The estimates of vaccination coverage are measured from administrative data and from population based survey. While both card-based and recall data are collected through population survey, and the recall is when the card is missing, the preferred estimates remain of the card-based due to limited validity of parental recalls. As there is a concern of missing cards in poor settings, the evidence on validity of parental recalls is limited and varied across vaccine types, and therefore timely and needed. We validated the recalls against card-based data based on population survey in Tanzania. We used a cross-sectional survey of about 3000 households with women who delivered in the last 12 months prior to the interview in 2012 from three regions in Tanzania. Data on the vaccination status on four vaccine types were collected using two data sources, card and recall-based. We compared the level of agreement and identified the recall bias between the two data sources. We further computed the sensitivity and
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of varied physician affect on recall, anxiety, and perceptions in women at risk for breast cancer. T2 - an analogue study.. AU - Shapiro, D. E.. AU - Boggs, S. R.. AU - Melamed, B. G.. AU - Graham-Pole, J.. PY - 1992/5/11. Y1 - 1992/5/11. N2 - Evaluated the effect of varied physician affect on subject recall, anxiety, and perceptions in a simulated tense and ambiguous medical situation. Forty women at risk for breast cancer viewed videotapes of an oncologist presenting--with either worried or nonworried affect--mammogram results. Although the mammogram results and the oncologist were the same in both presentation, analyses indicated that, compared to the women receiving the results from a nonworried physician, the women receiving the results from a worried physician recalled significantly less information, perceived the clinical situation as significantly more severe, reported significantly higher levels of state anxiety, and had significantly higher pulse rates. These ...
Over the course of the next year we will be re-doing some of the games on this site. First up…Word List Recall.. Word List Recall is one of our working memory exercises that tests for verbal span. This type of memory is what allows us to remember what we hear or read long enough to use the information, either right then and there or by transferring it to long-term memory.. Play today and see how many you can recall!. Enjoy!. ...
Introduction. WILL PARTICIPANTS HAVE A BETTER RECALL OF WORDS WHEN THEY ARE PRESENTED IN AN ORGANISED LIST? ABSTRACT This experiment was carried out by three psychology students to investigate the role of organisation in memory and whether organisation of material helps memory recall. An opportunity sample of friends and relatives were asked to take part in the study. The sample comprised 34 participants aged between 16 and 60. There were two conditions and the participants were split equally between them. In Condition 1, participants studied a prepared organised list of words and in Condition 2 they studied a random list. Their memory was then tested by free recall. An independent design was used and the results analysed using the Mann-Whitney test. The results showed that organisation does play an important role in memory. Participants who studied the organised list of words recalled significantly more words then those who studied the random list. This supports the findings of other studies ...
An elderly woman who was left without food while in hospital has spoken about her ordeal in light of the 60th birthday of the NHS.
Tuberculosis is the worlds most deadly infectious disease, killing 1.4 million people in 2019 alone. In Mexico, Compañeros En Salud, as Partners In Health is known locally, provides medical care and social support for TB patients, offering them a path to recovery and wellness.
This week saw a recall on lawnmowers, recalls on tealight holders, recalls on pressure cookers, recalls on salmon bacon, and more.
different fixed effects with random-intercept a0 ,- lmer(Recall~1 + (1,Subject), REML=F,df) a1 ,- lmer(Recall~Task + (1,Subject), REML=F,df) a2 ,- lmer(Recall~Valence + (1,Subject), REML=F,df) a3 ,- lmer(Recall~Task+Valence + (1,Subject), REML=F,df) a4 ,- lmer(Recall~Task*Valence + (1,Subject), REML=F,df) # different fixed effects with random-intercept-random-slope b0 ,- lmer(Recall~1 + (1,Subject) + (0+Task,Subject) + (0+Valence,Subject), REML=F,df) b1 ,- lmer(Recall~Task + (1,Subject) + (0+Task,Subject) + (0+Valence,Subject), REML=F,df) b2 ,- lmer(Recall~Valence + (1,Subject) + (0+Task,Subject) + (0+Valence,Subject), REML=F,df) b3 ,- lmer(Recall~Task+Valence + (1,Subject) + (0+Task,Subject) + (0+Valence,Subject), REML=F,df) b4 ,- lmer(Recall~Task*Valence + (1,Subject) + (0+Task,Subject) + (0+Valence,Subject), REML=F,df) # different fixed effects with random-intercept-random-slope including variance-covariance matrix c0 ,- lmer(Recall~1 + (1 + Valence + Task,Subject), REML=F,df) c1 ,- ...
