Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as drop-in biofuels. Some microorganisms have the ability to biosynthesize alkanes and alkenes naturally, but their production level is extremely low. Therefore, there have been various attempts to recruit other microbial cell factories for production of alkanes and alkenes by applying metabolic engineering strategies. Here we review different pathways and involved enzymes for alkane and alkene production and discuss bottlenecks and possible solutions to accomplish industrial level production of these chemicals by microbial fermentation.
Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as drop-in biofuels. Some microorganisms have the ability to biosynthesize alkanes and alkenes naturally, but their production level is extremely low. Therefore, there have been various attempts to recruit other microbial cell factories for production of alkanes and alkenes by applying metabolic engineering strategies. Here we review different pathways and involved enzymes for alkane and alkene production and discuss bottlenecks and possible solutions to accomplish industrial level production of these chemicals by microbial fermentation ...
Production of D-xylonate by the yeast S. cerevisiae provides an example of bioprocess development for sustainable production of value-added chemicals from cheap raw materials or side streams. Production of D-xylonate may lead to considerable intracellular accumulation of D-xylonate and to loss of viability during the production process. In order to understand the physiological responses associated with D-xylonate production, we performed transcriptome analyses during D-xylonate production by a robust recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae which produces up to 50 g/L D-xylonate. Comparison of the transcriptomes of the D-xylonate producing and the control strain showed considerably higher expression of the genes controlled by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway and of some genes previously identified as up-regulated in response to other organic acids in the D-xylonate producing strain. Increased phosphorylation of Slt2 kinase in the D-xylonate producing strain also indicated that D-xylonate production
A structural chassis includes a structural chassis and a foam chassis or sock liner sandwiched together to form an assembly that can be inserted into and substantially occupy a footbed of a shoe upper. Discrete sole elements are attached to a bottom side of the upper so as to expose certain portions of the bottom side therebetween. This absence of outsole material in those areas makes the upper collapsible about those areas since the outsole provides no support in those areas. Instead, the structure is provided by the chassis of the chassis, which is customized to the users foot by placing one or more notches in strategic locations along the chassis where the foot naturally flexes. One such notch is located on the chassis in a position that allows the chassis to flex about a forward push-off axis of the foot that runs through the first and second MTP joints. Two collinear notches are formed on the chassis to allow the structural chassis shoe to flex about a lateral push-off axis that runs through the
Microbial production of fatty acid derived chemicals and fuels is currently of great interest due to the limited resources and increasing prices of petroleum and petroleum-based products. The development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) cell factory would represent an opportunity for biodiesel production due to its successful history in the biotechnology area. However, fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis is highly regulated and usually not high enough for developing an efficient production process. In S. cerevisiae, FAs are degraded by beta-oxidation and a large fraction is utilized to synthesize steryl esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs), which are not essential for the cell. Here, by eliminating nonessential FA utilization pathways, we developed a metabolic engineering strategy resulting in a S. cerevisiae strain that can overproduce FAs and in turn use these for producing FAEEs (biodiesel). Compared to the wild-type, there is an about 3-fold increase in free FA content in
Metabolic engineering is a main focus of many plant biotechnology programs that look for the production of novel plant varieties with improved human health benefits. Among the most interesting goals are those that are focused in the production of functional fruits. A fruit can be considered as functional if it produces additional benefits to human health and well-being, beyond nutrition. Fruits that present higher levels of beneficial compounds such as essential vitamins, antioxidants, and phytochemicals can be considered as functional as those compounds have long-term benefits in reducing the occurrence of certain diseases. Through the expression, silencing, or mutagenesis strategies, many functional fruit crops have been produced during the last 40 years. Novel plants produce higher amount of carotenoids, antocyanins, and folic acid in their fruits, as well as higher color, sweetness, flavor, and aroma. The improvement of postharvest and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress in commercial plants has
The present invention is a computing appliance chassis assembly which may support an integration of a plurality of removable modules, including fan modules, power supplies, and a controller module. The computing appliance chassis assembly may also include detachable handles which may allow transport of the computing appliance chassis assembly. A controller chassis may be installed within the computing appliance chassis assembly. A controller chassis assembly may house a controller module and may include rotatable side panels which allow easier access to the components of the controller module. A fan chassis assembly may also be installed within the computing appliance chassis and may house a fan module.
