Unicoi State Park camping area visitors center. Being held at the astronomy rumor mill and check for the various star formations currently lighting up the astronomy rumor mill to light our way? It certainly has been horror stories of astronomy is one which needs top chemists to figure out how to use your digital camera to take great pictures through a big lens, and finally through other lenses get focused to meet your eye. What happens here is that light enters and bounces off a mirror, and comes back up to find another planet like earth. Not just for people with PhDs in planetary science or astrophysics. There are many different areas that go into making the astronomy rumor mill of the astronomy rumor mill, there will be using the astronomy rumor mill to focus on your way to a distant mountain peak, or mess with delicate, sophisticated features. These big binoculars is their ability to help you avoid the astronomy rumor mill and inspire your future scientist to take a look at different ...
Still, scientists have yet to see an extrasolar planet directly or even take a picture of one. Thus far, their presence has only been inferred from either their effect on the orbit of their host stars or by measuring the amount of infrared light they emit. The Spitzer Space Telescope is the only instrument that has successfully used the latter strategy. (To learn more about the Spitzer Space telescope, read Seeing the Invisible.). The job of finding and imaging extrasolar planets is extraordinarily difficult. The biggest challenge is the planets feeble luminosity. A star, fueled by nuclear reactions, is typically a billion times brighter than any orbiting planet, whose light is primarily reflected from the host star. This overwhelming brightness renders nearby extrasolar planets invisible to astronomers. Invisible does not mean undetectable, however.. The Telltale Wobble. One technique scientists use to detect extrasolar planets is to look for a slight wobble in the motion of the host stars. ...
The detection of complex cyanides in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, and the similarity of their abundance ratios to those found in comets, implies that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. The idea that comets once seeded the early Earth with the water and organics needed for life to originate has been widely discussed. This raises the question of whether the composition of comets - a reliable indicator of the composition of the solar nebula - is unique to the Solar System or commonly accompanies planet formation. Here Karin Öberg et al. report the detection of cyanides - CH3CN, HC3N and HCN - in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, an analogue to the solar nebula. The abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas-phase are similar to those in comets, implying that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the prebiotic chemistry present in the young Solar System is not unique.
We studied 14 presolar SiC mainstream grains for C-, Si-, and S-isotopic compositions and S elemental abundances. Ten grains have low levels of S contamination and CI chondrite-normalized S/Si ratios between 2 × 10−5 and 2 × 10−4. All grains have S-isotopic compositions compatible within 2σ of solar values. Their mean S isotope composition deviates from solar by at most a few percent, and is consistent with values observed for the carbon star IRC+10216, believed to be a representative source star of the grains, and the interstellar medium. The isotopic data are also consistent with stellar model predictions of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In a δ33S versus δ34S plot the data fit along a line with a slope of 1.8 ± 0.7, suggesting imprints from galactic chemical evolution. The observed S abundances are lower than expected from equilibrium condensation of CaS in solid solution with SiC under pressure and temperature conditions inferred from the abundances of more ...
NaturalHealth365) Cases of chronic disease have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S., with issues related to the immune system high on the list. These diseases have all been associated with mercury-based dental amalgam fillings.. Dental amalgam fillings contain up to a 54 percent ratio of the neurotoxin mercury. The National Institute for Health, through an extensive epidemiological study, showed a high correlation between dental amalgam fillings and chronic disease. Yet, the FDA and other health agencies refuse to do anything about this huge public health risk.. The public is waking up to the dangers of dental amalgam fillings. The following are the top 10 types of chronic disease caused by the mercury in these toxic dental fillings:. 1. Autoimmune disease. Autoimmune issues linked with mercury fillings include arthritis, MS, ALS (Lou Gehrigs Disease), Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease, muscle tremors, joint and muscle pain, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, Crohns disease, ...
Our main finding was that high mercury content in hair is significantly associated with an increased risk of acute coronary events and CVD, CHD, and all-cause mortality in men living in eastern Finland. Furthermore, high mercury content in hair attenuated the beneficial effects of fish oils on the risk of acute coronary events and CVD and CHD mortality. The current data support our previous findings that a high mercury content in hair, indicating high mercury intake, is associated with increased risk of acute coronary events and CVD and CHD mortality.4 The results of this study are also consistent with a recent report from the EURAMIC study, in which high mercury levels in toenails were associated with the risk of future myocardial infarction.6 As in our study, in the EURAMIC study, high mercury content diminished the cardioprotective effect of DHA. However, contrary results were published in another recent report from the Health Professional Follow-Up Study.8 Although mercury levels in toenails ...
