The advisory board members of the Metaphor Lab each write a short blog about their current research on metaphor.. This time, Chiua Xu writes about the argumentative function of metaphor in argumentation.. Metaphor is often used in daily communication. A number of studies focus on how metaphor may enhance the persuasive power of discourse (e.g. Cameron & Deignan, 2006; Charteris-Black, 2011; Hauser & Schwarz, 2014). But since these studies approach to metaphor from a purely rhetorical perspective, the question as to how metaphor is used in argumentation remains unanswered. In our research, we study metaphor from the perspective of a rational discussion, focusing on questions such as: What representations do metaphors have in argumentation? How do metaphorical expressions function in different types of arguments? In this blog, I discuss three projects that focus on these issues.. Read the blog here.. ...
A large body of electrophysiological literature showed that metaphor comprehension elicits two different event-related brain potential responses, namely the so-called N400 and P600 components. Yet most of these studies test metaphor in isolation while in natural conversation metaphors do not come out of the blue but embedded in linguistic and extra-linguistic context. This study aimed at assessing the role of context in the metaphor comprehension process. We recorded EEG activity while participants were presented with metaphors and equivalent literal expressions in a minimal context (Experiment 1) and in a supportive context where the word expressing the ground between the metaphors topic and vehicle was made explicit (Experiment 2). The N400 effect was visible only in minimal context, whereas the P600 was visible both in the absence and in the presence of contextual cues. These findings suggest that the N400 observed for metaphor is related to contextual aspects, possibly indexing contextual
Magnanimity, Mindfulness, & Metaphor Cultivating Balance in Clients and Clinicians Texas University and College Counseling Centers Conference February 6, 2014 Magnanimity  Means "greatness of soul"  Greatness results from exemplification of all virtues  Virtue = mean between two extremes  GREATNESS OF SOUL IS BALANCE!  This is what both clinicians and clients should aim for!  Metaphor and mindfulness embody balance and can therefore help us achieve and maintain equilibrium  Metaphor as liaison between visceral and cerebral man Metaphor: Theory & Research   CS Lewis  Myth as balance between abstract and concrete  Balance between world of intellect and world of experience Metaphor may be fundamental to the way we experience and think  Cognitive experiential self theory1,2  Grounded cognition3 and embodied cognition4  Conceptual metaphor5  Bridge between cognition and experience  Deeper level of processing Metaphor: Client Care Applications  ...
misc{e5bfb9fe-2b8a-4ae6-9c07-a9b4e2c25c34, abstract = {"Mixing Metaphor" is a compilation of 12 chapters by prominent researchers, introduced by Raymond Gibbs, one of the main actors in the eld of metaphor studies. It is a highly timely contribution that lls a gap between the pre-theoret- ical notion of mixed metaphors, largely known to the (English-speaking) pub- lic as something to be avoided as it re ects poor style or even sloppy thinking, and scholarly research on metaphor, where the topic has received little attention. In the Introduction, Gibbs discusses the example the citys proposal to skim the frosting, pocket the cake, and avoid paying the fair, reasonable value for the meal is hound that will not hunt, and proposes that such metaphor mixing should not be viewed negatively, but rather as a natural reflection of "peoples cognitive flexibility to think of abstract concepts in a myriad of metaphorical ways" (p. vii). But this is a rather too positive an assessment.}, author = ...
Interface designs that rely on metaphors should taking into account cultural diversity of targeted users (Marcus & West-Gould, 2000). Interfaces need to reflect "the values, ethics, and morals of the target users" (Ford & Gelderblom, 2003, p.220). According to Marcus (1998), metaphors provide a visual meaning of concepts through words and images. Duncker (2002) emphasizes that metaphors have to match the target users mental model of physical objects. When users feel a sense of representation they are able to benefit from and feel comfortable using metaphors.. The question arises as to whether the house metaphor applies to other cultures. The typical Indian house and living arrangements are structured very differently than the average American home. The house metaphor presented on Tide.com is not consistent with a typical urban Indian house. In addition to bedrooms, the Tide.com house has a playroom, nursery, bathroom, office/den, kitchen/dining, garage/shop, and laundry/basement. Urban Indian ...