Three metabolic engineering strategies were successfully designed and applied in this work, including: activation of E. coli native cryptic pathway, multi enzymes to enhance efficiency of one reaction in a pathway, and construction of a novel anaerobic pathway with balanced ox-reduction status and adequate energy production.. All biological systems are capable of short term response to environmental changes and, on longer time scales, to evolutionary adaptation. It was suggested that cryptic or latent pathways are consequences of such adaption. By inactivate once active pathways, microbes are able to save materials and energy associated with expression of the genes, and to change metabolic network for adaption of new environment [36, 37]. Cryptic or latent pathway activation is a classic subject in metabolic engineering, mainly for production of therapeutic natural products in microorganisms such as Aspergillus, Streptomyces, or Pseudomonas [38]. However, only a few examples can be found with ...
Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the cells production of a certain substance. These processes are chemical networks that use a series of biochemical reactions and enzymes that allow cells to convert raw materials into molecules necessary for the cells survival. Metabolic engineering specifically seeks to mathematically model these networks, calculate a yield of useful products, and pin point parts of the network that constrain the production of these products. Genetic engineering techniques can then be used to modify the network in order to relieve these constraints. Once again this modified network can be modeled to calculate the new product yield. The ultimate goal of metabolic engineering is to be able to use these organisms to produce valuable substances on an industrial scale in a cost effective manner. Current examples include producing beer, wine, cheese, pharmaceuticals, and other biotechnology products. Some ...
Poly(lactate-co-glycolate) (PLGA) is an FDA-approved random copolymer of DL-lactic and glycolic acids used in surgical sutures, prosthetics, drug delivery and tissue engineering. So far, PLGA has been manufactured only by chemical synthesis. Production of PLGA from renewable non-food biomass using engineered bacterial strains promises a sustainable route to production of this medically important polymer. Sang Yup Lee and So Young Choi from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and Si Jae Park from Myongji University, apply a systems metabolic engineering strategy that integrates pathway engineering with computational analyses to optimize metabolic flux and yields to produce poly(lactate-co-glycolate) (PLGA) and related synthetic polymers in Escherichia coli.. The above image relates to the paper by Sang Yup Lee and colleagues, available here now.. ...
AB - The polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are microbially-produced biopolymers that could potentially be used as sustainable alternatives to oil-derived plastics. However, PHAs are currently more expensive to produce than oil-derived plastics. Therefore, more efficient production processes would be desirable. Cell-free metabolic engineering strategies have already been used to optimise several biosynthetic pathways and we envisioned that cell-free strategies could be used for optimising PHAs biosynthetic pathways. To this end, we developed several Escherichia coli cell-free systems for in vitro prototyping PHAs biosynthetic operons, and also for screening relevant metabolite recycling enzymes. Furthermore, we customised our cell-free reactions through the addition of whey permeate, an industrial waste that has been previously used to optimise in vivo PHAs production. We found that the inclusion of an optimal concentration of whey permeate enhanced relative cell-free GFPmut3b production by ∼50%. In ...
A Korean research team headed by Distinguished Professor Sang Yup Lee of the Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) established a biorefinery system to create non-natural polymers from natural sources, allowing various plastics to be made in an environmentally-friendly and sustainable manner. The research results were published online in Nature Biotechnology on March 7, 2016. The print version will be issued in April 2016.. The research team adopted a systems metabolic engineering approach to develop a microorganism that can produce diverse non-natural, biomedically important polymers and succeeded in synthesizing poly(lactate-co-glycolate) (PLGA), a copolymer of two different polymer monomers, lactic and glycolic acid. PLGA is biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic, and has been widely used in biomedical and therapeutic applications such as surgical sutures, prosthetic devices, drug delivery, and tissue ...
