Menarcheal age was studied in 900 girls, half of which were from middle class families and the other half from low income class families from the Niger delta region of Nigeria. A retrospective and descriptive random sampling study was conducted through the use of questionnaires. Social class was based on parental occupation. The mean age at menarche for girls from middle class families was 12.22 ± 1.19 years while that for girls from low income families was 13.01 ± 1.44 years. Most of the children from the middle class families attained menarche at the ages of 12 and 13 while those from the low income families attained menarche at the ages of 12, 13 and 14 years.: The age at menarche of girls from middle class families was significantly lower than those of girls from the low socioeconomic class and is similar to those obtained for U.S. girls The age of menarche of girls from low income families is lower than a result of similar study obtained for rural India. ...
Objective: To review published studies evaluating early menarche and the risk of endometriosis. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. Setting: None. Patient(s): Eighteen case-control studies of age at menarche and risk of endometriosis including 3,805 women with endometriosis and 9,526 controls. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Medline and Embase databases were searched from 1980 to 2011 to locate relevant studies. Results of primary studies were expressed as effect sizes of the difference in mean age at menarche of women with and without endometriosis. Effect sizes were used in random effects meta-analysis. Result(s): Eighteen of 45 articles retrieved met the inclusion criteria. The pooled effect size in meta-analysis was 0.10 (95% confidence interval -0.01-0.21), and not significantly different from zero (no effect). Results were influenced by substantial heterogeneity between studies (I 2 = 72.5%), which was eliminated by restricting meta-analysis to
Introduction Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. Method GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. Results The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born
Objective: This study aimed to compare the various anthropometric and body composition parameters based on the ethnicity and the absence or presence of menarche.Design: A cross-sectional study with incomplete sampling, using the subject as the evaluation unit.Subjects: the final sample of 550 subjects was composed of 122 Japanese and 179 Caucasian premenarcheal adolescents, and 72 Japanese and 177 Caucasian postmenarcheal adolescents.Methods: the variables of body composition were measured through the following methods: bioelectrical impedance analysis, near-infrared interactance (NIR), Slaughter cutaneous skinfold equations and body mass index. Weight, height and sitting height were also evaluated.Results: the Japanese pre- and postmenarcheal girls presented lower weight and height values when compared with the Caucasian girls. in general, the Japanese premenarcheal girls presented less fat and fat-free mass than the premenarcheal Caucasian girls. This fact was demonstrated through NIR results. ...
Aims/hypothesis: We examined race differences in the association between age at menarche and type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity. Methods: We analysed baseline and 9-year follow-up data from 8,491 women (n = 2,505 African-American, mean age 53.3 years; n = 5,986 white, mean age 54.0 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Stratifying by race, we used logistic regression to estimate the OR for prevalent diabetes at baseline, and Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the HR for incident diabetes over follow-up according to age at menarche category (8-11, 12, 13, 14 and 15-18 years). Results: Adjusting for age and centre, we found that early age at menarche (8-11 vs 13 years) was associated with diabetes for white, but not African-American women in both the prevalent (white OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.32, 2.25; African-American OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.84, 1.51; interaction p = 0.043) and incident models (white HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.08, 1.89; African-American HR 1.20, ...
Menarche is a milestone for adolescent girls. The timing of menarche is influenced by genetics, social status and nutritional status (e.g., height, weight and body mass index [BMI]) and impacts future health (e.g., obesity and breast cancer). There have been many studies on trends in age at menarche among adolescent girls in China, but few have investigated associations between growth status and the timing of menarche. This study examined the association between age at menarche and growth status among adolescent girls in Western China. The participants in this cross sectional study came from three geographical regions of Shaanxi Province. A total of 533 adolescent girls from urban and rural areas were randomly selected. Trained investigators administered a standard questionnaire to each participant during a face-to-face interview and carried out anthropometric measurements. The average age at menarche was 13.3 years. There were statistically significant differences in BMI z-scores between pre-menarcheal
The age of menarche has been associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, as well as cancer risk. The decline in menarcheal age over the past century may be partially attributable to increased exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We assessed the influence of 26 phenol and phthalate biomarkers on the timing of menarche in a longitudinal cohort of Chilean girls. These EDCs were quantified in urine collected prior to the onset of breast development (Tanner 1; B1), and during adolescence (Tanner 4; B4). Multivariable accelerated failure time (AFT) models were used to analyze associations between biomarker concentrations and the age of menarche adjusting for body mass index (BMI) Z-score and maternal education, accounting for within-subject correlation. Several biomarkers were significantly associated with the age at menarche; however, these associations were dependent on the timing of biomarker assessment. A log(ng/ml) increase in B1 concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
... In many countries throughout the world, the age at which puberty occurs among girls-manifested as breast development, appearance of pubic hair, and onset of menarche-has been commencing earlier. For example, the mean age at onset of menarche (AOM) in Korea decreased from 16.9 to 13.8 years between 1920 and 1985. In the United Kingdom, between 1910 and 1993, it decreased from 13.5 to 12.3 years. And in the United States the AOM decreased by an average of 3 to 5½ months from 1960 to 1990.. These trends in pubertal development raise concerns because early onset of puberty may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Most importantly in this regard, earlier menarche has been implicated in the etiology of breast and ovarian cancer; in fact, early menarche has been found to contribute more to breast cancer risk than early menopause. Therefore, the decline in the AOM may result in an increased incidence of hormone-related ...