This study examines the processing of emergent features in metaphors. Emergent features are metaphoric interpretations that are characteristic neither of the target nor the vehicle. In the first experiment, participants were asked to respond as to whether a verbal feature is an appropriate interpretation of the metaphor, which was presented as a prime. They are asked to respond immediately after a tone is presented which has a variable temporal lag after the feature. The timing of each tone controlled the participants response times. The results show that the response deadline given to the participants only slightly affected their judgments. In a second experiment, the time to interpret a metaphor was controlled by varying the pre- sentation time of the metaphor. The results showed that emer- gent features require more time for recognition as a metaphoric interpretation than do non-emergent features. The results sup- port the hypothesis that interaction among features causes feature ...
Brand experience metaphors are based on real world interactions and help bring a brands nature, character, and function to life. Discovering a brand experience metaphor facilitates effective brand planning based on accurate user ecosystems and can lead to designing effective customer journeys that yield measurable results when planning campaigns and user touch points across channels (online, print, mobile, in-store, app, etc.).. So what exactly are brand experience metaphors? They are real world experience metaphors that show a brands identity and role in customers lives. Brands today are expected to be much more than simply purveyors of passive products, they must strive to be active participants in customer lives. Brands are expected to be interactive elements that add value and meaning. An experience metaphor attempts to capture the most meaningful brand interaction in order to bring to life the relevance and meaning that a brand delivers to a customer. ...
The Metaphor Program will exploit the fact that metaphors are pervasive in everyday talk and reveal the underlying beliefs and worldviews of members of a culture. In the first phase of the two-phase program, performers will develop automated tools and techniques for recognizing, defining and categorizing linguistic metaphors associated with target concepts and found in large amounts of native-language text. The resulting conceptual metaphors will be validated using empirical social science methods. In the second phase, the program will characterize differing cultural perspectives associated with case studies of the types of interest to the Intelligence Community. Performers will apply the methodology established in the first phase and will identify the conceptual metaphors used by the various protagonists, organizing and structuring them to reveal the contrastive stances ...
Definition of mixed metaphor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is mixed metaphor? Meaning of mixed metaphor as a legal term. What does mixed metaphor mean in law?
Examined here is the possible difference in use of metaphors for emotions in lyrics of music popular in 1964 compared to music popular in 2014. Questions regard frequency of occurrence of emotion metaphors including love, anger, sadness and happiness and the range and variation in source concepts for the four emotion target concepts respectively. The data set consists of the lyrics of the 50 most popular songs of the years 1964 and 2014, respectively. The lyrics were scanned and instances of emotion metaphor were categorized. This study shows that the frequency of occurrence of emotion metaphor was higher in the 2014 data set compared to that of 1964. Out of the four emotions in consideration, LOVE was the target concept shown to have the widest range of source concepts. Furthermore, the research indicates a change in what source concepts are used when regarding the target concepts HAPPINESS and SADNESS.. ...
Simile Girl and Metaphor Man are here to save the day! These heroes make learning your similes and metaphors as easy as pie. Similes and Metaphors By The Bazillions ©2013 All rights reserved. Similes and metaphors are similar but nothing more than a comparison in different ways. Similes use
A mental metaphor is a strategy that consists of completing the representation of a concept with structural components of a correlating concept. Three issues were addressed here to deepen our understanding of this mechanism: the use of mental metaphors between abstract concepts, the simultaneous activation of multiple mental metaphors and the importance of the focus of attention on the relevant dimensions of a mental metaphor. In two experiments, participants made temporal or valence judgments (with their left or right hand) on verbs with a negative or positive meaning and conjugated in the past or future form, allowing for the simultaneous activation of the
4.1 Having established what we mean by metaphor and some of the discussions regarding what makes a successful academic metaphor, let us now turn to developing criteria for a successful metaphor. But before setting out such criteria, I think we should ask a fundamental question. What is the point of using metaphors in social science? Implicit in Brown, Gentner and others is that the metaphor makes the scientific idea easier to understand. As social scientists our aim is to better understand social phenomena through detailed empirical research and, indeed, through the development of scientific models, as occurs in all sciences. Moreover, it is to convey our ideas clearly and accurately to other academics and, ultimately, to the general public. These ideals have been advocated by various scholars as far back as Socrates himself (see Chermiss 1980 or Jaspers 1960). I appreciate that some scholars such as those involved in the Frankfurt School or some Post-Modernists would regard critiquing and ...