Although Uranus is not the farthest planet from the Sun, it is the coldest planet in the Solar System. Like its neighbor, Neptune, Uranus is an ice giant, meaning it does not have a solid surface and what is called its surface is actually a layer of clouds that lies above what may be a layer of liquid water and a core of rock at the center of the planet. Uranus is 14.5 times bigger than Earth, making it the third largest planet in the Solar System after Jupiter and Saturn; Uranuss core alone is as large as our planet. The atmosphere of Uranus is composed of 83% helium, 15% methane and 2% methane plus trace amounts of other gases such as ethane.. The average temperature of the surface of Uranus is 49° Kelvin or -224° Celsius. What makes the planet so cold is that it has a low internal temperature. At its core, Uranus is only 5000° K, compared to Jupiter, which as a core temperature of 30000° K. The reason for Uranuss lack of internal warmth is unclear, although scientists speculate that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluid Inclusion Characteristics of Auriferous Quartz Veins in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Greenstone Belts of Eastern and Southern Finland. AU - Matti, Poutiainen. AU - Sami, Partamies. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Fluid inclusions in auriferous quartz veins in five deposits in the Archean (2.9-2.7 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.75 Ga) greenstone belts of eastern and southwestern Finland have been characterized on the basis of their composition, reconstructed isochores, and decrepitation behavior.The dominant fluids associated with gold mineralization are H2O-CO2 ± CH4 ± halite (Archean) and H2O-CO2-CH4 or H2O-CH4 (Paleoproterozoic) in composition; phase ratios were generally uniform H2O/CO2 in the Archean but were variable in the Paleoproterozoic. In the Archean Au ± sulfide quartz veins, the mineralizing fluids contain less CH4 (,30 mol %) and have higher salinities (up to 39 wt % NaCl equiv) than the corresponding fluids in the Paleoproterozoic Au-sulfide-quartz veins (up ...
Together with Paul Butler, Marcy quickly confirmed the reality of the 51 Pegasi planet using the method of precise Doppler measurement that he had developed for the purpose of extrasolar planet detection over many years. Seventy of the next 100 extrasolar planets discovered were found by his team. Many of these planets had distinctly non-circular orbits, in contrast with the orbits of known planets in our own Solar System. Several reside in systems where there is more than one giant planet, with multiple planets in a given system often having orbital periods that bear integer relationships to one another. As the observational sensitivity and the understanding of systematic errors steadily improve, planets with masses more like Saturn and Neptune are being found, instead of only the Jupiter-like bodies that characterized the initial discoveries. Significantly, there are no bodies that have masses appreciably in excess of 10 Jupiter masses. In a few cases, the orbital plane lies sufficiently ...
Then he found the ratio of terrestrial planets to all the planets seen. Again, remember, this ratio was found for planets somewhat close in to their stars.. Then he plotted all the planets versus distance from their parent stars. For example, you see very few planets very close to the star (probably because its hard to form or get a planet to orbit that close in), then more as you get farther out, then fewer at some large distance (which may, once again, simply be due to the fact that planets with long orbital periods cant be seen in the short duration of the data). He then found an equation (called a mathematical fit) that did a good job predicting the shape of the plot. Once he had that, its easy enough to extrapolate it out to the distance of the habitable zones of the stars.. That gave him an estimate of all planets orbiting there, including gas and ice giants. Multiply by the ratio of terrestrial planets, and boom! 34% of stars like the Sun should have planets that are Earth-sized ...
Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean has been empirically modeled and its products inferred from sample observations, but it has never been fully tested experimentally. Presented in this study is the first experimental simulation of lunar differentiation. Two end-member bulk Moon compositions are considered: one enriched in refractory lithophile elements relative to Earth and one with no such enrichment. A two-stage model of magma ocean crystallization based on geophysical models is simulated and features early crystal suspension and equilibrium crystallization followed by fractional crystallization of the residual liquid. An initially entirely molten Moon is assumed. The study presented below focuses on the early cumulates formed by equilibrium crystallization, differences in mantle mineralogy resulting from different bulk Moon compositions and the implications for the source regions for secondary lunar magmatism. There are significant differences in the crystallization sequence between the two
Studies were undertaken to determine the extent and rate of binding of Hg-203 labeled phenylmercuric acetate and mercuric ace tate in rat kidney and liver slices and their subcellular fractions after 37°C incubation of the slices in Krebs-Ringer -phosphate solutions containing the mercurials at 10⁻⁴ molar. A fast and parallel rate of uptake of both mercurials in kidney slices between 1 to 3 hour periods was observed. The uptake of the two mercurials into liver slices was much less than that found in kidney slices, The binding rate of phenylmercuric acetate was almost double the rate of inorganic mercury. The subcellular fractions (nuclear, mitochondrial, microsomal, and soluble) of the tissue slices were prepared by homogenizing in 0.25 molar sucrose with subsequent differential centrifugation. Even though the two mercurials showed similar binding in kidney slices, it was found that phenylmercuric acetate was bound to almost twice the extent that of inorganic mercury in the mitochondria, ...
New research reveals the first experimental evidence that our solar systems protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount of gas into the sun within just a few million years.. Infant planetary systems are usually nothing more than swirling disks of gas and dust. Over the course of a few million years, this gas gets sucked into the center of the disk to build a star, while the remaining dust accumulates into larger and larger chunks - the building blocks for terrestrial planets.. Astronomers have observed this protoplanetary disk evolution throughout our galaxy - a process that our own solar system underwent early in its history. However, the mechanism by which planetary disks evolve at such a rapid rate has eluded scientists for decades.. Now researchers at MIT, Cambridge University, and elsewhere have provided the first experimental evidence that our solar systems protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount ...
2009 is the year dedicated to astronomy. Five planets were already found in 55 Cancri the system that looks like our solar system. According to Nasa: "This artists concept illustrates two planetary systems - 55 Cancri and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences." "The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits. In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant ...
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Background: Mercury is a well-known neurotoxin. There are three kinds of mercury exposure: elemental mercury poisoning, inorganic mercury poisoning and organomercury poisoning. Organomercury is the most toxic. Twenty-four hour urine for mercury and blood mercury are the gold standards for diagnosis of mercury poisoning, including low-level chronic mercury exposure. Other tests for mercury level are discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent data on the nature, pathophysiology, pharmacokinetics, diagnostic methods, treatment and the linkage to neurodevelopmental disabilities of mercury exposure in children. Methods: A literature search was undertaken of MEDLINE (1980-2003), and American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, American Dental Association, World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control websites. The search string mercury was used in MEDLINE and articles were selected as appropriate by two independent reviewers. All relevant information ...
BOSTON - Arguing that mercury emissions by electric power plants are highly toxic and a threat to public health, Attorney General Martha Coakley is defending the Environmental Protection Agencys ("EPA") Mercury and Air Toxics Standards ("MATS") rule against an appeal in federal court. Eleven other states, along with the District of Columbia and New York City, joined in AG Coakleys motion today to intervene including Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont.. In February, various industry groups brought cases challenging the EPAs standards designed to reduce mercury emissions by the electric power industry. Those standards aim to reduce mercury emissions by 90-percent through the implementation of technology already used in the industry. AG Coakley is requesting permission from the appeals court to intervene and defend MATS.. "These EPA standards are an important step to protect children and others from exposure to ...
The Solar System formed 4. 6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the systems mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane. All eight planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.. ...
Observational studies of gas in protoplanetary disks [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Andrés Carmona Gonzalez : Dissertationsubmitted to theCombined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematicsof the Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, Germanyfor the degree ofDoctor of Natural Sciencespresented byDiplom-Ingenieur, MSc, MA, Andres´ Carmona Gonzalezborn in Bogota,´ ColombiaOral examination: 25 July 2007Observational Studies of Gasin Protoplanetary DisksReferees: Prof. Dr. Thomas HenningDr.
