Effective language understanding is crucial to maintaining cognitive abilities and learning new information through adulthood. However, age-related changes in cognitive abilities such as working memory (WM) have a profound influence on the products of language comprehension (e.g., problem solving, learning, following instructions). At the same time, the effects of age and working memory on the moment-to-moment processes underlying language comprehension are less well understood. The current project tests the causal role of working memory in language among older adults by examining the effects of a short-term working memory training program on changes in language comprehension. This dissertation describes the development of the iTrain program, a novel home-based computerized training program targeting complex verbal WM performance, and describes the results from a single 3-week randomized controlled training experiment testing the efficacy of iTrain on improving verbal working memory, language ...
There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study. This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimers disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory ...
One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity) presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm). Participants episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain
Hamilton, Colin, Nilsson, Jonna, Robinson, Lucy, Salgado, Juliana, Ferrier, Nicol and Gallagher, Peter (2012) Can impairment in visualization contribute to poor visuospatial working memory performance in Major Depressive Disorder? In: 13th European Workshop on Imagery and Cognition (EWIC 2012), 20 -22 June 2012, Bochum, Germany. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Mathematical Anxiety influences the cortical connectivity profiles in lower alpha band during working memory tasks. AU - Bayrak, Şeyma. AU - Margulies, Daniel. AU - Bamidis, Panagiotis. AU - Klados, Manousos A.. PY - 2016/7/30. Y1 - 2016/7/30. N2 - Introduction Highly math-anxious (HMA) individuals are characterized by a strong tendency to avoid math, which ultimately undercuts their math competence and forecloses important career paths (Ashcraft, 2002). It is hypothesized that worries and intrusive thoughts associated with math anxiety (MA) reduce working memory resources needed for cognitively demanding math tasks (Chang & Beilock, 2016). However, mental processes that access the memory representations of mathematical knowledge has not been fully uncovered (Ashcraft, 2001). Previous studies indicate that the frontal cortex is dominantly involved in working memory (WM) and more specifically while updating the working memory representations (Smith & Jonides, 1997). Additionally, ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Transient and sustained activity in a distributed neural system for human working memory
Causes of Short Term Memory Loss. The causes of short term memory loss can be quite varied, ranging from neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimers disease, to Vitamin B-12 deficiency and certain prescription medications. See this list of memory loss causes for more detail.. Free Brain Age Games Challenge a friend. Hello . Play game. This game will give your short term memory a good developmental workout. In this exercise you need to click on the buckyballs that you see light up in the order that they appear. Six is a good score in this game but it is infinitely long, a seven year old autistic boy was able to …. Short Term memory. classic memory game with 4 different levels. Brain games math games puzzle games Word Games Crosswords Sudoku Memory Games Downloads. Restart Fullscreen donate short term Memory. Play. Favorite. Favorite. Click to add this game to your favorites. share. rate. Current …. ...
The severe capacity limit of visual working memory (VWM) necessitates an efficient filtering mechanism to represent task-relevant items in VWM and restrict task irrelevant items from consuming capacity. Previous studies have shown that selective attention benefits post-perceptual as well as perceptual processing by filtering unnecessary items out of VWM (Vogel, McCollough, & Machizawa, 2005). The present study asked whether the attentional filtering is supported by the same mechanism across various loci of VWM processing such as encoding and retention stages. To answer this question, we measured the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a neural index of VWM capacity, while participants filtered out task-irrelevant VWM representations. Participants were asked to remember four sample color squares to be tested after a 1s delay period. In the selective encoding condition, a position-cue was presented at one of the four color squares at the sample display. The position-cue indicated a test location, ...