ANNEX: IN SEARCH OF AN ADEQUATE SYSTEM OF METAPHORS In the advertising and media worlds, considerable sums are invested in research on the image of for a corporation or a brand. The choice of political or strategic metaphors is usually done with much less effort and without any market research. What follows can only be considered a first selection of possible metaphors, with all the reservations that implies:. (a) The Earth Council as an ecology of options: An ecological metaphor implies a dynamic interplay of species, some in symbiosis others in competition for available resources. The species in this case may be understood as the political tendencies, factions, pressure groups, or strategic options -- from the most conventional to the most marginal. There may be thousands of species, from the largest to the smallest. It is up to each person to understand the nature of this ecology and its cycles of energy, to find in it the niches which can be occupied, and the appropriate dynamics with ...
Towards an image-based language: the current socio-political function of metaphors The notion of Middle East is more and more a challenge to comprehension. In order to clarify understanding of such complexity, statesmen make use of notions which are both simple and symbolic. The House of Europe and European Space are examples of this approach. Such metaphors serve as vehicles to suggest approaches with many strategic implications. They fulfil the function of codes to communicate among cognoscenti and as key phrases in the interaction with public opinion. The fundamental problems of Middle Eastern integration raise the question of the extent to which metaphors currently used are of adequate richness to articulate strategic options which are both useful and viable. The dilemma remains the necessity, on the one hand, to reflect the richness of the complexity of which any Middle Eastern strategy must take account, and, on the other, to make available an integrative image capable of ...
This article draws upon Karl Weicks insights into the nature of theorizing, and extends and refines his conception of theory construction as disciplined imagination. An essential ingredient in Weicks disciplined imagination involves his assertion that thought trials and theoretical representations typically involve a transfer from one epistemic sphere to another through the creative use of metaphor. The article follows up on this point and draws out how metaphor works, how processes of metaphorical imagination partake in theory construction, and how insightful metaphors and the theoretical representations that result from them can be selected. The paper also includes a discussion of metaphors-in-use (organizational improvisation as jazz and organizational behavior as collective mind) which Weick proposed in his own writings. The whole purpose of this exercise is to theoretically augment and ground the concept of disciplined imagination, and in particular to refine the nature of thought ...
I think pretty much any metaphor is okay as long as it is completely understood that its just a metaphor, and for the real explanation you should go to X, Y, Z articles. The only other question is how good is the metaphor? How well does it convey the idea vs. how much does it leave out and/or deceive?. I personally think that we need WAAAY more creativity put into metaphors. But I also think that its dangerous to just put a metaphor out there and let it loose without making it very clear that its a metaphor. A metaphor should be understood for what it is: An example taken from domain X to explain something in domain Y. It does not mean that X equals Y. To explain A, which exists in the context of B, C, and D, you give a parallel example of Q, R, S, and T, and say A is like Q, B is like R, C is like S, and D is like T. Now, you know how Q relates to R, S, and T like this? Yes? Good, because thats similar to how A relates to B, C, and D. Thats it. Thats all there is to it. Theres no need ...
A STUDY ON METAPHOR AND SIMILE IN ENGLISH IDIOMS AND VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS. Ð_ng H_ng Phúc. QH.1.E - Free download as PDF File (.pdf) or read online for free.
Verdi is the Puccini of music" - this quip attributed to the composer Igor Stravinsky appears in Douglas Hofstadters book Metamagical Themas. In a similar vein he adds: "The knee is the Achilles heel of the leg". A well-known humorist, probably inspired by the first sentence, uses the line "Beethoven is the Mozart of classical music". Looking at a lavishly decorated building, we might say "It seems that Baroque has a renaissance".. What is common in these humorous and somewhat faulty metaphors? Is there a name for this phenomenon? Are there other good examples?. To explain the obvious, suppose we are using analogies or metaphors of the form "X is Y", where Y is the "source", whose attributes we borrow, ascribing them to the "target" X. In this set-up, Y seems to play two roles: one concrete, immediate and one abstract, idealized. In the case of Mozart, the concrete role is that of the 18th century composer, while the abstract role is something along "a widely celebrated, brilliant and ...
