98°F and is rarely below 50°F or above 102°F. Cooler days will only drop to around 18°C and the nights will be a comfortable 13°C or 14°C. Within 80 kilometres contains very significant variations in elevation (2,166 metres). This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid. Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict ...
Abstract. Three global Chemistry Transport Models - MOZART, MOCAGE, and TM5 - as well as MOZART coupled to the IFS meteorological model including assimilation of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) satellite column retrievals, have been compared to surface measurements and MOZAIC vertical profiles in the troposphere over Western/Central Europe for summer 2003. The models reproduce the meteorological features and enhancement of pollution during the period 2-14 August, but not fully the ozone and CO mixing ratios measured during that episode. Modified normalised mean biases are around −25% (except ~5% for MOCAGE) in the case of ozone and from −80% to −30% for CO in the boundary layer above Frankfurt. The coupling and assimilation of CO columns from MOPITT overcomes some of the deficiencies in the treatment of transport, chemistry and emissions in MOZART, reducing the negative biases to around 20%. The high reactivity and small dry deposition velocities in MOCAGE seem to be responsible for ...
Meteorological model output fields are interpolated to terrain following coordinate system. Resolution is the same as the native coordinate system. Your local terrain will not match model terrain, which is much smoother. In very complex terrain the model is probably not very accurate unless local wind flow is being driven by the large-scale synoptic conditions - strong winds.. Roland Draxler. ...