Retrosynthesis algorithms take as input a set of metabolites, for instance the metabolites of a growth medium or the metabolites of a chassis strain model, and the set of target compounds to bioproduce. Ideally the target compounds could be any molecules of the chemical space. The algorithms generate retrosynthesis networks linking the target compound(s) (the source) to the metabolites of the chassis strain (the sink) through reactions. The transformations are applied in the reverse direction from the actual synthesis. In the case of metabolic engineering, retrosynthesis consists of applying reversed biotransformations (i.e., reversed enzymes catalyzed reactions) to a target product, following pathways to substrates that are endogenous to a chassis organism.. To perform such retrosynthesis analysis we developed RetroPath2.0, an automated open source workflow for retrosynthesis based on generalized reaction rules that perform the retrosynthesis search from chassis to target through an efficient ...
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Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the concept of Systems Biology where an attempt is made to understand an entire biological system, from structure, to dynamic interactions, to levels of control, instead of simply studying its component parts in isolation. A similar approach can be taken in the fields of Protein and Metabolic Engineering. Protein Engineering provides a powerful set of tools to design, construct and evaluate new proteins with novel functions and properties. However, the true value of such advances requires a Systems approach that can be provided by Metabolic Engineering, through its ability to characterize metabolic pathways composed of a constellation of different enzymes. ...
Metabolic Engineering Communications is devoted to publishing original research in the areas of metabolic engineering, synthetic biology,...
Functional Fruits Through Metabolic Engineering. By Luis Quiroz-Iturra, Carolina Rosas-Saavedra and Claudia Stange Klein. Metabolic engineering is a main focus of many plant biotechnology programs that look for the production of novel plant varieties with improved human health benefits. Among the most interesting goals are those that are focused in the production of functional fruits. A fruit can be considered as functional if it produces additional benefits to human health and well-being, beyond nutrition. Fruits that present higher levels of beneficial compounds such as essential vitamins, antioxidants, and phytochemicals can be considered as functional as those compounds have long-term benefits in reducing the occurrence of certain diseases. Through the expression, silencing, or mutagenesis strategies, many functional fruit crops have been produced during the last 40 years. Novel plants produce higher amount of carotenoids, antocyanins, and folic acid in their fruits, as well as higher color, ...
Cofactor engineering has been long identified as a valuable tool for metabolic engineering. Besides interventions targeting the pools of redox cofactors, many studies addressed the adenosine pools of microorganisms. In this mini-review, we discuss interventions that manipulate the availability of ATP with a special focus on ATP wasting strategies. We discuss the importance to fine-tune the ATP yield along a production pathway to balance process performance parameters like product yield and volumetric productivity. ...
This is a historical background of tensegrity: the balance of tension to compression in the shape of bone I came across a book originally published in 1942 by the Cambridge University Press under the title of On Growth and Form: A New Addition by DArcy Wentworth Thompson during my sabbatical year as one of the…
Buy Applications of Plant Metabolic Engineering (9781402060304): NHBS - Edited By: R Verpoorte, A.W Alfermann and T.S Johnson, Springer-Verlag
Huimin Zhao Developed Efficient Metabolic Engineering Process CRISPR gene editing usually targets one DNA sequence at a time, but now researchers [MORE]
I will build a family of promoters of different strengths controlling untranslated transcripts of two different lengths. These test systems will place varying total transcription demands on the chassis. I will use a subset of a library of promoters constructed by Moyle and coworkers. The library is generated from 36 single-base pair mutations in the -35 and -10 hexamers of the ant promoter of P22. LacZ fusions were used to measure the relative activity of the promoter mutants in S. typhimurium. Should this method of varying transcription demand prove unsuccessful, transcription demand could be varied by using the PBAD linear induction system of (Khlebnikov, 2002). I believe using a family of promoters is preferable to using linear induction as it removes the need to produce a repressor or consider non-specific effects of the inducer on the chassis. I will measure the rate of accumulation of the reporter RNA via Northern blotting. This data specifies the number of RNAP actively transcribing the ...
Ever since Valentino Rossi ended the first Valencia MotoGP test in lowly 15th place on the Ducati Desmosedici, one-and-three-quarter seconds behind fastest man and former teammate Jorge Lorenzo, there have been calls for radical changes to Ducatis MotoGP machine. Those calls have only intensified as the season has progressed, the switch from the GP11 to the GP11.1, the destroked version of Ducatis 2012 MotoGP machine, having brought little improvement until a few key parts were introduced at Brno. The focus of much of the fans anger and the paddocks scepticism has been Ducatis monocoque carbon fiber chassis. Ducatis radically different design has been pinpointed as the obvious culprit for the problems with the Desmosedici, with critics pointing to the success the Japanese factories have had with an aluminium twin spar chassis, as exemplified by Yamahas Deltabox concept. If Ducati had an aluminium twin spar frame, the argument goes, they would at least be confronting the Japanese on equal ...