An intensional logic with dynamic interpretation is presented in order to provide a formal semantics for sense extension, lexical ambiguity and metaphoricity. Intensionality is required in order to provide the right account of polysemy and homonymy. The dynamics are required in order to allow the interpretation of a sentence to impact the interpretation of subsequent sentences by adding any extended expressions. Metaphoricity is captured in the classification of indices at which expressions are evaluated. A mechanism for deciding which predicates to extend is not provided; the intent is rather to demonstrate how dynamic logic can accommodate sense generation and extension. The system is presented, explained, and argued to capture important features of metaphor creation. It provides existential proof of the potential for formal model theoretic semantics to contribute to the theory of metaphor ...
Twenty years ago, the internet was imagined as standing apart from humans. Metaphorically it was a frontier to explore, a virtual world to experiment in, an ultra-high-speed information superhighway. Many popular metaphors have fallen out of use, while new ones arise all the time. Today we speak of data lakes, clouds and AI. The essays and artwork in this book evoke the mundane, the visceral, and the transformative potential of the internet by exploring the currently dominant metaphors. Together they tell a story of kaleidoscopic diversity of how we experience the internet, offering a richly textured glimpse of how the internet has both disappeared and at the same time, has fundamentally transformed everyday social customs, work, and life, death, politics, and embodiment.. ...
Or again, thinking of the past as behind us helps organise our relation to the world - thinking of the past as infront of us and the future as that dark place behind us, into which we reverse, might be part of a radically different organisation of life. The metaphor is not simply an attempt to conceptualise time but to organise our life within it. As so often, metaphor needs to be understood not in terms of how well does it grasp its object, but in terms of what does it make available, how does it help us get around. ...
I am writing my thesis research about metaphors, so please, could you help me writing the meaning in english? 1. comes de pavo, that means when somebody eats without paying for it, for example in a reunion between the family. 2. Eres puerco, it is used to denote that, being a pig synonymous of dirt, when a person is dirt, you are a big? In other context, when you dont want to collaborate with money to anything, you are??????? 3. La chica es una jirafa, this metaphor is used to express
Imagination, metaphor and mythopeiea in Wordsworth, Shelley and Keats by Firat Karadas; 1 edition; First published in 2008; Subjects: Criticism and interpretation, Metaphor in literature, Imagination in literature, Myth in literature; People: William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), John Keats (1795-1821)
Virtual Pedigree Template (VPT): A novel user interface metaphor for pedigree capture Heres documentation on an interesting program to capture pedigrees and family tree information. I originally designed it for genealogical and genetics research in the Middle East, as part of an academic collaboration in genetics that ended in part due to lack of funding. The software has sat unused since 1996. The application, SIGR, uses an interesting graphical metaphor -- an interactive family tree diagram whose central focus person can be shifted at will -- for capturing pedigrees of any size, and with any number of intermarriages or multiple marriages. I call it the virtual pedigree template (VPT). Users found the VPT much easier to learn and use than approaches that rely on users being able to draw family trees. Due to built-in logic to auto-fill intermediate genealogic links, and a virtual perspective shift capability, it also seemed to be better-suited for real-time entry during interview situations ...
Nearly forty years ago, I spent an evening with friends at a Woody Allen movie marathon. Hour after hour we laughed at slapstick and funny juxtapositions. The next morning, I woke up to the realization that Woody Allen worked a lot with visual, non-verbal, versions of metaphors. In scene after scene, it felt funny, but it wasnt until I verbalized what Id seen that I saw how many visual puns and metaphors Allen had inserted in his movies ...
Were all specialists today. Thats great for developing the next new thing, but terrible for the art of communication.

Hey -- whats the secret to effective storytelling? Well, there are several and one big one is the ability to use metaphors in your business stories.

This is a great article on the how & why of metaphors, and contains a link to another article on how to create a few to describe your product, service or company.

I find it is easiest for me to find metaphors to use by paying attention to my environment (for ideas) and listening for the metaphors other people are using in their daily conversations (for examples). Theres a treasure trove out there!

Happy metaphor hunting and creating :) | Just Story It
Its difficult to recall an internal memo gone viral that has sparked as much commentary as James Damores statement on gender and engineering at Google. This post is not about that memo, although the volume of commentary on it did prompt the thoughts that follow. Nor is this post about workplace diversity, at least not directly. Instead, like many other "Tool Without a Handle" posts, it is about metaphor.. In particular, I wanted to test whether, in preferring the metaphor of "a tool you use" as distinct from "a place you go," Id unduly limited my thinking to an "androcentric" view of networked information technologies. In other words, is "tool" a masculine metaphor, implying a gendered orientation towards my preferred approach to thinking about technology? I conclude the answer is "no," in part because metaphor differs from gender, and in part because metaphor is a feature of language, while gender is a feature of persons. Moreover, I identify a general objection to dichotomizing and to ...
