VMCL1 - Ventral Mesencephalic Cell Line One. Looking for abbreviations of VMCL1? It is Ventral Mesencephalic Cell Line One. Ventral Mesencephalic Cell Line One listed as VMCL1
During the initial phases of nervous system development, progenitor cells in the neural tube proliferate and divide symmetrically to give rise to identical multipotent neuroepithelial cells. These progenitors subsequently divide asymmetrically to generate cells that are fated to differentiate into a neuron, sometimes following additional cycles of cell division. This process is regulated by the activity of transcription factors with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motifs, including the neurogenin and Mash1 proneural factors involved in initiating neurogenesis, and other bHLH factors, such as Neurod, that are involved in terminal neuronal differentiation.. The proneural genes of the bHLH class were first identified in Drosophila as key regulators of neural lineage development (Brunet and Ghysen, 1999; Guillemot, 1999). The three most extensively studied genes in rodents are the mouse achaete-scute homologue (Mash1) and the members of the atonal-related family of genes, neurogenins (Ngn) 1 and 2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Caspase-dependent and -independent cell death pathways in primary cultures of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons after neurotoxin treatment. AU - Han, Baek S.. AU - Hong, Hyun Seung. AU - Choi, Won Seok. AU - Markelonis, George J.. AU - Oh, Tae H.. AU - Oh, Young Jun. PY - 2003/6/15. Y1 - 2003/6/15. N2 - Although the cause of neuronal death in Parkinsons disease (PD) is mainly unknown, growing evidence suggests that both apoptotic and non-apoptotic death may occur in PD. Using primary cultures of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and the MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cell line, we attempted to evaluate specifically the existence of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, focusing on the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c to the activation of the caspases after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treatment. Both immunofluorescent labeling and immunoblot analysis indicated mitochondrial release of cytochrome c into the cytosol after 6-OHDA or MPP+ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thrombin-activated microglia contribute to death of dopaminergic neurons in rat mesencephalic cultures. T2 - Dual roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. AU - Lee, Da Yong. AU - Oh, Young J.. AU - Jin, Byung Kwan. PY - 2005/8/1. Y1 - 2005/8/1. N2 - This study evaluated the role of thrombin-activated microglia in the neurodegeneration of mesencephalic cultures. Immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence indicated that in co-cultures consisting of rat cortical microglia and mesencephalic neurons, thrombin led to nonselective loss of mesencephalic neurons. Accompanying neurodegeneration, microglial activation was obvious, evidenced by expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and by increasing production of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO). In mesencephalic neurons treated with conditioned media (CM) taken from thrombin-activated microglia, the number of ...
The control of vertical eye movements is thought to be located in the dorsal midbrain in the region of the posterior commissure and mesencephalic tegmentum [13-15]. The vertical gaze center lies in close vicinity to the superior colliculus, with some of the main nuclei being the interstitial nucleus of Cajal and the rostral interstitial nucleus of the MLF. Interestingly, downward gaze is often preserved. This is in distinction to progressive supranuclear palsy, which also presents with vertical gaze palsy, but one which preferentially affects downward gaze. The reasons for this difference are not entirely clear, but it has been suggested that the pathways for downward gaze are directly medially out of the rostral interstitial nucleus of the MLF, while those for upward gaze are directed laterally and decussate in the posterior commisure, making them more susceptible to external mass effect. With Parinauds syndrome, patients may have a downgaze at rest, known as the setting sun sign. Patients ...
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The cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease (PD) are caused by the vulnerability to dysfunction and degeneration of ventral midbrain (VM) dopaminergic (DA) neurons. A major limitation for experimental studies of current ES/iPS cell differentiation protocols is the lack of VM DA neurons with a …
Neural stem cells (NSCs) lose their competency to generate region-specific neuronal populations at an early stage during embryonic brain development. Here we investigated whether epigenetic modifications can reverse the regional restriction of mouse adult brain subventricular zone (SVZ) NSCs. Using a variety of chemicals that interfere with DNA methylation and histone acetylation, we showed that such epigenetic modifications increased neuronal differentiation but did not enable specific regional patterning, such as midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neuron generation. Only after Oct-4 overexpression did adult NSCs acquire a pluripotent state that allowed differentiation into midbrain DA neurons. DA neurons derived from Oct4-reprogrammed NSCs improved behavioural motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinsons disease (PD) upon intrastriatal transplantation. Here we report for the first time the successful differentiation of SVZ adult NSCs into functional region-specific midbrain DA neurons, by means of ...