Earlier age of menarche has been associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases during adulthood, but whether early menarche has intergenerational effect is not clear. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we recruited children from 26 primary schools using cluster random probability sampling in Shanghai, China, in 2014. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate the adjusted associations of maternal age of menarche (MAM) with offspring body mass index (BMI). We also used the mediation analysis to examine the contribution of maternal BMI and gestational diabetes to offspring BMI. A total of 17,571 children aged 6-13 years were enrolled, of whom 16,373 had their weight and height measured. Earlier MAM was associated with higher child BMI in boys (− 0.05 z-score per year older MAM, 95% CI − 0.08 to − 0.02) and in girls (− 0.05 z-score per year older MAM, 95% CI − 0.07 to − 0.02). Maternal BMI positively mediated the association of MAM with offspring BMI in both
Background: Menarche is a milestone for adolescent girls. The timing of menarche is influenced by genetics, social status and nutritional status (e.g., height, weight and body mass index [BMI]) and impacts future health (e.g., obesity and breast cancer). Studies with adult woman have shown that prevalence of obesity is highest in those women who had experienced an early menarche in their adolescence ...
Two major findings were observed from this prospective study of 42,109 pregnancies among 27,482 women. First, earlier menarche was significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM, independent of established risk factors, such as age, parity, family history of diabetes, smoking, oral contraceptive use, physical activity, birth weight, and childhood adiposity. Second, the association between age at menarche and GDM risk might be partly mediated through prepregnancy obesity.. We were aware of one previous study that examined the relationship between age at menarche and GDM among 3,419 women (185 GDM events), and reported no association. Our findings provide new evidence that earlier menarche is associated with GDM and are generally in agreement with several recent large cohort studies (8-13) in which earlier menarche was significantly associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in middle- to old-aged adults. The precise mechanism by which early age at menarche may increase the risk ...
Nice study that examines the relationship between with decreased ovarian reserve and age at menarche. The authors conclude that women with younger age at menarche are more likely to have lower age specific AMH levels. However, several other authors have published papers recently addressing this question with conflicting results ...
BACKGROUND: The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. METHODS: Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR- (n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. RESULTS: A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR- tumors (≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] p(trend) | 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; ≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] p(trend) = 0.96 for ER-PR- tumors; P(het) = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors
Of the 228 adolescent females with type 1 diabetes, 185 participants had diabetes onset before menarche and 43 were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes after menarche. The overall mean age of menarche among adolescent females with type 1 diabetes was 12.69 ± 0.08 years. Girls who developed diabetes before menarche had an average age of menarche of 12.81 ± 0.09 years compared with 12.17 ± 0.19 years (P = 0.0015) in individuals who developed diabetes after menarche. The delay between individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before menarche and individuals diagnosed after menarche was 0.69 ± 0.20 years in adolescent girls.. In the cohort of adult women participating in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study, the mean age at the follow-up examination was 42.8 ± 0.53 years. The overall mean age of menarche among adult females with type 1 diabetes was 13.22 ± 0.12 years. Women who developed diabetes before menarche (n = 155) had an average age of menarche of 13.7 ± 2.23 years ...