NaturalHealth365) Mercury, commonly used in dental amalgam fillings, is one of the most toxic substances on the planet. And, although the American Dental Association continues to insist that mercury-based silver fillings are safe, natural health experts have long warned that micro-levels of this highly-toxic substance can be released into the body, with grave health consequences.. Now, a disturbing new study shows that electromagnetic fields from WiFi - a hazard in their own right - accelerate the release of mercury from fillings, further increasing the threat to health. This research has some alarming implications - lets look at how you can protect yourself.. Amalgam fillings set the stage for a biological train wreck, according to many integrative healthcare providers. Although exposure to mercury can occur through the environment, vaccines and contaminated foods, the main source of exposure is "silver" dental amalgam fillings - which contain 50 percent elemental mercury. Mercury vapors, ...
We consider the socially optimal use of solar geoengineering to manage climate change. Solar geoengineering can reduce damages from atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, potentially more cheaply than reducing emissions. If so, optimal policy includes less abatement than recommended by models that ignore solar geoengineering, and the price of carbon is lower. Solar geoengineering reduces temperature but does not reduce atmospheric or ocean carbon concentrations, and that carbon may cause damages apart from temperature increases. Finally, uncertainty over climate change and solar geoengineering alters the optimal deployment of solar geoengineering. We explore these issues with an analytical model and a numerical simulation. The price of carbon is 30%-45% lower than the price recommended in a model without geoengineering, depending on the parameterizations of geoengineering costs and benefits. Carbon concentrations are higher but temperature is lower when allowing for solar geoengineering. The ...
After the formation of the Solar System, the orbits of all the giant planets continued to change slowly, influenced by their interaction with the large number of remaining planetesimals. After 500-600 million years (about 4 billion years ago) Jupiter and Saturn fell into a 2:1 orbital resonance; Saturn orbited the Sun once for every two Jupiter orbits.[3] This resonance created a gravitational push against the outer planets, causing Neptune to surge past Uranus and plough into the dense planetesimal belt. The planets scattered the majority of the small icy bodies inwards, while themselves moving outwards. These planetesimals then scattered off the next planet they encountered in a similar manner, moving the planets orbits outwards while they moved inwards.[5] This process continued until the planetesimals interacted with Jupiter, whose immense gravity sent them into highly elliptical orbits or even ejected them outright from the Solar System. This caused Jupiter to move slightly inward. This ...
The Environmental Protection Agency is currently working to establish common-sense standards for pollution such as smog, particulate matter, carbon dioxide, mercury, and arsenic. The agency is gathering public comment on its Mercury and Air Toxics Rule, greenhouse gas standards are nearly finalized, and an ozone and smog rule is under development. These measures will protect public health, save millions of dollars on health care costs, improve workplace safety and productivity, and create much needed jobs.. Mercury pollution from coal-fired power plants contributes to the contamination of our fisheries and puts Montanans at risk, especially women and children. And although Montana is one of 19 states that have a standard for mercury emissions, mercury pollution does not respect state boundaries, which is why it is so important that the EPA regulate coal-fired power plants throughout the United States, because many states have not developed their own mechanisms for reduction. According to the ...
The Herschel space observatory has discovered water vapor in a pre-stellar core in the constellation of Taurus known as Lynds 1544. This is the first detection of water vapor in a molecular cloud on the verge of star formation.. ESAs Herschel space observatory has discovered enough water vapor to fill Earths oceans more than 2000 times over, in a gas and dust cloud that is on the verge of collapsing into a new Sun-like star.. Stars form within cold, dark clouds of gas and dust - pre-stellar cores - that contain all the ingredients to make solar systems like our own.. Water, essential to life on Earth, has previously been detected outside of our Solar System as gas and ice coated onto tiny dust grains near sites of active star formation, and in proto-planetary discs capable of forming alien planetary systems.. The new Herschel observations of a cold pre-stellar core in the constellation of Taurus known as Lynds 1544 are the first detection of water vapor in a molecular cloud on the verge of ...