Fig. 4. Knockdown of XTcf-4 results in reduced proliferation of dorsal brain tissue. (A) XTcf-4 morpholino, but not control morpholino, blocks the expression of NCAM protein in the dorsal midbrain. Ten picomoles of the morpholino were injected together with 100 pg of myc-tagged EGFP mRNA into one blastomere of two-cell stage embryos. Transverse sections of stage 30 embryos were incubated with α-NCAM and visualized with a Cy3-coupled goat anti-mouse antibody. The injected side is traced by EGFP. Note: At the XTcf-4 morpholino-injected side, the NCAM signal is missing in the dorsal half of the midbrain (arrow). Consistently, the dorsal part appears to consist of less tissue (arrow, brightfield). (B) The pan-neural marker gene nrp-1 is still expressed in the Tcf-4-depleted, size-reduced dorsal midbrain. Fifty-micrometer transversal sections through the midbrain region of stage 30 embryos stained for nrp-1 reveal that the dorsal neural tissue (arrow) is less thick at the injected side (asterisk). ...
We have replaced part of the mouse homeogene Otx2 coding region with the E. coli lacZ coding sequence, thus creating a null allele of Otx2. By 9.5 dpc, homozygous mutant embryos are characterized by the absence of forebrain and midbrain regions. From the early to midstreak stages, endomesodermal cells expressing lacZ fail to be properly localized anteriorly. In the ectodermal layer, lacZ transcription is progressively extinguished, being barely detectable by the late streak stage. These data suggest that Otx2 expression in endomesoderm and ectoderm is required for anterior neuroectoderm specification. In gastrulating heterozygous embryos, a post-transcriptional repression acts on lacZ transcripts in the ectoderm, but not in the external layer, suggesting that different post-transcriptional mechanisms control Otx2 expression in both layers.. ...
Understanding human embryonic ventral midbrain is of major interest for Parkinsons disease. However, the cell types, their gene expression dynamics, and their relationship to commonly used rodent models remain to be defined. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing to examine ventral midbrain development in human and mouse. We found 25 molecularly defined human cell types, including five subtypes of radial glia-like cells and four progenitors. In the mouse, two mature fetal dopaminergic neuron subtypes diversified into five adult classes during postnatal development. Cell types and gene expression were generally conserved across species, but with clear differences in cell proliferation, developmental timing, and dopaminergic neuron development. Additionally, we developed a method to quantitatively assess the fidelity of dopaminergic neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells, at a single-cell level. Thus, our study provides insight into the molecular programs controlling human midbrain
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons, whose loss in adults results in Parkinsons disease, can be specified during embryonic development by a contact-dependent signal from floor plate cells. Here we show that the amino-terminal product of Sonic hedgehog autoproteolysis (SHH-N), an inductive signal expresse …
article{8bf0b2a2-668e-47c2-96c7-c99a9822e436, abstract = {,p,The neurotrophic effects of the BB isoform of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on rat and human fetal mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons have been characterized in vitro. A dose-response analysis demonstrated maximal responses at 30 ng/ml of PDGF-BB. This concentration resulted in a marked increase in the survival and neurite outgrowth from rat and human tyrosine hydroxylase-(TH) positive, presumed dopaminergic neurons after 7 days in vitro. The effects of PDGF-BB on survival of TH-positive neurons were comparable to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whereas neurite outgrowth was more pronounced after addition of BDNF. The combination of BDNF and PDGF-BB yielded no additive effects. Double immunohistochemical staining of rat cultures demonstrated PDGF beta-receptors on about 90% of the TH-positive neurons. PDGF-BB treatment of rat mesencephalic cultures induced an upregulation of c-fos and TH mRNA with maximal ...
Fiorillo, Christopher D., The synaptic regulation of ventral midbrain dopamine neurons and its modulation by repeated cocaine treatment (1999). Scholar Archive. 3373 ...
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons display two functionally distinct modes of electrical activity: low- and high-frequency firing. We suggest a new minimal computational model that unites data on these firing modes obtained under different experimental conditions. The model reproduces the separation of maximal frequencies under NMDA synaptic stimulation vs. other treatments. In accord to recent experimental data, NMDA stimulation restricted to the soma effectively evokes high-frequency oscillations in the model. We have also reproduced low- and high-frequency oscillations under blockade of the SK current. Thus, the new model suggests a way that overcomes all major limitations of the switching dominance mechanism for controlling the frequency of the DA neuron. We explain recent experimental facts and make further predictions. ...