The ability of the nervous system to retain, manipulate and use visual information which is no longer present in the external environment contributes to intelligent behaviour. A new approach to studying visual working memory has led to re-evaluation of the nature of its limitations in keeping with a finite memory resource which is flexibly distributed across space according to attentional priority. Using a novel behavioural paradigm to study visual working memory precision for sequentially presented items, I demonstrate how the resolution with which healthy subjects recall simple objects changes dynamically with each new item in the sequence. Stochastic modelling of the distribution of responses suggested that memory for earlier objects in the sequence was especially prone to failure in integration of visual features, such as orientation and colour, into complete objects. Next, I examined how memory precision was affected by attentional selection according to the relative behavioural relevance ...
The Brain & Cognition lab has been investigating the interplay between attentional prioritization and working memory for several years. In two recently funded projects by the British Academy and the Royal Society to Nahid Zokaei (British Academy Post-doctoral Fellowship) and Freek van Ede (Newton International Fellowship), we will be further investigating how information in working memory can be dynamically prioritized and what neural mechanisms prior to encoding and during working-memory maintenance contribute to this. This builds on recent research in the lab demonstrating that cues presented during working memory maintenance can dynamically prioritize items in working memory (Wallis et al., 2015) and that ongoing brain states (alpha oscillations) can influence the precision of subsequent working memory representations (Myers et al., 2014).. Experimental Approach. This research programme makes use of behavioural psychophysical experiments as well as state-of-the-art neuroimaging methodologies ...
Our ability to remember what we have seen is very limited. Most current views characterize this limit as a fixed number of items-only four objects-that can be held in visual working memory. We show that visual memory capacity is not fixed by the number of objects, but rather is a limited resource that is shared out dynamically between all items in the visual scene. This resource can be shifted flexibly between objects, with allocation biased by selective attention and toward targets of upcoming eye movements. The proportion of resources allocated to each item determines the precision with which it is remembered, a relation that we show is governed by a simple power law, allowing quantitative estimates of resource distribution in a scene.
... To study how long short-term memory lasts, rehearsal must not be allowed to refresh information in short-term memory or to transfer it to long-term memory. The Peterson and Peterson procedure (also known as the Brown-Peterson procedure) minimizes rehearsal and recoding by tying up active processes in short-term memory during the retention interval (time between getting items and recalling them). They are tied up by having participants count backwards by 3s. Counting backwards requires mental computation and speaking, so it leaves little chance for rehearsal and recoding (Peterson,1966). A typical experiment goes like this. The participant receives three items to remember, say three separate words, like DOCTOR, COOK, PLUMBER. Immediately afterward the participant receives a 3- digit number and starts counting backwards by 3s (378, 375, 372, 369, . . . ) until the experimenter asks the participant to report the three words. Practiced subjects get about 50% of the 3 ...
Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a promising technique that has been shown to improve working memory (WM) performance and enhance the effect of cognitive training. However, experimental set up and electrode placement are not always determined based on neurofunctional knowledge about WM, leading to inconsistent results. Additional research on the effects of tES grounded on neurofunctional evidence is therefore necessary. 60 young, healthy, volunteers, assigned to 6 different groups, participated in 5 days of stimulation or sham treatment. 25 of these subjects also participated in MRI acquisition. We performed 3 experiments: In the first one we evaluated tES using either direct current stimulation (tDCS) with bilateral stimulation of the frontal or parietal lobe; in the second one we used the same tDCS protocol with a different electrode placement (i.e. supraorbital cathode); in the third one we used alternating currents (tACS) of 35 Hz, applied bilaterally to either the frontal or parietal
Objectives: Sentence comprehension requires linguistic information to be maintained in a verbal working memory store whilst thematic role assignment is being undertaken. A current divisive issue in psycholinguistic research centres around the precise nature of this memory resource. Two distinct models have been proposed: 1) a general memory resource exists to support the processing of both sentences and non-syntactic information, and 2) a sentence-specific working memory pool facilitates only the processing of syntax. The present study aims to provide support for the former model by investigating patients with post-stroke language disorders (aphasia), who are unable to comprehend sentences involving complex syntactic structures. Method: An integrated sentence-picture matching and memory load dual-task was presented to 55 healthy control participants, 4 aphasics and 6 non-aphasic stroke patients. Sentences differed in complexity, from simple actives to centre-embedded subject-relatives (SRs). ...