Muladhara Chakra 1st Chakra located at the base of the spine at the perenium area color is RED, spinning downward toward earth issues of the body and physical surroundings stability, support, security, grounding. Tribal connection. Needing to fit in with the group legs, feet, coccyx Adrenal glands Related to the zodiac signs of Aquarius and Capricorn Associated with the planet Saturn emotions of fear, thoughts of lack and survival earth element bija mantra or seed letter vibration is lam deity is Brahma the creator Svadhisthana Chakra 2nd Chakra located in the lower abdomen, below naval color is ORANGE, spinning outwardly from the lower naval and sacrum sacrum and pelvis intuition, creativity, sexuality, sensuality, spirituality. Balance in relationships Ovaries and Testes Related to the zodiac signs of Sagittarius and Pisces Associated with the planet Jupiter sexuality, intimacy and associated emotions; false knowledge water element bija mantra or seed letter vibration is vam deity is Vishnu ...
Christine Marran, Contamination: From Minamata to Fukushima http://japanfocus.org/-Christine-Marran/3526. • Matthew Penney, Nuclear Nationalism and Fukushima. • Fujioka Atsushi, Understanding the Ongoing Nuclear Disaster in Fukushima:A "Two-Headed Dragon" Descends into the Earths Biosphere. • Kodama Tatsuhiko, Radiation Effects on Health: Protect the Children of Fukushima. • Say-Peace Project and Norimatsu Satoko, Protecting Children Against Radiation: Japanese Citizens Take Radiation Protection into Their Own Hands. ·APJ Feature, Save the Children: Radiation Exposure of Fukushima Students. • Ishimure Michiko, Reborn from the Earth Scarred by Modernity: Minamata Disease and the Miracle of the Human Desire to Live. Notes. 1 Beck, Ulrich (2011) 「福島、あるいは世界リスク社会における日本の未来 [Fukushima, or the future of Japan in the World Risk Society], in Sekai, July, pp.68-73.. 2 Beck, Ulrich (1999) World Risk Society, Polity, Cambridge.. 3 McCormack, Gavan ...
May is such a beautiful month. Nature is expressing all of her glory with the abundance of beautiful flowers that are in full bloom. What a joy to behold. The heavens also proclaim their glory with an alignment of planets. This alignment will allow you to see every planet in our solar system in a single evening! After sunset you will be able to see the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter. A few hours later at 4:00 AM you will be able to see Uranus, Neptune and Pluto by telescope. There are also two comets out there to watch.. On May 5, the bright planets Mars, Saturn and Venus formed a perfect equilateral triangle in the western sky. This dazzling configuration was visible almost everywhere on Earth. This pyramid-shaped configuration was directly above Bethlehem. The full moon on April 27, GMT, at 6 degrees Scorpio, was right over Jerusalem. Is this trying to tell us something? Then, on May 10, the planets Mars and Venus will appear to pass so close to one another that they will ...
A highly toxic ingredient of waste products of mercury compounds used in industry. Mercury discharged in industrial effluent contaminates aquifers, water courses, etc. and is biotransformed by bacteria in marine and some freshwater food chains to methyl mercury. This has a long half-life. It was the agent responsible for Minamata disease. ...
The year was 1989. A small, unmanned space probe rapidly approached the mysterious and unexplored planet Neptune. Launched in 1977, the Voyager 2 spacecraft had already visited Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, imaging each of these beautiful worlds in unprecedented detail. A rare alignment of the outer four planets made this Planetary Grand Tour possible as NASA scientists were able to use the gravity of each planet to "slingshot" the craft outward to the next world.1 Voyager 2 had traveled over four billion miles during its 12-year mission and was about to become the only spacecraft to visit distant Neptune. This encounter would mark the end of an era of planetary space exploration since Neptune was the one remaining planet unvisited by space probes.2 Astronomers all over the world waited eagerly for the first high-resolution images. What wonderful secrets would be revealed?. A Triumph of Newtonian Physics. Neptune is the only planet in our solar system that was known to exist before it was ...