The objective of the present study was to analyze the cellular and subcellular localization of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the squirrel monkey. This was achieved by means of immunohistochemistry at light and electron microscopic levels and in situ hybridization histochemistry. Colocalization studies show that nearly all dopaminergic neurons in both the ventral and dorsal tiers of the substantia nigra compacta (SNc-v, SNc-d) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are immunoreactive for AMPA (GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4) and NMDAR1 receptor subunits, but not for NMDAR2A/B subunits. The immunoreactivity of the receptor subunits is associated mainly with perikarya and dendritic shafts. Apart from the intensity of immunolabeling for the GluR4 subunit, which is quite similar for the different groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, the overall intensity of immunostaining for the other subunits is higher in the SNc-v and SNc-d than in the VTA. In line with ...
Most textbooks say that Rathkes pouch invaginates from the oral ectoderm. Our observations and experiments give a different explanation for the chick embryo. We find that the roof, tip and floor of the pouch lie flat along the midline (A above), then the cephalic flexure through the mesencephalon as well as the downward bulging of the prosencephalon wrap the floor and roof around the tip of the pouch. We find that mesenchyme, mostly from mesencephalic neural crest, collects beneath the ectoderm lateral to the floor plate (and to some extent lateral to the roof plate) causing the walls of the pouch to form when the ectoderm lateral to the floor plate fuses with ectoderm lateral to roof plate ...
Numerous studies have demonstrated the use of ESC-derived DA neurons for grafting in animal models of PD (17); however, it has remained unclear which stage of differentiation and what particular population of cells is most effective at inducing functional benefits upon transplantation in vivo. Fetal tissue studies have focused on the grafting of ventral mesencephalic tissue isolated at a stage in which the majority of developing DA neurons are postmitotic, which is E12-E13 in mice (18) and E14-E15 (19) in rats. In human fetal grafting studies, increased survival of TH+ neurons has been reported for tissue derived from embryos at 5 to 8 weeks after conception when using suspension grafts and up to 9 weeks after conception for solid grafts (20). In all of those cases, however, the grafted population was composed of a heterogeneous pool of cells at various stages of differentiation and typically contained less than 20% DA neurons (21). One recent study used purified DA neurons derived from a ...
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Fig. 4. Wholemount in situ hybridisation of Xlmx1b. (A) Dorsal view of a stage 13 embryo showing placodal region expression. (B) A stage 15 embryo showing expression on the neural plate, along the neural folds and in the placodal regions. (C) A stage 19 embryo showing two intense patches of expression in the placodal regions, the otic anlagen. These will eventually develop into the otic vesicle and the embryos hearing system. (D) A cleared stage 21 embryo with neurons visible all down the dorsal side of the embryo. Some staining is noticeable in the anterior region, which may develop into the eye expression or the midbrain neurons. (E) A stage 24 embryo, the first stage at which expression is visible in the dorsal region of the eye. Staining is also seen in a population of migrating neural crest cells near the otic vesicle. (F) A stage 27 embryo showing neuron expression down the back. Staining is also apparent in the otic vesicle, eye and in a population of neurons in the midbrain region. (G) A ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - The weaver gene expression affects differently to the generation, survival and settling patterns of midbrain and cerebellar neurons. AU - Martí, Joaquín. AU - Santa-Cruz, M. C.. AU - Bayer, Shirley A.. AU - Ghetti, Bernardino. AU - Hervás, José P.. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Weaver is a pleiotropic mutation consisting of a single base-pair substitution in a gene coding for a G-protein-activated inward-rectifying potassium channel, Girk 2. The present work revises the manner in which the expression of the weaver gene affects the generation and survival of several neuronal populations (midbrain dopaminergic neurons, Purkinje cells and deep nuclei neurons in the cerebellum). Using [3H]TdR autoradiography -to determine developmental timetables- and tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry -to identify dopamine neurons- we shown that depending on neuronal type, degree of vulnerability to the lethal action of the mutant gene is related to temporal and spatial patterns of ...