Verbal short-term memory and temporary activation of language representations: the importance of distinguishing item and order ...
Consistent with the idea of the RE acting as a gate or nodal hub for information flow between mPFC and HPC (Vertes et al., 2007; Cassel et al., 2013; Varela et al., 2014), the role of the RE in a host of memory tasks is being increasingly recognized. RE lesions or inactivation have a particularly detrimental effect on spatial working memory tasks requiring interactions between mPFC and HPC, but not those that only require HPC activity alone (Davoodi et al., 2009; Hembrook and Mair, 2011; Hembrook et al., 2012). The RE also has a described role in determining the generalization and specificity of contextual fear memories (Xu and Südhof, 2013). A critical role of the RE in forming long-term (,24 h) memories, but not acquisition or short-term memories, has also been demonstrated (Loureiro et al., 2012; Barker and Warburton, 2018). Importantly, however, many studies have used behavioral tasks that assess influences of RE impairments at only short delays or periods in which animals may not have ...
The THC in Marijuana has been known to have effects on the human brain specifically Short Term Memory loss and the ability to learn while high on medical m
Question - Anxiety, low BP, pulse, short term memory loss, heart failure. wants to take inderal. How long does the medication take to have an effect ?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Inderal, Ask a General & Family Physician
Question - What is the treatment for muscle weakness, abdominal pain and metallic taste with short term memory problems and depression?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Insulin therapy is advised, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
Does your teen seem to be too forgetful of late, unable to recall past events ? This can be short term memory loss in teens. Know the causes & treatment options.
Question by James: Will short term memory from weed last forever? Im a 14 year old kid im really scared i tried weed once like one puff and now im freaking
In his article "Short-Term Memory and Web Usability," Jakob Nielsen points out that the human mind cant store much information in short term memory and that this is especially true when they are bombarded with multiple abstract or unusual pieces of data in rapid succession. He cites research that suggests our short-term memory holds only about seven chunks of information, and that these fade from our brain in about 20 seconds.. Dashboards work by overcoming this limitation of short-term memory. By displaying all relevant information on a single screen within a users eye span, they reduce the dependence on the short term memory. You dont have to remember anything because its all there in front of your eyes.. What is it that the human mind seeks that is so nicely provided by information dashboards?. However, in many scenarios, there is so much data that it wont fit on a single screen. Dashboards work around the limits of short-term memory in three ways: ...
This diagram is a simple model of working memory showing the three main parts. The central executive is the decision maker that directs attention, selects and sends information to the two storage components. The two storage components are referred to as the visuo-spatial short-term memory and the verbal short-term memory. The visuo-spatial short-term memory stores information in the form of pictures such as objects, people and places whereas the verbal short-term memory stores speech information such as letter sounds, words, phrases, or sentences. Both parts have limited storage and work quite differently. They are connected to the central executive where the two types of information can be linked in some way ...
TY - ABST. T1 - Using performance discontinuities to estimate individual Working-Memory Capacities in serial recall tasks. AU - Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Although formal models are frequently used to infer working-memory capacity (C) from visual array tasks (Cowan, 2001, Table 2; Luck & Vogel, 2013), Complex Span tasks, on the other hand, are typically scored using variants of the mean number- or the mean proportion of correctly recalled items (e.g. Redick et al, 2012; Conway, 2005). Though useful as indices, they are not interpretable as C, partially because they are confounded by the range of spans presented to the subjects. I propose the "rate change" score of working-memory capacity which has just three parameters: (1) C, the subjects capacity which marks a shift from (2) PC , a high Bernoulli-proportion of correctly recalled items, to (3) Pother, a lower Bernoulli-proportion of recall for further presented items. A Bayesian rate-change model was ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Classification of EEG features for prediction of working memory load. AU - Abrantes,Anthony. AU - Comitz,Elizabeth. AU - Mosaly,Prithima. AU - Mazur,Lukasz. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - The objective of this research was to compare classification methods aimed at predicting working memory (WM) load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data was collected from physicians while performing basic WM tasks and simulated medical scenarios. Data processing was performed to remove noise from the signal used for analysis (e.g., muscle activity, eye-blinks). The data from basic WM tasks was used to develop and test the four classification models (LASSO regression, support vector machines (SVM), nearest shrunken centroids (NSC), and iterated supervised principal components (ISPC) to predict a WM state indicative of physicians optimal performance. The naïve misclassification rate was 19.74 %; LASSO and SVM outperformed this threshold: 18.10 and 12.21 % respectively). Both classification models had ...