Recalls of products are occurring all over the world. Reacllr will bring you all possible listed recalls to the fore. Toy Recall, Infant Seat Recalls, Food Recalls, Medicine recalls, consumer product recalls, cosmetics recalls, vehicle recalls, boat recalls, Bus Recalls, Truck Recalls, Car Recals and any other recalls that affect our lives will be found and listed. Recallr Blog for Recalls Global. Sources include, FDA, USDA, CPSC, Health Canada, FSIS and Company news releases.. ...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The recollections of critically ill children following discharge from the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) have not previously been described. We have interviewed such children to establish the nature of their recollections.. METHODS Children aged 4 years and above were interviewed following discharge from the PICU at the Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, either in hospital or at home, using a semistructured interview. Their recollections were recorded and interpreted by content analysis.. RESULTS A total of 38 interviews were carried out; 44 specific recollections were reported, the majority being neutral (60%) or positive (25%). Only 15% of recollections were negative. Negative recollections related to aspects of medical care and environmental factors. No child treated with neuromuscular blocking agents remembered any period of therapeutic paralysis.. CONCLUSIONS Childrens recollections of PICU are mainly neutral or positive. Mechanically ventilated children sedated ...
Australias medicines regulator, the Therapeutic Goods Administration, is today recalling one additional batch of the anticoagulant (blood-t
An unintended outcome of selective media coverage, said Coman, is that it also shapes how people remember information that isnt presented. For example, a newscast that highlights only some disease symptoms may induce people to forget other symptoms they had learned previously but probably wont affect their ability to recall disease characteristics that arent symptoms.. Coman and co-author Jessica Berry decided to investigate this forgetting phenomenon in the context of meningococcal disease, a real disease that most people dont know much about.. The researchers conducted an online study with 460 adult participants in the U.S. The participants learned about specific symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic tools and aftereffects associated with meningococcal disease and then read a message about the disease. Some participants read a low-risk message that highlighted the low likelihood of contracting the disease in the U.S., with about one recorded case for every 100,000 individuals in a given ...
Special Report: Pharmas Biggest Flops. Report Special Report: Top 10 Medical Device Companies: 2010. Report | Sonova Holding AG announced plans to recall hearing-aid implants made by its U.S.
Days Post-Retrieval DPR Definition - Days post-retrieval is a common method used to count the number of days that pass after a womans eggs are retrieved....
I just get nasty, and there was no need for it here, so dont worry about anything, ok? I am also going to end up like her, so youll fight not to. Generated Sat, 14 Jul 2007 17:07:23 GMT by jyt. DARVOCET was that for a private room and my DARVOCET could sue on my Rheumatologist to give DARVOCET another thought, and the DARVOCET was active relevantly after 4 months. Im finally feeling like myself impatiently.. Sorry to hear you have all this crud but at least you found good folks to hang out with and learn more about it:-) Thats me, always trying to see the good with the bad:-) Im Carol J, full time working mother of 2 grown sons and one lovely granddaughter. Janet, I have been, I would recreate any ovral on this ship together. Generated Sat, 14 Jul 2007 17:01:04 GMT by servidor squid/2. DARVOCET had this illness for this same time milliliter.. ...
Parliament is up for reform, says MP and environmentalist Zac Goldsmith. He tells Alex Blackburne about his mission to bring back both the British electora
GM spokesman Jim Cain said changing the part number is standard procedure for a new factory run, as GM tries to bring in about 1.6 million vehicles globally that have faulty ignition switches. Reuters reported Wednesday that GM faced another potential risk -- this time in the spare parts
Background Injury is a major public health problem in many developing countries. Due to limitations of vital registry and health service data, surveys are an important tool to obtain information about injury in these countries. The value of such surveys can be limited by incomplete recall. The most appropriate recall period to use in surveys on...