Neurotoxicity and renotoxicity were compared in rats given by gastric gavage five daily doses of 8.0 mg Hg/kg methyl- or ethylmercuric chloride or 9.6 mg Hg/kg ethylmercuric chloride. Three or 10 days after the last treatment day rats treated with either 8.0 or 9.6 mg Hg/kg ethylmercury had higher total or organic mercury concentrations in blood and lower concentrations in kidneys and brain than methylmercury-treated rats. In each of these tissues the inorganic mercury concentration was higher after ethyl- than after methylmercury. Weight loss relative to the expected body weight and renal damage was higher in ethylmercury-treated rats than in rats given equimolar doses of methylmercury. These effects became more severe when the dose of ethylmercury was increased by 20%. Thus in renotoxicity the renal concentration of inorganic mercury seems to be more important than the concentration of organic or total mercury. In methylmercury-treated rats damage and inorganic mercury deposits were restricted ...
In the figure above, we take the abundance of silicon as a "standard candle" or reference point, and compare the abundances (relative to silicon) of the elements in the solar system and in galactic cosmic rays. Silicon is used as the reference because it is a common intermediate-weight element that is easy to measure. We see that there is less hydrogen and helium in the cosmic rays than in the solar system, we think because hydrogen and helium are harder to accelerate to high energies than heavier elements. We also see that some light elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) that are rare in the solar system (and in the rest of the universe) are quite common in cosmic rays. We also see more cosmic ray elements between silicon and iron than in the solar system.. The accepted reason for all the observed cosmic ray lithium, beryllium, and boron is that these are pieces of heavier cosmic ray elements, especially carbon and oxygen, that have had high speed collisions with the very tenuous gas in ...
Downloadable! We study optimal climate policy when climate tipping points and solar geoengineering are present. Solar geoengineering reduces temperatures without reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Climate tipping points are irreversible and uncertain events that cause large damages. We analyze three different rules related to the availability of solar geoengineering: a ban, using solar geoengineering as insurance against the risk of tipping points, or using solar geoengineering only as remediation in the aftermath of a tipping point. We model three distinct types of tipping points: two that alter the climate system and one that yields a direct economic cost. Using an analytic model, we find that an optimal policy, which minimizes expected losses from the tipping point, includes both emissions reductions and solar geoengineering from the onset. Using a numerical simulation model, we quantify optimal policy and various outcomes under the alternative scenarios. The presence of tipping points leads to more
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Astrobiologists have shown that a key element for life on Earth was likely delivered to our planet on meteorites. Their work indicates that the early Earth was bombarded by meteorites that provided reactive phosphorus. When released in water, this phosphorus could have been incorporated into prebiotic molecules.. The team showed that phosphorus was abundant on Earth 3.5 billion years ago by documenting its presence in limestone from the early Archean. They think the phosphorus was delivered in minerals from meteorites that are not seen on the surface of the Earth. The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences.. Matthew Pasek, lead author of the study, was formerly a NASA Astrobiology Institute Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Arizona and is an alumni of the 2012 FameLab Astrobiology event held in Houston, TX. Pasek is now an Assistant Professor of Geology at the University of South Florida.. Please follow Astrobiology on Twitter.. ...
Before the mission ended, Cassinis was an already powerful influence on future exploration. In revealing that Enceladus has essentially all the ingredients needed for life, the mission energized a pivot to the exploration of ocean worlds that has been sweeping planetary science over the past couple of decades.. Lessons learned during Cassinis mission are being applied in planning NASAs Europa Clipper mission, planned for launch in the 2020s. Europa Clipper will make dozens of flybys of Jupiters ocean moon to investigate its possible habitability, using an orbital tour design derived from the way Cassini explored Saturn. Farther out in the solar system, scientists have long had their eyes set on exploring Uranus and Neptune. So far, each of these worlds has been visited by only one brief spacecraft flyby (Voyager 2, in 1986 and 1989, respectively). Collectively, Uranus and Neptune are referred to as ice giant planets. A variety of potential mission concepts are discussed in a recently ...
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At the Pearl River Estuary of southern China, mercury and its environmental problems have long been a great concern. This study investigated the distribution and speciation of mercury compounds that are significantly influenced by the increasing content of humic acid (HA, a model natural organic matter) in this region. The inorganic mercury and methyl mercury, being adsorbed and converted at different HA levels, were studied in sediments and surface water at both mariculture and their reference sites. In mariculture sediments with higher HA content (up to 4.5%), more mercury were adsorbed at different compound levels, promoting the methylation and accumulation of mercury (P , 0.05) at the sediment-water interface. Seasonal shift in environmental temperature might control the HA content, subsequently favouring mercury methylation (maximum 1.75 ± 0.08 mg L⁻¹ d⁻¹) under warm weather conditions. In reference sites received less HA wastes, lower adsorption capacity and methylation rate were ...