Its difficult to recall an internal memo gone viral that has sparked as much commentary as James Damores statement on gender and engineering at Google. This post is not about that memo, although the volume of commentary on it did prompt the thoughts that follow. Nor is this post about workplace diversity, at least not directly. Instead, like many other "Tool Without a Handle" posts, it is about metaphor.. In particular, I wanted to test whether, in preferring the metaphor of "a tool you use" as distinct from "a place you go," Id unduly limited my thinking to an "androcentric" view of networked information technologies. In other words, is "tool" a masculine metaphor, implying a gendered orientation towards my preferred approach to thinking about technology? I conclude the answer is "no," in part because metaphor differs from gender, and in part because metaphor is a feature of language, while gender is a feature of persons. Moreover, I identify a general objection to dichotomizing and to ...
This paper shows how an innovative method of questioning called Clean Language can enhance the authenticity and rigour of interview-based qualitative research. We investigate the specific potential of Clean Language as a method for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in order to provide in-depth understanding of a persons symbolic world; despite substantial interest in metaphors in the field of organizational and management research there is a lack of explicit, systematic methods for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors. We also demonstrate how Clean Language can improve qualitative research more widely by addressing the propensity for researchers inadvertently to introduce extraneous metaphors into an interviewees account at both data collection and interpretation stages. Data are presented from a collaborative academic-practitioner project in which Clean Language was used as a method of interviewing to elicit the metaphors of six mid-career managers, relating to the way they ...
Language sits on top of all of this. You would be forgiven for thinking that language existed apart from all of this because linguists seldom make reference to non-linguistic communication, and are often focussed on just the words involved in language, or even just written language. As I mentioned, Lakoff & Johnson have argued that the metaphors which underlie the our abstract though are based in our physical interactions with the world. So native English speakers know the metaphor that up is good (on the whole) and down is bad: e.g. a good mood is up; optimists feel things are looking up etc. (Similar metaphors are found in Sanskrit btw.). Similarly, in discussions we employ the argument is war metaphor: we take sides and defend positions against opponents; a vigorous exchange involves cut and thrust; we line points up and shoot them down; and we win if our points are on target or we exploit a weakness, or lose when our argument is undermined or demolished; we love to drop bombshells, and ...
Sheldrick Ross study has two key insights that inform pro family models of reading. In the case of the "reading is eating" metaphor, particularly when it is combined with the ladder metaphor to establish a hierarchy of taste, it is far easier to tell a tale of passive readers than of active ones. And passive readers are more likely to need monitoring and guidance: if reading is eating, and eating can be nutritious, bad, or downright poisonous, then readers (particularly vulnerable and inexperienced ones) will need help to discern the good from the junk. It is easy to see why the "reading is eating" metaphor is so prominent in pro family discourse. The second insight from Sheldrick Ross study is how reading metaphors are used to dismiss and demean reading (and eating) for pleasure. Along this ladder of taste, the closer reading materials were to pleasure for its own sake, the lower they were on the ladder. A similar hierarchy structures how pro family critics understand youth reading as an ...
Metaphors are dangerous things. On the one hand, it seems pretty much impossible to avoid using them, especially in rather abstract fields like philosophy and science.
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Histone Arginine Methylation explained metaphorically by metaphor and with analogy examples. Histone Arginine Methylation is like a ...
Metaphors make life fun--and they mislead, by blurring the reality and the analogy. I work with people who want to think more clearly by controlling how language affects thinking.
Bernard Perleys ongoing research and advocacy in language revitalization is an important contributing factor in a new research and advocacy trajectory exploring metaphors, cognition, agency, and emergent subjectivity. Perleys earlier work was diagnostic in determining the variety of pressures brought to bear on stigmatized languages and thus propelling them toward obsolescence and perceived eventual extinction. Perley argued that analysis was not enough to stop the language tip toward obsolescence and that critical attention must be paid to metaphors and rhetoric that experts use to convey their concerns to the general public. Perleys ethnography (2011a) highlights this critique and puts forward his own metaphor "emergent vitality" as a conceptual frame for redirecting language intervention away from "documentation only" practices to promoting communicative relations.. Perleys recent article "Zombie Linguistics" (Perley 2012a) critiques prevailing metaphors of language "death" and ...