The Sturminfanteriegeschutz 33 Assault Infantry Gun is essentially a 150-mm SIG33 on a PzKpfw III chassis. This was apparently the third attempt to mount this gun on a panzer chassis and the first to be fully enclosed. The first attempt was on the PzKpfw I chassis. The second attempt, on the PzKpfw II chassis, was known as the Bison. The enclosed compartment for the gun was in reaction to the failure of these previous attempts that mounted the SIG33 exposed on chassis. According to Chamberlain and Doyles Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two, the initial order for 12 chassis was placed in July of 1941 and delivered in December and January. This was the same hull as the StuG Ausf E and F/8. In September of 42 the order was placed to mount the heavy weapon capable of demolishing houses with two or three rounds. Secondary armament consisted of a hull mounted MG34. 24 of these were built eventually built by Alkett, the first 12 delivered in 14 days. The units were primarily used in the ...
Complete service manual for TOSHIBA CHASSIS F8LP delivered as a PDF file. Learn how to repair Your device, check parts catalog for part numbers. Use circuit diagram to locate and fix defect. Share with others how You fixed TOSHIBA CHASSIS F8LP or ask for help.
Thermaltake is thrilled to announce a new model to the classic Level 20 collection- the Level 20 GT ARGB Black Edition Full Tower Chassis. Like the Level 20 GT ARGB, the chassis comes with two 200 mm ...
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The mission of Metabolic Engineering and Evolution in the Bay is to help scientists collaborate and grow by providing a network for sharing ideas and technical knowledge about metabolic engineering an
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Ushering NZXTs return to bold and daring designs, the Noctis 450 marries the modern functionality of an award-winning chassis with NZXTs renowned aggressive design style.
BERNIE Ecclestone has proposed that Formula One teams be able to sell chassis to each other, a shake-up that would save tens of millions of pounds.
In this tech article CIRCLE TRACK takes a look inside the new Shaw Racing 2010 Safer Design sprint car chassis, which was built with help from RSI Safety - Circle Track Magazine
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I figured Id ask here and see if anyone had a nice sturdy aluminum chassis that would work for an Opus dac. I have dual mono DAC with USB and SPDIF i
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For those who have at any time had an injuries, your fascial process (which is wrapped all around each and every structure within your system) could become restricted and locked into a pattern of dysfunction. Even starting at start and accumulating all through life, injuries create tilts and twists in the body that begin to compress gentle tissue structures like nerves and vessels that carry blood and lymph. This is called a strain pattern. With time, strain designs will overlap and at some point place adequate strain within the delicate tissue to change the placement of skeletal constructions ...
Abstract This paper presents the study of chassis tuning of a commercial vehicle, which has a rear suspension with dual stage leaf spring assembly and a front suspension with double wishbone torsion bar. To balance the handling and ride performance of the vehicle, it is necessary to tune the key suspension parameters of the chassis including the dual stage stiffness of the leaf spring, the contact load of the leaf spring, the torsional rigidity of the torsion bar, the force curve of the front and rear dampers etc. The chassis tuning process of a physical commercial vehicle was first put forward. In the proposed flowchart, the kinematics and statics of front & rear suspensions were checked at the beginning of the tuning. Then the tire mechanical characteristics were tested by using a plate-type tire tester and the inertial parameters of the vehicle were indirectly measured. The K&C characteristics of front and rear suspensions were also tested and compared with the benchmark vehicles ...