To investigate the effect of pubertal timing, assessed in adolescence, on bone size, strength and density in men and women in early old age.A British birth cohort study with prospective indicators of pubertal timing based on age at menarche, clinical assessment of pubertal stage, and growth tempo from serial height measures, and bone measures derived from peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 60-64 years of age among 866 women and 792 men.A first set of regression models investigated the relationships between pubertal timing and bone size, strength and density, adjusting for current height and weight, smoking and adult socioeconomic position. To make an equivalent comparison between men and women, the percentage difference in bone outcomes was calculated for a 5-year difference in age at menarche, and in men a comparison between those who were fully mature or pre-adolescent at 14.5 years. A second set of models investigated the percentage
BACKGROUND: Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. METHODS: Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. FINDINGS: Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1·050 (95% CI 1·044-1·057; p|0·0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1·029, 1·025-1·032; p|0·0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal
Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. Methods Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. Findings Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1.050 (95% CI 1.044-1.057; p ,0.0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1.029, 1.025-1.032; p ,0.0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal ...
Adult height has been positively associated with breast cancer risk. The timing of pubertal growth-as measured by age at menarche and age at attained height-may also influence risk. We evaluated associations of adult height, age at attained height, and age at menarche with incidence of invasive breast cancer in 55,687 African American women in the prospective Black Womens Health Study. Over 20 years, 1,826 invasive breast cancers [1,015 estrogen receptor (ER) positive; 542 ER negative] accrued. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with breast cancer overall and by ER status, mutually adjusted for the three factors of interest ...
Earlier age at menarche is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), according to a study published online in Diabetes Care.
The age a woman begins menstruation is associated with having high blood pressure later in her life, according to a team of researchers at the University of Georgia.
A large-scale case-control study(16) showed that late menarche and a shorter duration from menarche to menopause is a risk factor for hip fracture. We found a marginal increase in the hip fracture risk among those AHS participants whose age at menarche was 17 or over, but no association was found between fracture risk and time from menarche to menopause or age at menopause. In our study, multiparity with five or more children was related to the risk of hip fracture, but no relationship was found between the risk and the period of breast feeding. Statistical power for the analyses of the lactation period was limited, since 65% of the values were missing. The findings on the association between fracture risk and child bearing or breast feeding have been inconsistent.(15,31) A possible explanation for the controversial results may depend on the intake of calcium during pregnancy and lactation. According to the National Nutrition Survey, average calcium intake was 270 mg/day in 1950 and 338 mg/day ...
One of my favorite features is that it always tells you what foods are rich in the substance youre researching. This greatly helps in limiting your supplements and getting more of what you need from food itself." ~Marita B. ...
Our study shows that, in a well characterised contemporary birth cohort, the offspring of mothers who had early onset of menarche did not develop asthma, eczema, hay fever or atopy (as measured by skin prick tests) during childhood more than infants of mothers with normal/late onset of menarche. The strengths of the present study were in the detailed classification of exposures, objective assessment of outcome variables, contemporary cohort of young children, and inclusion of a wide range of confounding variables. The change in the internal hormonal milieu associated with puberty and the personal use of contraceptives may theoretically modify the eventual expression of atopy in an individual. Moreover, smoking may be independently associated with asthma-like symptoms. Nevertheless, as we assessed atopy at the age of 7.5 years, this was unlikely to be confounded by such potential effect modifiers. The weaknesses were with self-reporting of asthma, eczema, and hay fever, along with the age of ...
Menarche is a females first menstrual period and a landmark event for females during puberty. Historically, menarche has been thought of as a time when women were
Risk factors for endometriosis include, Early menarche (first starting of menstrual period is menarche) Early menopause If you have no children If your
Early menarche, early menopause and miscarriage were among the factors associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
Earlier pubertal timing in girls is often accompanied by distinct rises in the prevalence, severity, and onset of psychopathology. These associations have been documented consistently over the past half-century in diverse communities within America and in various cultures and countries around the world.26 Although many psychological disorders in adults first emerge in childhood and adolescence,27 surprisingly few researchers have examined the longevity of pubertal timing effects, likely because of the practical complexities of managing participants for extended periods of time. As a result, the overwhelming majority of researchers have not conducted assessments past late adolescence.. Not understanding the long-term sequelae of earlier puberty is not merely a gap in the research literature but a public health issue. The age of pubertal onset has declined dramatically over the past half-century.28,29 It is difficult to know whether, when, and on what processes to intervene if we cannot establish ...
Besides female sex, advancing age is the biggest risk factor for breast cancer. Reproductive factors that increase exposure to endogenous estrogen, such as early menarche and late menopause, increase risk, as does the use of combination estrogen-progesterone hormones after menopause. Nulliparity and alcohol consumption...