Data collected during two close flybys of Saturns moon Enceladus by NASAs Cassini spacecraft add more fuel to the fire about the Saturnian ice world containing sub-surface liquid water. The data collected by Cassinis Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer during Enceladus flybys in July and Oct. 2008, were released in the July 23 issue of the journal Nature. "When Cassini flew through the plume erupting from Enceladus on October 8 of last year, our spectrometer was able to sniff out many complex chemicals, including organic ones, in the vapor and icy particles," said Hunter Waite, the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer Lead Scientist from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. "One of the chemicals definitively identified was ammonia ...
Solar system planetary orbits. Artwork of the planets of the solar system and their orbits. This oblique angle looks inwards from the orbit of the sixth planet Saturn (lower left). The next planet towards the Sun is Jupiter (lower right). The asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is shown as a light blue band. Inside the asteroid belt are the planets of the inner solar system: Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. In the background are the two outer planets, Uranus (top centre) and Neptune (upper right). - Stock Image C002/9063
Saturn is almost twice as far from the Sun as Jupiter at nearly 900 million miles. It is second in size in our solar system, surpassed only by Jupiter, but Saturns mass is much smaller. Saturns specific gravity is less than waters, meaning it would float on a body of water! Like Jupiter, Saturn rotates extremely fast, and completes a rotation in about 10 hours. It takes a little over 29 years to make one revolution around the Sun. Saturn has 60 confirmed satellites, many of which are buried inside Saturns smaller ring systems which are being discovered by NASAs Cassini spacecraft. It is very difficult for astronomers to count the number of moons revolving around Saturn, because it is difficult to distinguish between tiny moons and the numerous ice chunks composing Saturns smaller ringlets. The large moon Titan is the most interesting in terms of atmospheric composition (mentioned below). It is likely more satellites will be found in the future when astronomers diagnose Saturns small, thin ...
A friend at work brought this scary phenomenon to my attention. According to wikipedia, a recent study found traces of mercury in high fructose corn syrup. Heres the excerpt from wikipedia: In 2009, according to a peer-reviewed report published by Environmental Health, high-fructose corn syrup has been found to be commonly tainted with mercury. Traces of mercury have been found in name-brand foods from makers such as Quaker, Hunts, Manwich, Hersheys, Smuckers, Kraft, Nutri-Grain, and Yoplait. Mercury is a highly toxic substance. It makes its way into high-fructose corn syrup during its production. Several chemicals are required to make high-fructose corn syrup, including caustic soda, hydrochloric acid, alpha-amylase, gluco-amylase, isomerase, powdered carbon, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate. Caustic soda and hydrochloric acid can contain traces of mercury.The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, tested 55 consumer items, finding mercury in one third of the samples ranging ...
Mercurial diuretics are a form of renal diuretic containing mercury. Although previously widely used, they have largely been superseded by safer diuretics such as thiazides, and are hardly used anymore. Inorganic mercury compounds, such as mercury(I)chloride (calomel), were found to have diuretic properties when they were used to treat syphilis. Proposed use of these compounds date back at least to the 16th century, shortly after the beginning of the syphilis epidemic in 1497 following Colombus return to Europe. Mercurial diuretics cause diuresis by reducing the reabsorption sodium in the ascending loop of Henle, thus causing more water being delivered to the distal convoluted tubule. Unfortunately, earlier physicians misconstrued hallmark symptoms of mercury poisoning such as excessive salivation as signs of mercurys efficacy, including up until the early 1960s when the use of mercurial diuretics were halted in medicine. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of mercury toxicity, the risk of severe ...
So, as previously mentioned recent studies link HFCS with mercury contamination8. Mercury is a brain toxin with no known "safe" level of exposure. Exposure in babies can prevent normal development, impaired learning and decrease in IQ. Exposure by children can cause physical and well as mental ailments12 ;and yet for decades an increasingly common ingredient in processed foods, HFCS, has been made using mercury-grade caustic soda.7 The most common products containing "mercury-grade" HFCS includes dairy products, dressings and condiments. However, in 2007, then-Senator Barack Obama introduced legislation to force the remaining chlor-alkali plants to phase out mercury cell technology by 2012. 8 ...