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Markers expressed in the developing embryo can distinguish different areas of the nervous system. Specific areas can be associated with neural progenitors that give rise to specific types of neural cells including GABAergic or dopaminergic neurons. These markers have been used to map the midbrain of the developing mouse, however the midbrain of the chick embryo has not been mapped in detail.. In order to identify markers associated with dopamine neurogenesis in their endogenous locations, we used in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence techniques. We identified the normal expression pattern of Nurr1, Nkx6.1, and Nato3 in chick midbrain after 5 days of development. We then compared expression of these markers after 6 and 7 days in order to identify changes in their expression at different developmental time points. These data suggest that many markers for dopamine neurogenesis are consistent between the chick and mouse embryos. Using overexpression studies of neurogenic genes we were able to ...
Chinta SJ, Kumar MJ, Hsu M, Rajagopalan S, Kaur D, Rane A, Nicholls DG, Choi J, Andersen JK. Inducible alterations of glutathione levels in adult dopaminergic midbrain neurons result in nigrostriatal degeneration ...
RET encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for spermatogenesis, development of the sensory, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems and the kidneys, as well as for maintenance of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. RE
The midbrain is a small region of the brain that relays information for the visual, auditory, and motor systems. In the midbrain...
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified as a potent neurotrophic factor that enhances survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. GDNF is a glycosylated, disulfide-bonded homodimer and is a distantly related member of the TGFβ superfamily of growth regulatory ligands. GDNF contains the seven conserved cysteine residues in the same relative spacing characteristic of all members of the TGFβ superfamily. In embryonic midbrain cultures, GDNF promotes the survival and morphological differentiation of dopaminergic neurons and increases their high-affinity dopamine uptake. On the basis of these findings, it has been suggested that GDNF may have utility in the treatment of Parkinsons disease, which is marked by progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.. ...
How is tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive abbreviated? THI stands for tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive. THI is defined as tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive rarely.
The effect of fluothane on evoked responses in the mesencephalic re t icu lar formation, on the EEG desynchronizat ion react ion during electr ical stimulation of the re t icular formation, and on t ranscal losa l responses was studied in acute experiments on cats. Fluothane caused marked inhibition of evoked responses in the re t icu la r formation. Although the EEG desynchronization react ion was depressed, this effect was much less marked than that on the evoked responses . The amplitude of the t ranscal losa l responses was appreciably reduced with increasing depth of anesthesia.
Dopaminergic neuroblasts, sequestered from ventral midbrain fetal tissue, have been presented to structurally and functionally integrate, and improve Pa..
article{da2a79d8-c24f-41f2-9532-9e6ccf2c6f1e, abstract = {Death of transplanted dopaminergic neurons is induced both during preparation of donor tissue and after intrastriatal grafting. Oxidative stress is thought to be partly responsible for this cell death. In the present study we compared the effects of three lipid peroxidation inhibitors, the lazaroids Tirilazad mesylate, U-83836E and U-101033, on survival of embryonic mesencephalic neurons in different paradigms. The lazaroids were equally potent in preventing serum deprivation-induced death of cultured dopaminergic neurons. In a second set of experiments, mesencephalic suspensions were pretreated with lazaroids and cell survival was analyzed immediately after dissociation, after 2 or 24 h in culture or after intrastriatal transplantation. Lazaroid pretreatment failed to protect mesencephalic neurons in the in vitro paradigms and U-101033E did not protect grafted dopaminergic neurons in contrast to the neuroprotective effects previously ...
Ang mesencephalon o gitnangutak(Ingles: midbrain) ang bahagi ng sentral na sistemang nerbiyos na nauugnay sa bisyon(paningin), pandinig, kontrol na motor, pagtulog/paggising, pananabik(pagiging alert) at regulasyon ng temperatura. Sa anatomiya nito, ito ay binubuo ng tectum(o corpora quadrigemina), tegmentum, ventricular mesocoelia (or iter), at ang cerebral peduncles gayundin ng ilang mga nuclei at fasciculi. Sa caudal nito, ang mesencephalon ay kasunod ng pons(metencephalon) at sa rostral nito ay kasunod ng diencephalon(Thalamus, hypothalamus, etc.). Ang gitnangutak ay matatagpuan sa ilalim ng cerebral cortex at sa itaas ng likurangutak na naglalagay dito na malapit sa sentro(gitna) ng utak. ...