For the first time, we report a spatial bias in visual short-term memory (VSTM) after left medial and inferior occipito-temporal damage. Our patient D.M. showed a spatial bias in report from VSTM, being more accurate at reporting stimuli presented in her left than her right visual field (Experiment 1). This spatial bias could not be attributed to a visual field deficit (Experiment 2) and was based on the relative rather than the absolute locations of the stimuli (Experiment 3). It was reduced when the transfer of items to VSTM was facilitated-for example, by grouping stimuli (Experiment 4) or by reducing the number of items to be remembered (Experiment 5). The spatial bias was attenuated when items moved from right to centre or left to centre, and D.M. was cued to report the item that would have been on the right or left, had the movement continued (Experiment 6). We conclude that posterior ventral damage can impair both the consolidation of new information in VSTM and the explicit report of
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a change detection task in which we manipulated both target and distracter set sizes. We directly compared the IPS response as a function of the number of targets and distracters in the display and in VSTM. When distracters were not present, the posterior and middle segments of IPS showed the predicted asymptotic activity increase with an increasing target set size. When distracters were added to a single target, activity also increased as predicted. However, the addition of distracters to multiple targets suppressed both middle and posterior IPS activities, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and
Preclinical and clinical data have suggested the potential use of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands for treating cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease. SIB-1553A, (±)-4-{[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio}phenol hydrochloride, a novel nAChR ligand with predominant agonist subtype selectivity for β4 subunit-containing human neuronal nAChRs, was tested in a variety of cognitive paradigms in aged rodents and nonhuman primates after acute and repeated administration. Subcutaneous administration of SIB-1553A improved delayed nonmatching to place performance in aged mice. In aged rhesus monkeys, intramuscular and oral administration of SIB-1553A improved choice accuracy in a delayed matching to sample task. SIB-1553A improved performances in these spatial and nonspatial working memory tasks but was less effective at improving performances in spatial reference memory tasks (i.e., aged rodents exposed to a discrimination task ...
Working memory, including central executive functions (inhibition, shifting and updating) are factors thought to play a central role in mathematical skill development. However, results reported with regard to the associations between mathematics and working memory components are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis is twofold: to investigate the strength of this relation, and to establish whether the variation in the association is caused by tests, sample characteristics and study and other methodological characteristics. Results indicate that all working memory components are associated with mathematical performance, with the highest correlation between mathematics and verbal updating. Variation in the strength of the associations can consistently be explained by the type of mathematics measure used: general tests yield stronger correlations than more specific tests. Furthermore, characteristics of working memory measures, age and sample explain variance in correlations in some analyses. ...
Sensory modalities vary in adeptness for spatial and temporal information domains (Welch & Warren, 1980). Recent work suggests that attention and short-term memory (STM) recruit this variability (Michalka et al., submitted). Here, we investigate the relationships among visual and auditory modalities, and spatial and temporal STM. We developed stimuli comprising short sequences of visual events (instantaneous image changes) or auditory events (50ms complex tones). Each event within a sequence had a unique spatial location and a unique inter-event interval. These stimuli were used in a STM change-detection task. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; a change could occur among the locations, the intervals, both, or neither. Subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations), or time (the sequence of inter-event intervals), and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal (both sequences presented in ...