Knoedler, Hellwig and Neath presented measurements of the recency-primacy shift in which memory for early list items improves and memory for later items becomes worse as the retention interval between study and test increases. The authors interpreted the data to support the Dimensional Distinctiveness model. I present an alternative interpretation of their data in terms of an interference model, Early Interference with Recall , at five seconds after the presentation of a particular list item and show that this interpretation can qualitatively better account for the experimental data. Two predictions further separate the two models: Dimensional Distinctiveness predicts no recency-primacy shift for two-item lists, in contrast to Early Interference With Recall. As the overall time scale is changed, the former model also predicts no difference in recency or primacy while the latter shows large changes. ...
In this study sequential bias in randomized response sequences is simulated by computer. The computer model assumes that response bias is composed of two components. The first is a repetition avoidance tendency, which is simulated by a memory search through the seven most recently produced responses, and the second is ... read more a repetition tendency for the two most recently produced responses. This repetition tendency is assumed to be related to the better availability of recently produced responses. Both processes together give a reasonable approximation of human subjects data. The results can be explained by the assumption that subjects try to control perseveration tendencies by using a comparison-based memory search mechanism. show less ...
If 4GB is installed, the recognized memory may be reduced to 3.5GB or less (depending on system configuration and memory allocation). A 64-bit Operating System is required to utilize more than 4GB of memory ...
If 4GB is installed, the recognized memory may be reduced to 3.5GB or less (depending on system configuration and memory allocation). Maximum configurations require a 64-bit operating system ...
This course provides descriptions of four strategies-provider prompts, patient recalls and reminders, stan​ding orders, and improved vaccine communications-that pediatric offices can use to optimize their adolescent immunization efforts and improve their adolescent immunization rates. Offices that implement more than one strategy can maximize the success of their efforts to immunize adolescents.​. ...
Given the increase in RT with the log of MSS, it could be proposed that Os perform a smaller set of sequential searches. Logarithmic RTs can be obtained, for example, by a process that eliminates some percentage (e.g., half) of items on each iteration. Does the display contain any of these 50 memory set items? If yes, the search can be terminated and the O can respond to the item; if not, check with 25 of the remaining memory items and continue until the item is found or you have exhausted all your items. The low revisitation rates in the eye-tracking data argue against this account. If an item was fixated, the chance that it would be refixated on that trial increased from 10% to 60% as MSS increased from one to 100 items. Although this is a significant increase, F(1.17, 15.23) = 13.54, p , 0.001, g-η2 = 0.19, items were not even fixated twice, on average, even at the highest MSS. The difference between this model of how hybrid search is accomplished and the data is particularly evident on ...
This backend provides in memory transactions for backends which support atomic modification of data, but not full commit/rollback support.. This backend works by buffering all operations in memory. Entries are kept alive allowing read operations go to the live entry even for objects that are out of scope.. This implementation provides repeatable read level isolation. Durability, concurrency and atomicity are still the responsibility of the backend.. ...
BREAKING NEWS: Leading Brand Issues Pet Medication RecallBY THE ANIMAL RESCUE SITE BREAKING NEWS: Truxton, Inc. has announced a voluntary recall of lots of veterinary anticonv
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has once again expanded their recall of the high blood pressure medication Valsartan due to concerns that it could contain a cancer-causing ingredient.
The studies in this review provide evidence for the use of active recall in increasing or achieving high reattendance/retesting rates for testing for HIV/STIs. Although the review suggests that home sampling and SMS are associated with higher rates of reattendance/retesting, evidence is limited by heterogeneity of interventions and control groups and the quality of studies. There were too few studies to assess the impact of other interventions. The results do not provide clear evidence to support any one active recall intervention over another.. It was not possible to determine the impact of active recall on detection of STI reinfection as only two RCTs compared infection rates between the intervention and control groups. Although both studies suggest no difference in infection rates between the control and intervention groups, they have a wide non-significant CI.. Our findings are in agreement with other systematic reviews of active recall to improve reattendance rates for healthcare ...
Looking for Carusos Memory Recall 60T Products & Discount Supplements Online in Australia? Shop now on Mr Vitamins or call 02 9411 1433.
On June 30 GM recalled some 7.6 million vehicles in the United States made between 1997 and 2014. GM said the recalled models were involved in seven crashes eight injuries and three fatalities.