Parinauds syndrome, also known as dorsal midbrain syndrome, vertical gaze palsy, and Sunset Sign, is an inability to move the eyes up and down. It is caused by compression of the vertical gaze center at the rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF). The eyes lose the ability to move upward and down. It is a group of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction. It is caused by lesions of the upper brain stem and is named for Henri Parinaud (1844-1905), considered to be the father of French ophthalmology. Parinauds Syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction, characterized by: Paralysis of upgaze: Downward gaze is usually preserved. This vertical palsy is supranuclear, so dolls head maneuver should elevate the eyes, but eventually all upward gaze mechanisms fail. Pseudo-Argyll Robertson pupils: Accommodative paresis ensues, and pupils become mid-dilated and show light-near dissociation. Convergence-Retraction nystagmus: ...
Although a loss-of-function mutation has been identified in familial Parkinsons disease PARK7, the wild-type of DJ-1 is known to act as an oxidative stress sensor in neuronal cells. Recently, we identified UCP0045037 as a compound that bound to the reduced form of DJ-1 by in silico virtual screening. In this study, we determined the neuroprotective effects of UCP0045037 against focal cerebral ischemia-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by UCP0045037 in both rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and human normal SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, DJ-1-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells lost the protective activity of UCP0045037. These results suggest that UCP0045037 interacts with endogenous DJ-1 and produces a neuroprotective response.
Although a loss-of-function mutation has been identified in familial Parkinsons disease PARK7, the wild-type of DJ-1 is known to act as an oxidative stress sensor in neuronal cells. Recently, we identified UCP0045037 as a compound that bound to the reduced form of DJ-1 by in silico virtual screening. In this study, we determined the neuroprotective effects of UCP0045037 against focal cerebral ischemia-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by UCP0045037 in both rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and human normal SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, DJ-1-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells lost the protective activity of UCP0045037. These results suggest that UCP0045037 interacts with endogenous DJ-1 and produces a neuroprotective response.
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and a subsequent loss of dopamine (DA) within the striatum. Despite advances in the development of pharmacological therapies that are effective at alleviating the symptoms of PD, the search for therapeutic treatments that halt or slow the underlying nigral degeneration remains a particular challenge. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, has been shown to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro, suggesting that activin A may offer similar neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of PD. Using robust stereological methods, we found that intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA results in a significant loss of both TH positive and NeuN positive populations in the SNpc at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-lesioning in drug naive mice. Exogenous application of
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and a subsequent loss of dopamine (DA) within the striatum. Despite advances in the development of pharmacological therapies that are effective at alleviating the symptoms of PD, the search for therapeutic treatments that halt or slow the underlying nigral degeneration remains a particular challenge. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro, suggesting that activin A may offer similar neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of PD. Using robust stereological methods, we found that intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA results in a significant loss of both TH positive and NeuN positive populations in the SNpc at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-lesioning in drug naïve mice. Exogenous ...
A dopaminergic (DA) neuron model with a morphologicaly realistic dendritic architecture. The model captures several salient features of DA neurons under different pharmacological manipulations and exhibits depolarization block for sufficiently high current pulses applied to the soma ...
MJFF-funded research led to novel findings on the structure and function of new family of neurotrophic factors, the CDNF/MANF - family. We solved the crystal structure of CDNF and MANF and found that these proteins are structurally related, but they may have a different mechanism of action. Both have a saposin-like N-terminal domain that binds lipids, which most likely is responsible for their neuroprotective effect in rodent models of Parkinsons disease. The C-terminal domains of MANF and CDNF are responsible for their protective effects against cell stress, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum stress, associated with post-ischemic brain damage and neurodegeneration.. We discovered the intracellular receptor of CDNF and MANF, and characterized their mode of action in neurons. CDNF and MANF were neurorestorative in experimental Parkinsons disease in rats. The mechanism of action of the neurorestorative effect of CDNF is very different from that of GDNF. Another important difference is that the ...
UPDRS, most commonly used, is designed to assess the severity of parkinsons disease, making the quantitative measurement of the extent. Part III of UPDRS corresponds to motor evaluation and is the most reliable for detecting symptomatic progression.. UPDRS improvement ratio(%) = ((the value of UPDRS before surgery - the value of UPDRS after surgery) / (the value of UPDRS before surgery)) X 100 ...
UPDRS, most commonly used, is designed to assess the severity of parkinsons disease, making the quantitative measurement of the extent. Part III of UPDRS corresponds to motor evaluation and is the most reliable for detecting symptomatic progression.. UPDRS improvement ratio(%) = ((the value of UPDRS before surgery - the value of UPDRS after surgery) / (the value of UPDRS before surgery)) X 100 ...