Using visual information to guide behaviour requires storage in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM), that sustains attended information across saccades and other visual interruptions. There is growing debate on whether VSTM capacity is limited to a fixed number of objects or whether it is variable. Here we report four experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging that resolve this controversy by dissociating the representation capacities of the parietal and occipital cortices. Whereas representations in the inferior intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) are fixed to about four objects at different spatial locations regardless of object complexity, those in the superior IPS and the lateral occipital complex are variable, tracking the number of objects held in VSTM, and representing fewer than four objects as their complexity increases. These neural response patterns were observed during both VSTM encoding and maintenance. Thus, multiple systems act together to support ...
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease leading to impairment in social and occupational functioning. The etiology remains elusive. Current concepts presume a genetic susceptibility, which in combination with environmental stimuli leads to the clinical manifestation. Cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in working memory are regarded core deficits in schizophrenia. Working memory function is thought to be located in the prefrontal cortex. Epigenetics in a neuroscientific definition describes the mechanisms in which external stimuli change gene expression in postmitotic brain cells. The mechanisms of histone acetylation and DNA methylation are especially well characterized. It is known, that the formation of long-term memory involves epigenetic processes. The present thesis deals with the question, whether epigenetic mechanisms also regulate working memory processes. Postmortal brain samples from the dorsolateral PFC showed significant hyperacetylation at histone 4 in schizophrenics and ...
Cognitive load theory posits that limited attention is in actuality a limitation in working memory resources. The load theory of selective attention and cognitive control sees the interplay between attention and awareness as separate modifying functions that act on working memory. Reconciling the theoretical differences in these two theories has important implications for learning. Thirty-nine adult participants performed a cognitively demanding test, with and without movement in the far peripheral field. Although the results for movement effects on cognitive load in this experiment were not statistically significant, men spent less time on the cognitive test in the peripheral movement condition than in the conditions without peripheral movement. No such difference was found for women. The implications of these results and recommendations for future research that extends the present study are presented.
The aim of this thesis was to examine possible effects of omega-3 fatty acids on childrens cognition and behavior. Longitudinal as well as cross-sectional comparisons were made among children with typical development and children with ADHD /at risk developing ADHD.. The specific purposes were to examine (1) breast-feeding in relation to cognition; (2) relation between long chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in mothers breast-milk and children´s cognition; (3) effects of EPA supplementation on cognition and behavior in children with ADHD; (4) if LCPUFAs have differential effects on working memory, inhibition, problem-solving and theory of mind (ToM).. The main conclusions were as follows; (1) duration of breast-feeding was positively correlated to children levels of intelligence (IQ); (2) LCPUFAs in breast-milk was related to childrens ToM and IQ, the quotient DHA/AA, together with length of breastfeeding and gestation week explained 76% of the variance of total IQ; (3) subtypes of ...
Storage-fixation control. Consider first the activations and deactivations for the storage-fixation subtraction reported in Table 1. This condition closely approximates the condition used by Fiez et al. (1996). We find activation in left inferior frontal gyrus (Brocas area), left premotor cortex, supplementary motor cortex, and right cerebellum, all of which are characteristic of a circuit for verbal working memory (Fig. 1). We also find activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in both left and right hemispheres, a pattern that has also often been associated with some verbal working memory tasks (Smith et al., 1996; Cohen et al., 1997). In addition, there is reliable activation in left cerebellum and in right inferior frontal gyrus, both of which are approximately homologous to activations found in the opposite hemisphere (homologous bilateral activation is often found in studies using working memory tasks; Smith et al., 1996).. In addition to these sites, note also that there is reliable ...
When you recite a phone number over and over while you search for a pen and paper to write it down, youre relying on your working memory. Activity in an area of the brains prefrontal cortex is thought to contribute to working memory ability, but the exact neural mechanisms are still a mystery. In a new study, researchers find the amount of a specific neurotransmitter in the prefrontal cortex may predict one aspect of working memory ability.