Andrea Mirabiles recent book Piaceri Invisibli explores the metaphor of blindness in Italian literature, art history, and cinema.
What One Can Learn from Extracting OWL Ontologies from a NetLogo Model That maintained clearly clear for Such an download aristotles ladder darwins tree the evolution of visual metaphors for biological. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 18(2), 14. Path Planning with Slime Molds: A 2021BLACK3605 download aristotles ladder darwins tree the evolution of.
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I do understand that entangled nuclei are separate nuclei, but what I would like to illustrate (if possible) is how an average joe (like myself) might picture two entangled nuclei getting fused together, absorbing energy, releasing energy, etc. Maybe Im wrong about this image, but I thought that two nuclei that are entangled can be thought of as being in a superposition. If thats true, I can visualize, say, water with two waves (wavefunctions) sloshing through each other. Each wave would represent a single nucleus, and their ability to slosh through each other and yet remain separate would demonstrate the superposition. But, next, my watery complex of waves must now fuse together... hmmm... and thats where I get lost. How would I show energy being pumped into this watery wave to cause fusion, and then how do I represent the byproducts of the fusion - the fused nucleus and the release of its energy. Is it possible to extend this visual metaphor far enough to represent fusion of those two ...
Who knew that GRC could be explained using three brilliant, but competing, musicians…and Jimmy Carter?I included a metaphor to explain my thinking on the relationship between governance and ris
Molecular Metaphors is the application of squaryl building blocks towards creative functional group chemistry to produce lead compounds and imaging agents.
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-0792370048 The Logic of Metaphor: Analogous Parts of Possible Worlds (Synthese Library) Product Will Be Deliver
The metaphors of cancer have always multiplied like, well, hyperactive cells. The disease has taken shape as, variously, a crab, a black bile, a demon ...
Get an answer for What are some good metaphors or similes that reveal intelligence, determination, motivation, strength, perfection or persistence?They do not all have to be in one quote. Thank You! and find homework help for other Guide to Literary Terms questions at eNotes
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research.html - research.html. Publications. Monograph:. Handl, Sandra (2011), The conventionality of figurative language. A usage-based study (Language in Performance 46), Tübingen: Narr.. Edited volume:. Handl, Sandra and Hans-Jörg Schmid, eds. (2011), Windows to the mind. Metaphor, metonymy and conceptual blending (Cognitive Linguistics Research 48), Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter.. Articles:. Handl, Sandra (submitted), "Selling and buying, killing and wounding: (Un)conventional metaphors from two different semantic fields", Elisabetta Gola and Francesca Ervas, eds., Selected proceedings of the Conference on Metaphor and Communication, Cagliari, May 12 - 14, 2011, Amsterdam - Philadelphia: John Benjamins.. Handl, Sandra (forthcoming), "Meaning is use", in Bernd Kortmann and Johannes Kabatek, eds., Theorien und Methoden der Sprachwissenschaft/Theories and methods in linguistics [Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK)], Berlin - New York: Mouton de ...
Background: An underestimated feature of schizophrenia is the impaired processing of the metaphoric speech, mainly due to a reduced activation of the right hemisphere. ..
This article examines two corpora composed of four discourse genres - oral interviews, written interviews, newspaper articles, and non-fiction books - to explore the ways in which society is discussed metaphorically in current German and Brazilian discourse. It discusses culture-specific mixed metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson 1980) which can be seen as metaphorical scenarios (Musolff 2004) or integration networks (Fauconnier & Turner 2002, 2008). The results reveal that the Brazilian metaphors tend to incorporate the idea that SOCIETY AS A PERSON has didactic and poetic functions to a high degree. By contrast, the German metaphors have a stronger relation to motion dynamics, frequently argumentatively analyzed from an observers point of view. Finally, this article demonstrates that Blending Theory must be extended by a semiotic-contextual view to integrate elements like relevance space (Brandt & Brandt 2005), and to account for culture-dependent variation and the involved speech functions