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In the face of changing behavioral situations, plasticity of sensory systems can be a valuable mechanism to facilitate appropriate behavioral responses. In the auditory system, the neurotransmitter serotonin is an important messenger for context-dependent regulation because it is sensitive to both external events and internal state, and it modulates neural activity. In male mice, serotonin increases in the auditory midbrain region, the inferior colliculus (IC) in response to changes in behavioral context such as restriction stress and social contact. Female mice have not been measured in similar contexts, although the serotonergic system is sexually dimorphic in many ways. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sex, experience, and estrous state on fluctuation of serotonin in the IC across contexts, as well as potential relationships between behavior and serotonin. Contrary to our expectation, there were no sex differences in serotonergic increase in response to a restriction ...
Reward prediction error (RPE) signals are central to current models of reward-learning. Temporal difference (TD) learning models posit that these signals should be modulated by predictions, not only of magnitude but also timing of reward. Here we show that BOLD activity in the VTA conforms to such TD predictions: responses to unexpected rewards are modulated by a temporal hazard function and activity between a predictive stimulus and reward is depressed in proportion to predicted reward. By contrast, BOLD activity in ventral striatum (VS) does not reflect a TD RPE, but instead encodes a signal on the variable relevant for behavior, here timing but not magnitude of reward. The results have important implications for dopaminergic models of cortico-striatal learning and suggest a modification of the conventional view that VS BOLD necessarily reflects inputs from dopaminergic VTA neurons signaling an RPE.
Definition of trigeminal mesencephalic tract in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is trigeminal mesencephalic tract? Meaning of trigeminal mesencephalic tract as a finance term. What does trigeminal mesencephalic tract mean in finance?
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In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and ...
Rat embryonic mesencephalic cultures were employed to evaluate the consequences of adding GM1 ganglioside to cultures lesioned with the selective neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). MPP+ reduced dopamine and DOPAC content, dopamine uptake, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity, and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase- immunopositive neurons. The immunopositive neurons that remained were aberrant. All of these parameters were partially restored by adding GM1 ganglioside to the cultures. The response to GM1 was not altered by prior treatment of the cultures with cytosine beta-D-arabinofuranoside to reduce the number of glial cells. Dopamine uptake activity restored by GM1 was lost if GM1 was removed from the culture.. ...
The results show that VMAT2 colocalizes with VGLUT1 at a large proportion of the boutons formed by hippocampal and midbrain dopamine neurons, consistent with recent work indicating a role for glutamate in vesicle filling with dopamine (Hnasko et al., 2010). However, in contrast to hippocampal neurons, where VMAT2 colocalizes with VGLUT1 at essentially all boutons, VMAT2 segregates from VGLUT1 in a substantial proportion (∼27%) of the boutons made by dopamine neurons. The frequency of VMAT2+/VGLUT1− boutons (∼20%) exceeds that of VMAT2−/VGLUT1+ (∼7%), suggesting that some of the former might represent somatodendritic sites. In that case, however, we might have expected a similar phenomenon in hippocampal neurons, which showed no segregation of the two transporters. Midbrain dopamine neurons may thus have the capacity for dopamine and glutamate release from distinct sites, in addition to corelease from the same vesicles. Indeed, this segregation is consistent with previous work in vivo ...
Ryan M Drenan, Sharon R Grady, Paul Whiteaker, Tristan McClure-Begley, Sheri McKinney, Julie M Miwa, Sujata Bupp, Nathaniel Heintz, J Michael McIntosh, Merouane Bencherif, Michael J Marks, Henry A Lester
The term midbrain refers to one ot three components of the brain as defined by surgical dissection. The other components are the forebrain and the hindbrain.The central of the three, its rostral boundary is with the forebrain: a nominally coronal plane located at the rostral margin of the superior colliculus dorsally and the caudal margin of the mammillary body ventrally. Its caudal boundary is with the hindbrain: a nominally coronal plane located at the caudal margin of the inferior colliculus dorsally and the rostral margin of the basal pons ventrally. The midbrain is composed of two parts: the tectum and the cerebral peduncle. Substructures of the midbrain are derived for the most part, but not entirely, from the embryonic Mesencephalon. ...