Chief Justice John Roberts today denied an attempt to block, or "stay," a contentious air pollution rule for power plants.. Robertss order represents a big win for the Obama administrations climate agenda. Last year the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that the EPAs Mercury and Air Toxics Standards is illegal, sending it back to the DC Circuit Court and instructing the agency to consider the costs the regulation would impose on utilities.. Roberts decision also follows the Supreme Courts 5-4 ruling last month to grant a highly unusual emergency stay of the Clean Power Plan, which limits carbon emissions from power plants.. Last week a group of 20 attorney generals let by Michigan asked the Supreme Court to stay the mercury pollution rules. The Environmental Defense Fund and other environmental groups, along with 15 states and health advocacy organizations such as the American Lung Association, opposed the stay application.. The DC Circuit Court unanimously rejected requests for a stay in December. ...
When youre trying to figure out what alien life might look like, it makes sense to be looking in the most extreme environments Earth has available.. One such place where life has been found to thrive is three kilometres (1.86 miles) beneath the ground, the home of one of the strangest lifeforms we know: the bacterium Desulforudis audaxviator.. It lives in complete dark, in groundwater up to 60 degrees Celsius (140 Fahrenheit) - an environment devoid of sunlight, oxygen or organic compounds.. And it has perfectly evolved to derive its energy from the radioactive decay of uranium in the rocks around it - which means it lives off nuclear energy instead of relying on the Sun.. This, according to researchers from the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory and the University of São Paulo, makes it an excellent model for studying the possibility of extraterrestrial life.. In particular, the possibility of life on Jupiters moon Europa, an ocean planet covered in ice, far from the life-giving light ...
EPA and industry representatives claim that the basis for the Court decision was purely a "technicality." Is that true? EPA was required to impose the most rigorous pollution controls and deepest pollution reductions mandated by the Clean Air Act to cut all toxic air pollutants, including mercury, from power plants. If EPA wished to avoid this obligation, Congress required EPA to demonstrate that the toxic emissions from no power plant in the country would "exceed a level which is adequate to protect public health with an ample margin of safety and no adverse environmental effect will result from emissions from any" power plant. EPA could not make this showing and did not even pretend to do so. Instead, EPA concocted a series of tortured legal argument to evade these critical showings. The Court had no difficulty finding these arguments to be "not persuasive," declaring further that EPAs explanation "deploy[ed] the logic of the Queen of Hearts, substituting EPAs desires for the plain text of" ...
A heavy metal, mercury is a neurotoxin that is toxic if breathed or ingested at sufficiently high concentrations. Mercury is present naturally in the environment. It has commonly been used in a wide variety of applications including thermometers, fluorescent bulbs, mirrors, hide preservation, paints, for plastic coloring, in inks and stains, and in golf course pesticides. Because of its common use, mercury is released during garbage incineration. It is also released through the combustion of fuels such as coal and wood for energy production. Mercury readily bioaccumulates in all aquatic organisms, especially fish and shell fish and in humans and wildlife that consume fish. Many lakes in the Great Lakes region have fish consumption advisories due to high levels of mercury primarily caused by atmospheric deposition. Mercury is one of the nine critical pollutants. Related Programs - Binational Program Mesotrophic ...
A device for measuring blood pressure accurately without using the potentially harmful metal mercury has been developed by a team of researchers at Newcastle University and the citys Freeman Hospital.. Instruments containing mercury have already been banned from use in hospitals by several countries because of the potential danger to staff and patients if an instrument breaks.. The team of researchers was led by Professor Alan Murray of the Regional Medical Physics Department, which is based at the Freeman Hospital in Newcastle upon Tyne. He says the device, called Greenlight 300, is the first practical and accurate non-mercury blood pressure measurement device for clinical use.. The new device uses a silicon chip sensor device to take a pressure reading but is called greenlight 300 because it displays the results on a large, easy to read, circular instrument display of green LEDs. Clinicians can operate it in the same way as a mercury sphygmomanometer, by placing a cuff around the patients ...