Group average ERPs in the memory load conditions for both age groups. Left panel displays children right panel displays adults with age typical event related re
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, led by Larry R. Squire, PhD, professor of psychiatry, psychology and neurosciences at UC San Diego and a scientist at the VA San Diego Healthcare System, report that working memory of relational information "" where an object is located, for example "" remains intact even if key brain structures like the hippocampus are damaged.. The findings, published in the October 13, 2010 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience, run contrary to previous research that suggested spatial information, especially if its linked to other kinds of information, necessarily involves the hippocampus and other regions associated with memory.. Working memory is the mental ability to hold small amounts of information in an active, readily available state for a short period of time, typically a few seconds. Conversely, long-term memory involves storing a potentially unlimited amount of information for an indefinite period of time.. Squire and ...
The literature that I have reviewed has stated what the short- term memory span is. Researchers believe that people can remember seven plus or minus two items in their short-term memory. There are however ways that people can improve their memory capacity. First they can group items together that are alike or that follow each other. This ability is referred to as chunking. The longer a task is, the harder it is for the person to remember it. Around thirty seconds is the longest a person can hold data in his her short-term memory. Priming is another tool people use. This refers to a person getting used to a pattern that is repeated over and over. The person gets used to the task and improves because they have done it before. Working memory is responsible for temporarily storing information and manipulating it to make it easier to remember. A frequent assumption is that processing and storage compete for a central limited-capacity workspace of central executive (Towse & Hitch, 1995). Traditional ...
Tuesday, April 20, 1:00 - 3:00 pm, Westmount et al Ballroom. What Controls Executive Control? The Influence of Control Context. Chair: Amishi Jha, University of Pennsylvania. . . .. Talk 3: Training and Depletion of Executive Functions: The Case of Interference Control. Jonas Persson1, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz2; 1Stockholm University, 2University of Michigan. Brain imaging reveals overlapping sites of prefrontal activation for different cognitive tasks suggesting they may share core executive processes. We tested this hypothesis by measuring behavioral interactions between memory tasks presumed to require interference control - a putative executive process that mediates selection from competing representations. Behavioral data show that different training regimens produce either negative or positive transfer from working memory to semantic and episodic memory task performance. We show that eight days of training on high interference versions of three different working memory tasks increased the ...
Tuesday, April 20, 1:00 - 3:00 pm, Westmount et al Ballroom. What Controls Executive Control? The Influence of Control Context. Chair: Amishi Jha, University of Pennsylvania. . . .. Talk 3: Training and Depletion of Executive Functions: The Case of Interference Control. Jonas Persson1, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz2; 1Stockholm University, 2University of Michigan. Brain imaging reveals overlapping sites of prefrontal activation for different cognitive tasks suggesting they may share core executive processes. We tested this hypothesis by measuring behavioral interactions between memory tasks presumed to require interference control - a putative executive process that mediates selection from competing representations. Behavioral data show that different training regimens produce either negative or positive transfer from working memory to semantic and episodic memory task performance. We show that eight days of training on high interference versions of three different working memory tasks increased the ...
Humans are the animals that manipulate their cognitive environment.. I reported recently on an intriguing study involving an African people, the Himba. The study found that the Himba, while displaying an admirable amount of focus (in a visual perception task) if they were living a traditional life, showed the same, more de-focused, distractible attention, once they moved to town. On the other hand, digit span (a measure of working memory capacity) was smaller in the traditional Himba than it was in the urbanized Himba.. This is fascinating, because working memory capacity has proved remarkably resistant to training. Yes, we can improve performance on specific tasks, but it has proven more difficult to improve the general, more fundamental, working memory capacity.. However, there have been two areas where more success has been found. One is the area of ADHD, where training has appeared to be more successful. The other is an area no one thinks of in this connection, because no one thinks of it in ...
Ive been experiencing some really irritating short-term memory loss problems (for myself as well as other people). I am 35, female and trying to figure out why...