Introduction. I. Introduction Aim of the Study The aim of the study is to investigate whether recall is more effective when categorical clustering is used. Literature Review Theories which link recall directly to the way in which the information is encoded are very well supported and accepted among cognitive theorists; however, there is a lack of research on specific tricks to encoding which may aid in recall efficiency (Roy, 1967). The theories on this are widely accepted but, in fact, are poorly supported due to their common sense value. There is a need for more research about the ways in which environment directly effects efficiency of recall. Considering all of the research done on the correlation between encoding methods and recall, it can be seen that recall is directly affected by the modality and physical characteristics of encoding (Squire, 1987). Mnemonic devices are techniques to improve retention and most involve some combination of vivid visual imagery, organization of information ...
In America, notes acclaimed novelist Francine Prose, we are obsessed with food and diet. And what is this obsession with food except a struggle between sin and virtue, overeating and self-control--a struggle with the fierce temptations of gluttony. In Gluttony, Francine Prose serves up a marvelous banquet of witty and engaging observations on this most delicious of deadly sins.
In America, notes acclaimed novelist Francine Prose, we are obsessed with food and diet. And what is this obsession with food except a struggle between sin and virtue, overeating and self-control--a struggle with the fierce temptations of gluttony. In Gluttony, Francine Prose serves up a marvelous banquet of witty and engaging observations on this most delicious of deadly sins.
Too often we attempt to teach using only techniques that develop reflexive or semantic memory. Failures of recall often lead to fear. When we are afraid, we downshift from higher level reasoning to our most basic automatic, ritualistic, and resistant processes. If you have ever had a student explode in anger or break down in tears because they could not master a particular lesson, you have seen the results of this downshifting. Learning is compromised by fear.. When we incorporate real-world context with its many associations and hands-on exercises, students use the power of episodic and procedural memories to improve recall. Successful retrieval leads to the pleasure of learning and confident, active students.. ...
Cohort study - a study that follows a large group of people over a long period of time, often 10 years or more. In cohort studies, dietary information is gathered before disease occurs, rather than relying on recall after disease develops.. ...
The Pet Beastro is devoted to providing safe, organic, nutritious, & USA made pet food, treats, and products that you never have to worry about being on recall
The Pet Beastro is devoted to providing safe, organic, nutritious, & USA made pet food, treats, and products that you never have to worry about being on recall
All the little details put into this animation as well as how fluid they are is simply stunning. Never mind how the colors flow pretty well it and give it a rhythm of sorts.. This is way cool! ...
The lemon-sized fossil skull of an infant ape nicknamed Alesi that inhabited a Kenyan forest about 13 million years ago is offering a peek at what the long-ago common ancestor of people and all modern apes may have looked like.
Within a dangerous stomach bacterium, Yale University researchers have discovered an ancient but functioning genetic remnant from a time before DNA existed, they report in the August 13 issue of the journal Science.What these cells are doing is using ancient RNA technology to control modern gene ex...
The experiment investigated the impact of distraction by irrelevant visual information on recollection, and its design included neither an explicit, nor implicit secondary task. Our approach used a cued-recall procedure to assess recollection of episodic information. The critical manipulation was to test LTM of visual information during conditions when visual stimulation was nil (participants eyes shut so that visual processing of external stimuli could not interfere with processes engaged during memory retrieval) and when visual environmental stimuli were presented concurrently with auditory recall cues (eyes open looking at pictures of complex scenes).. The experiment was separated into three sessions: encoding, test and posttest. Written instructions were read out loud to each participant by the experimenter before each session, and the participant then completed a brief practice run for each session with the experimenter.. During the encoding session, each of the 168 target images was ...
Classic Recollections, the Daily Heralds weekly feature on collector cars and their suburban owners, and writer Matthew Avery have earned a 2012 International Automotive Media Award. Avery, a professional photographer and freelance writer, has written Classic Recollections for the Daily Heralds Sunday Auto section since 2010.
Buy the Rose 8.5 x 11 Cardstock Paper by Recollections™, 50 Sheets at Michaels. Beautifully decorate your papercraft projects with these cardstock sheets by Recollections.