Video articles in JoVE about deoxyribonuclease i include Human Primary Trophoblast Cell Culture Model to Study the Protective Effects of Melatonin Against Hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced Disruption, Enrichment of Extracellular Matrix Proteins from Tissues and Digestion into Peptides for Mass Spectrometry Analysis, Three-dimensional Tissue Engineered Aligned Astrocyte Networks to Recapitulate Developmental Mechanisms and Facilitate Nervous System Regeneration, Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling, Reliable Identification of Living Dopaminergic Neurons in Midbrain Cultures Using RNA Sequencing and TH-promoter-driven eGFP Expression, Identification Of Erythromyeloid Progenitors And Their Progeny In The Mouse Embryo By Flow Cytometry, Maturation of Human Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes in Biowires Using Electrical Stimulation, Identification of Key Factors Regulating Self-renewal and
PD is a particularly promising target for cell-replacement therapy because selective degeneration of a well-characterized cell type - A9-type mDANs - is the major cause of motor dysfunction associated with the condition. Numerous researchers have extensively investigated cell therapy for PD using diverse cell sources, including fetal tissues, autologous adult stem cells, and allogeneic mDA cells (5-7, 54). We have focused instead on hiPSC-derived autologous cell replacement because of its unique advantages in mitigating ethical, practical, and medical issues. To help realize the potential of personalized autologous cell therapy for PD, we sought to address current technical and scientific barriers to the implementation of this therapeutic strategy.. Because personalized cell therapy would require generation of clinical-grade hiPSCs from each patient treated, it is critical to establish reprogramming technology allowing efficient and reliable generation of such lines. We found that a combination ...
Neurodevelopment is an elaborate and intricate process that encompasses the formation, growth, and maturation of the brain as well as its plasticity throughout life. This process begins with the neuronal stem cell where, following the formation of the neural tube, neuronal cells begin to specialize into different subsets of neurons (e.g. midbrain dopaminergic neurons). It continues during the patterning of the cortex, which relies on the presence of signaling centers that define boundaries and induce the cells around them to adopt specific fates. The axons of these cells must then navigate through the body to form connections with their target cells to form functional synapses. Modulation of the intracellular state and cytoskeletal dynamics of axonal growth cones via contact-mediated and secreted chemotrophic factors is essential for accurate neural connectivity. Many common morphogens play important roles in the aforementioned processes leading to the formation of proper neural architecture. ...
There are three parts to the brain stem: top, middle and lower. The mesencephalon is the top part of the brain stem. A high output of the mesencephalon will cause an increased pulse and heart rate, the inability to sleep, or a waking, fitful sleep. Other symptoms might include urinary tract infections, increased warmth and sweating, and sensitivity to light. Along with a high mesencephalic output, the migraine patient may present with a decreased output of the cerebellum. The cerebellum controls balance, coordinated movement, and the involuntary muscles of the spinal column ...
Doucet-Beaupré H, Gilbert C, Profes MS, Chabrat A, Pacelli C, Giguère N, et al. Lmx1a and Lmx1b regulate mitochondrial functions and survival of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016;113(30):E4387-96. ...
Functions as a transcriptional repressor. May repress OTX2-mediated transactivation by forming a heterodimer with OTX2 on the P3C (5-TAATCCGATTA-3) sequence. Required for brain development, neonatal survival, postnatal growth, and nursing ability.
Also known as the mesencephalon, the midbrain is a portion of the nervous system largely responsible for vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, alertness, and temperature regulation. It is located just below the cerebrum and above the hindbrain, connecting the two portions. As the central production center of dopamine, it plays a major role in human functions. It is also found to some degree in even the most rudimentary and ancient vertebrates. It is considered the uppermost section of the brain stem. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Giovanni Hernandez, Ali Khodami-Pour, Daniel Lévesque, Pierre-Paul Rompré].
Astrocytes to Dopamine Neurons in One Step June 25, 2020 Parkinsons is a neurodegenerative condition, resulting in the loss of specific types of nerve cells from the brain. The motor symptoms of Parkinsons are associated with a reduction in the number of these nerve cells (or neurons) that produce the chemical dopamine in the mid-brain. For a long time, researchers have been experimenting with different methods to replace these lost… ...
The midbrain is a complex structure where different functions are located. This formation is mainly involved in the visual and auditory information process (tectum) and visual movements and motor coordination (tegmentum). Here we display a complete description of midbrain anatomy based on the prosomeric model and of the developmental events that take place to generate this structure. We also summarize the new data about the differentiation and specification of the basal populations of the midbrain. The neural tube suffers the influence of several secondary organizers ...