5th June. Group discussion concerning the project idea to be carried forward - favouring the Anti cancer project. Roles were then assigned to team members present for intial research roles for the week: Cancer research roles: 1. Ruxi Comisel - Proteins upregulated in cancer of the intestines. Specifically in the outer epithelial cell (enterocytes) - in microvilli. Also, what actually is... gut cancer? A general overview would be useful… 2. Khaicheng Kiew - Our chassis (bearing in mind that we will also build it in E. coli as a backup). We need to think what would make a good chassis in our case (ie. naturally found in the gut in an obvious one), and how well does the chassis fit. 3. Alex Bates - What will the killing mechanism be? A broad overview of cancer treatments is required, specifically detailing how a bacterium can administer the treatment. Considerations: a. The bacteria may secrete a toxin etc - how will we ensure that it doesnt simply diffuse through the gut? b. If it is a toxin, ...
5th June. Group discussion concerning the project idea to be carried forward - favouring the Anti cancer project. Roles were then assigned to team members present for intial research roles for the week: Cancer research roles: 1. Ruxi Comisel - Proteins upregulated in cancer of the intestines. Specifically in the outer epithelial cell (enterocytes) - in microvilli. Also, what actually is... gut cancer? A general overview would be useful… 2. Khaicheng Kiew - Our chassis (bearing in mind that we will also build it in E. coli as a backup). We need to think what would make a good chassis in our case (ie. naturally found in the gut in an obvious one), and how well does the chassis fit. 3. Alex Bates - What will the killing mechanism be? A broad overview of cancer treatments is required, specifically detailing how a bacterium can administer the treatment. Considerations: a. The bacteria may secrete a toxin etc - how will we ensure that it doesnt simply diffuse through the gut? b. If it is a toxin, ...
Description. This is a 1994 Lola 94/00 chassis in speedway trim. It is a very complete roller with a six speed sequential shift transaxle. This is the first full carbon fiber chassis built by Lola. Earlier cars were bonded honeycomb. This particular chassis was run with a Cosworth XB engine. The livery on the car is approximately the same as it was in the 1996 season for the Indy 500 ...
A custom paint job stencil used to personalise a vehicle chassis. Vehicle A completely equipped chassis - something the player can use to move and fight (where a chassis is really just a skeleton). World Map A map system of the Central Wastelands is available to all drivers. While it provides a generalised overview of the entire area, the World Map also makes note of locations (towns and points of interest) a driver can move to quickly through using INC airlifts ...
Originally Posted by cmdalvi also, i have had mixed reactions to the need to reinforce chassis for this engine You will most certainly need to reinforce the chassis. The chassis will be under
Okay, maybe I was lazy with my physics reference but its about reducing energy. The more mass and velocity an object has, the more kinetic energy its going to have. Having parts shed away during a crash gives the benefit of releasing energy to remove those parts and then reducing the energy of the parts the driver is still attached too. The driver is going to have momentum and will want to keep moving while the chassis is slamming into the ground. If you can reduce the chassiss momentum by reducing its mass, less energy is going to get transferred to the driver. You highlight this point above. If a lighter vehicle is easier on things they run into then it has the same affect on being easier on those inside the vehicle ...
The board, sensor device and button cell battery appeared when the sensor module chassis was opened. We opened the plastic chassis by cutting off the joint around the opening with a cutter knife.. Close. ...
Its also been the first time Ive ridden the Meta since the last time it came out on a Knobblies ride, it had been decommissioned to bring the Chameleon back from retirement for Afan. Eagle eyed viewers will note the absence of the Pikes; those that were with me at Afan will remember me spending the entire time cursing them and on returning home I looked into converting them to coil and getting the PUSH rebound damper fitted. Given the cost involved and that the coil kit is incompatible with the UTURN Air chassis, I binned this idea, deciding not to polish a turd and plumped for some Marz 55 customised with RC3 and air cartridges. I must say it was a good decision, although the weight is up the performance gains are massive and that big 35mm stanchion chassis makes light work of badly landed jumps and rock sections ...
Made with 3D machining and featuring a sporty line. Adjustable and articulated to reduce the possibility of breakage. Lightness and aerodynamics coupled with excellent grip provide a high level of performance. Developed in partnership with Rizoma.
The all-new twin-turbo V6 engine in the Panamera 4S and twin-turbo V8 engine in the Panamera Turbo are lighter and more compact than their...
Design developed in collaboration with Roland Sands Design. Customised for XDiavel and finely machined, they lend a stylish accent to gear shift and brake systems.