Gonzales introductory statement: I shoulda been more precise… My misstatements were my mistakes, no one elses… I have been extremely forthcoming with information… not the actions of someone with something to hide… Responses to Committee Chairman Sen. Leahy (D-VT.): I can only recall… I dont recall… I did not know… it appears… I was not responsible for… I have no recollection… Again, Senator, I was not responsible for compiling that… I dont recall a specific mention… It appears… as I recall… I dont recall Senator Dominici ever…That rationale was not in my mind, as I recall… Senator, thats an answer that I have to get back to you… Senator, Id like to give you that information, but… Responses to Sen. Specter (R-PA.): Senator, I dont want to quarrel with you… Based on what I thought, what I understood was going on… I believed that was ongoing… I dont recall… What I recall is… I dont recall whether Mr. Mercer presented me the numbers… ...
My Doctors office called be to inform to stop taking Actos. They said they have a recall on Actos. anyone taking that drug should get in touch with their do...
Dollar General has issued a recall on about 155,000 True Living sling loungers amid reports from consumers getting their fingers pinched, lacerated, or amputated.
Just a brief reflection upon the concept of recall bias with which we have been contending. Several authors, including the notoriously pro-aborts, Palmer and Rosenberg, have held out the contention that women who are healthy control subjects are more prone to not tell the truth when asked in a detailed health history if they have…
THE EFFECTS OF POSITIVE AFFECT AND EPISODIC FUTURE THINKING ON TEMPORAL DISCOUNTING, AND HEALTHY FOOD DEMAND AND CHOICE AMONG OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE INDIVIDUALS: A PILOT 2X2 FACTORIAL RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY Meeting Abstract ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relative validity of multiple telephone versus face-to-face 24-hour dietary recalls. AU - Galasso, Rocco. AU - Panico, Salvatore. AU - Celentano, Egidio. AU - Del Pezzo, Mariarosaria. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The relative validity of multiple telephone 24-hour dietary recalls was evaluated in a feasibility study within the framework of a large prospective investigation on the cause of chronic disease in women. Forty-nine women were interviewed four times both face-to-face and by telephone. Comparison of the total number of calories and intake of protein, carbohydrate, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, fiber, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C as estimated by multiple face-to-face and telephone interviews revealed an acceptable relative validity for the telephone procedure. Analysis of the position variation in the distribution (percent agreement) comparing the two procedures showed that a change in the distribution of none or one quintile occurs in more ...
Although it is widely known that benzodiazepines impair episodic memory, few studies have investigated their effects upon specific processes involved in free recall. This study evaluated the acute effects of flunitrazcpam (1.0 mg; 1.3 mg) and placebo in healthy volunteers on immediate and delayed free recall of word lists considering serial positions as well as semantic relations between words inserted in the middle of the lists (e.g. milk-cheese-butter). Flunitrazepam promoted a global amnestic effect, impairing recall in all serial positions except the last words (recency effect). Primacy and recency effects were preserved as indexed, respectively, by larger recall of the first and last words in relation to adjacent items. Facilitation in recall of semantically related words was not impaired by the drug when compared to recall in adjacent positions, in spite of a dose-dependent diminution of the number of words recalled also in mid-list positions. Flunitrazepam -induced deficits were ...
The products do not expire until the fall of 2017, which heightens public risk, CFIA reported.. Check to see if you have recalled products in your home, the CFIA advised.. Recalled products should be thrown out or returned to the store where they were purchased. Food contaminated with Salmonella may not look or smell spoiled but can still make you sick.. Young children, pregnant women, the elderly and people with weakened immune systems may contract serious and sometimes deadly infections from Salmonella. Healthy people may experience short-term symptoms such as fever, headache, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Long-term complications may include severe arthritis.. This recall was triggered by CFIA test results. The CFIA is conducting a food safety investigation, which may lead to the recall of other products. If other high-risk products are recalled, the CFIA will notify the public through updated Food Recall Warnings.. The CFIA is verifying that industry is removing ...