Breast cancer ranks second or third to uterine cervix cancer and stomach cancer as a cause of death in women, and as a common site of primary cancer. The large difference in its incidence between Westernized and non-Westernized countries is remarkable. There is a linear increase with age that is observed in Western countries, which are high-incidence areas, on the contrary to the inverted V shape curve seen in Asian countries. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have shown that an older age, a family history of breast cancer, early menarche, late menopause, late full-term pregnancy, and never having had a breast-fed child are primary risk factors in the development of breast cancer. The estrogen-augmented-by-progesterone hypothesis explains the roles of these factors to some extent. On the other hand, recent molecular studies have revealed the existence of novel gene environmental interactions. Epidemiological features suggest that the breast cancer incidence rate in Korea will increase, but the
The steroid hydroxylase CYP3A4 is the most abundant P-450 enzyme in the human liver, and CYP3A enzymes metabolize more than 50% of prescription drugs. The CYP3A4 gene is expressed in the liver, gut, colon, prostate, and breast. Individual variation in CYP3A4 may play a role in breast and prostate carcinogenesis through modulation of sex hormone metabolite levels. Alternatively, CYP3A4 can metabolically activate exogenous carcinogens. CYP3A4 activity varies widely in humans, and more than 78 DNA sequence polymorphisms are known. These observations prompted the hypothesis that variant CYP3A4 may be involved in breast and prostate cancer. Two epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and five of prostate cancer examined CYP3A4 genotypes. A US study showed that inheritance of CYP3A4*1B correlates with early menarche, a breast cancer risk factor. However, an Australian breast cancer case-control study found no association with CYP3A4*1B. Two Scottish prospective studies showed CYP3A4*1B to be a risk ...
Watch the replay of our webinar with Nutritional Therapist and fertility expert Angela Heap in conversation with Laura Stirling exploring the menstrual journey of a female: from menarche to menopause. Together they discuss hormones and signalling that regulate a monthly cycle, including... Contributions from the hypoth
Family history of BC, age at menarche, number of births and pregnancies, age at first birth, history of breast biopsies and breast operations, date of the last menstrual period, use of hormone replacement therapy and detection of breast tumour in mammography screening are the key events to note.. The breasts should be palpated when the patient is sitting or standing, the arms hanging freely as well as elevated (A, B). The examination is repeated when the patient is lying supine (C, D). ...
Julie is the most level-headed person in the room because her brain has not yet been warped by hormones. Seriously I have watched perfectly sane and rational 9 and 10 YO turn into blithering idiots by menarche. Similar effects for testosterone but since the onset is more gradual you have to watch the changes on a year-by-year basis instead of living with them. I have 3 grown kids of my own and a few dozen nieces and nephews.. ...
Ragnhild Trends in incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ: the Sørum effect of a population based screening program A13 Pål Suhrke Breast cancer incidence and postmenopausal hormone Body mass index and risk of breast cancer in white and African American women: a case-control study Anita Timing of Menarche and First Full-Term Birth in Iversen Relation to 17-? Estradiol Levels in Premenopausal Women. The EBBA-I study. A16 Eiliv Lund Systems epidemiology in cancer Avslutning ...
The causes of vaginal bleeding in children differ substantially from the causes in adolescents. During childhood, vaginal bleeding after the first week or so of life but before menarche is always abnormal and warrants diagnostic evaluation. After men
Complete information for MENAQ2 gene (Genetic Locus), Menarche, Age At, QTL2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
... - Usia menarche sebagai faktor risiko kejadian preeklamsia dan eklamsia. https:// Astrid Kizy Primadani(1*), Elisabeth S Herini(2). Download Citation on
TGA - Hi my name is Kirsty I have two healthy girls with 10 years between them one is 16 one is 6. I am currently 6 months pregnant with a BOY......
I was just wondering what peoples opinions on this is... I want to bf atleast till 1 but preferably 2 or just let Lo decide when is right for him to stop. His dad is so uncomfortable with this idea though and thinks hell end up weird :( was breastfeed till 3 atleast and feel it was beneficial as Im a strong, healthy girl... Ive agreed to start gradually weaning him off it when hes 1 as a compromise to his dad. Just interested in how people feel if early weaning was difficult, upset lo etc or late weaning was negative in anyway? Or even if an you had any ideas on how to change his dads view that its weird. Or if you agree with him and that it is weird. Thanks xx
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Why aam panna, lassi and jaljeera are best for summer. Besides soothing your senses, they can aid digestion, keep your body cool and fight ailments.
Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58% > limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure < median was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.42) compared to girls with exposure < LOD (reference). In the subset that excluded girls with missing data, the adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.38) and exposure < median was 1.26 (95% CI: 0.65, 2.24) compared to the reference ...
Sports that impact-load the skeleton during childhood and adolescence increase determinants of bone strength such as bone mineral content and density; however, it is unclear if this benefit is maintained after retirement from the sport. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the previously reported higher bone mass in a group of premenarcheal gymnasts was still apparent 10 years after the cessation of participation and withdrawal of the gymnastics loading stimulus. In 1995, 30 gymnasts 8 to 15 years of age were measured and compared with 30 age-matched nongymnasts. Twenty-five former gymnasts and 22 nongymnasts were measured again 14 years later (2009 to 2010). Gymnasts had been retired from gymnastics training and competition for an average of 10 years. Total body (TB), lumbar spine (LS), and femoral neck (FN) bone mineral content (BMC) was assessed at both measurement occasions by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to compare ...
AIM: To present a visual representation of changes in body composition, leptin, insulin, estradiol and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in relation to menarche in girls. METHODS: Participants were a subset of healthy girls (n = 108) enrolled in a longitudinal study of growth and development conducted at the General Clinical Research Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Participants were seen annually from before menarche until 4 years postmenarche for measures of body composition and serum levels of leptin, insulin, estradiol and FSH. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Standardized body composition and hormone levels were smoothed and plotted relative to menarche to visualize patterns of change. RESULTS: At menarche, the mean percentage body fat (%BF) of girls was 24.6% (SD = 4.1%) after menarche %BF was approximately 27%. Leptin levels averaged 8.4 ng/mL (SD = 4.6) at menarche and were approximately 12 ng/mL after menarche. Changes in leptin
To examine the effect of reproductive history and use of hormonal therapies on the risk of hip and knee joint replacement for osteoarthritis.A prospective study of 1.3 million women aged on average 56 years at recruitment and followed-up through linkage to routinely collected hospital admission records was conducted. The adjusted relative risk (RR) of hip and knee replacement for osteoarthritis was examined in relation to parity, age at menarche, menopausal status, age at menopause and use of hormonal therapies.Over a mean of 6.1 person-years of follow-up, 12 124 women had a hip replacement and 9977 a knee replacement. The risk of joint replacement increased with increasing parity and the effect was greater for the knee than the hip: increase in RR of 2% (95% CI 1 to 4%) per birth for hip replacement and 8% (95% CI 6 to 10%) for knee replacement. An early age at menarche slightly increased the risk of hip and knee replacement (relative risk for menarche | or =11 years versus 12 years, 1.09 (95% CI 1.03
10.096 21112213 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.10.096 24. Pau M , Mandaresu S , Leban B , Nussbaum MA . Short-term effects of backpack carriage on plantar pressure and gait in schoolchildren . J Electromyogr Kinesiol . 2015 ; 25 ( 2 ): 406 - 12 . PubMed ID: 25499084 doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2014.11.006 10. ...
Conclusion This study has provided current data on age of menarche, the pattern of menstruation and frequency of menstrual difficulties. YP, parents and carers can be given accurate information on likely age of menarche enabling timely preparation. An informed decision can be made if treatment is needed.. Desogestrel is an effective and well tolerated option for menstrual control in YP and requires little monitoring compared with other hormonal treatments.. The small size of this study and results indicate the ongoing need to record details around menstruation to inform practice. ...
Breast cancer is a devastating disease. The specter of breast cancer frightens most women because it causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite our ever-increasing ability to provide earlier diagnosis and improved treatments. Breast cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide, yet the relatively well-established risk factors account for no more than 50 to 55% of the breast cancer risk of westernized populations. 1-3 As a result, breast cancer epidemiologists have continued to search for additional risk factors, particularly lifestyle and environmental exposures, that are amenable to intervention.. Ovarian hormones, and particularly estrogens, play a major role in the development of breast cancer. 4 In fact, most accepted breast cancer risk factors can be interpreted as surrogate measures of a womans cumulative exposure to estrogen and possibly, progesterone. These risk factors include early age at menarche, late age at menopause, nulliparity or late age at first birth, lack of or ...
There are several papers and letters in Nature Genetics on the relationship between menarche, menopause, etc. and genetics. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data identifies two loci influencing age at menarche: We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data to detect genes influencing age at menarche in 17,510 women. The strongest signal was at 9q31.2 (P…. ...
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