SINAPSA SEMINAR: WORKING MEMORY AND PARKINSONS DISEASE. On Wednesday, January 18, at 6 p.m. the Sinapsa neuroscience seminar will be held at the Institute of pathological physiology (Zaloška 4, entrance from Zaloška road).. Grega Repovš will talk about findings, challenges and possible venues of research about working memory. And Dejan Georgiev will present his work on visual working memory in patients with Parkinsons disease ...
This Research Topic is cross-listed in the Frontiers in Psychology section - Language Sciences Cognitive Hearing Science is the new field that has emerged in response to an increasing awareness of the critical role of cognition in communication (Arlinger et al., 2009). Characteristic of cognitive hearing science models is that they emphasize the subtle balancing act, or interplay between bottom-up and top-down aspects of language processing. Working memory, especially complex working memory capacity (WMC) is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit irrelevant information, and to attend selectively to the information we want to track, but WMC is also important for type memory encoding into episodic long-term memory. Recent models of language understanding under adverse or distracting conditions have emphasized the complex interactions between working memory capacity (WMC), attention,
Four subjects participated in an MOL-like nutrition study using freeze-dehydrated, bite-sized Apollo food. The two experimental subjects were confined in a small (300 cu. ft.) altitude chamber operated at 27,000 feet with an atmosphere of 70% oxygen and 30% helium. Psychomotor testing was conducted in 4-hour sessions three times a day, every other day, alternating with two control subjects. No major psychomotor changes were observed, except on the short-term memory task, which appeared to reflect motivational factors. Correlations between the first half hour and the remainder of the testing session ranged from -.21 to +.96 and were scattered across that range. It was concluded that a daily half-hour psychomotor test of space crews is probably not sufficiently stable to meet biomedical monitoring requirements. (Author)(*PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS
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The issue of chemo-brain - cognitive impairment following chemotherapy - has been a controversial one. While it is now (I hope) accepted by most that it is, indeed, a real issue, there is still an ongoing debate over whether the main cause is really the chemotherapy. A new study adds to the debate.. The study involved 28 women who received adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, 37 who received radiotherapy, and 32 age-matched healthy controls. Brain scans while doing a verbal working memory task were taken before treatment and one month after treatment.. Women who underwent chemotherapy performed less accurately on the working memory task both before treatment and one month after treatment. They also reported a significantly higher level of fatigue. Greater fatigue correlated with poorer test performance and more cognitive problems, across both patient groups and at both times (although the correlation was stronger after treatment).. Both patient groups showed reduced function in the left ...
In the article "Strengthened Effective Connectivity Underlies Transfer of Working Memory Training to Tests of Short-Term Memory and Attention" by Bornali Kundu, David W. Sutterer, Stephen M. Emrich, and Bradley R. Postle, which appeared on pages 8705-8715 of the May 15, 2013 issue, there were two errors. In Figure 1, for panels A, D, and E, the targets were each presented for 200 ms and the interstimulus interval duration was 400 ms (incorrectly reversed in the figure). For Table 1, the ANOVA results shown on the second line correspond to analysis of the task reaction times presented on lines 3 and 4 (Load 2 RT and Load 4 RT). These corrections do not affect any of the conclusions in the paper.. ...
OBJECTIVE: Study short- and long-term transfer effects of a computerized working memory (WM) training programme for patients suffering from working memory deficits after acquired brain injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: A controlled experimental study with a cross-over design. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 21 subjects. Mean age 43.2 years, time since injury/illness onset 37 months (median). The subjects were randomly selected into two groups where one group served as controls. All subjects trained daily for 5 weeks in a computer WM task program. They were followed-up at 4 and 20 weeks after the training. RESULTS: A significant improvement in the trained WM tasks, significant improvements in neuropsychological WM-test results at 4 and 20 weeks after training compared to baseline. Improvement in the subjects rated occupational performance and satisfaction with performance in pre-defined occupational problems. Rated quality-of-life did not change. However, rated overall health increased 20 weeks after ...