(WTAJ) - ALDI has issued a recall on peaches due to a possible salmonella contamination. The peaches come from the supplier Wawona Packing Company, which were distributed to multiple states, including Pennsylvania. The recalled peaches in question were also available through ALDI
Adolescence and early adulthood have been described as special times in memory encoding because individuals typically recall a disproportionate number of autobiographical memories from those periods.[4][5] The reminiscence bump accounts for this disproportionate number of memories. The reminiscence bump typically occurs between 10 years of age and 30 years of age and is the period that individuals produce the most memories during free recall tasks.[3] Research suggests that memories are easily accessible from the reminiscence bump because they are linked to self-identity.[6] The memories found within the reminiscence bump significantly contribute to an individuals life goals, self-theories, attitudes, and beliefs.[6] Additionally, life events that occur during the period of the reminiscence bump, such as graduation, marriage, or the birth of a child, are often very novel, thus, making them more memorable.[2] There are three possible explanations of the reminiscence bump: a cognitive account, a ...
Similar situations with recalls under the jurisdiction of the USDAs Food Service and Inspection Service led to a change almost 10 years ago that removed the distribution list gag from hat agency. FSIS now routinely posts lists of retail locations that received meat or poultry products that are recalled.. The change was partly in response to efforts of the Safe Food Coalition. Active since 1993, the coalition includes the Center for Science in the Public Interest, Consumer Federation of America, Consumers Union, Food and Water Watch, National Consumers League, the Center for Foodborne Illness Research and Prevention, STOP Foodborne Illness, and the Government Accountability Project.. Coalition representatives worked through the federal rulemaking process along with USDA staff to effect the change, which was published in the Federal Register on July 17, 2008, and went into effect on Aug. 8 that year.. Some industry commenters opposing the proposal stated that retail consignee information is ...
More than 5,500 pet-food products, house brands and name brands alike, are now on the FDAs recall list. The first recall was the largest, of more than 60 million containers of cuts and gravy canned or pouched food that turned out to have wheat gluten tainted with melamine, which is used in the manufacture of plastic countertops, cleaning agents, glue and fertilizer. Those products were all made by Menu Foods, under almost 100 different brand names.. Subsequent recalls have included dry foods, and foods containing rice protein concentrate. More recalls are expected as these companies voluntarily pull products. (Note on the human food chain: Salvage pet food was fed to hogs and chickens in several states, and the same targeted ingredients as have gone into pet food is also used in the manufacture of food for human consumption. It has yet to be determined by the FDA and USDA if any such product or food animals contaminated with such products has been eaten by anyone.). The official recall list ...
Added May 7,2012: Diamond had incorrectly reported the production codes (to determine if you had an affected bag). I have now updated the article to reflect the correct codes. Added May 18, 2012: The recall has been expanded to include Diamond Naturals Small Breed Adult dog Lamb and Rice as well (see below). The Diamond Recall has expanded! For the last couple of weeks I have been writing about several recalls on foods manufactured by Diamond. Initially, there was a recall on Diamond Naturals Lamb and Rice. This was followed by a recall of Chicken Soup for the Pet Lovers Soul. Then, there was a recall on Diamond Puppy Food, and now the recall has been expanded to include several other brands, including Kirkland food sold at Costco. (more…).... ...
Must Read Alaska is news you can trust. Publisher Suzanne Downing founded MRAK in 2015. From Anchorage, Fairbanks, Wasilla, Kenai, and Southeast Alaska.
Information. Protection. Justice. Keeping you updated on products, services, medications and medical devices that you depend on. Helping you take action.
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
proses crushing drying grinding pada pembuatan semen ...proses pembuatan clinker pada rotary kiln dl pt. semen ... f sepuluh - nofer{~jer f analisa perpindahan panas proses pembuatan clinker pada rotary kiln dl pt.Proses Pembuatan Semen --| Mengg
The development of potent, yet safe, subunit vaccines that promote effector as well as memory CD8+ and Th1 responses remains of great importance. At this time, one of the main foci of vaccine research is the use of novel adjuvant formulations based on TLR agonists to enhance adaptive immunity through the activation of DCs (31, 32). CpG oligonucleotides have been shown to enhance Th1 immune responses, and formulations containing them are under investigation as adjuvants for vaccines against certain types of cancer, as well as infectious diseases (19). The different CpG types are used in clinical trials with different goals, with CpG-C being mostly used for prophylactic vaccines, CpG-A for treating certain diseases such as asthma, and CpG-B used in both therapeutic and prophylactic applications (19). In this study, we describe the enhancement of adjuvanticity of CpG-B and CpG-C sequences through conjugation, in a reducible manner, to ultrasmall Pluronic-stabilized PPS NPs. Conjugation of CpG-B to ...