Effective language understanding is crucial to maintaining cognitive abilities and learning new information through adulthood. However, age-related changes in cognitive abilities such as working memory (WM) have a profound influence on the products of language comprehension (e.g., problem solving, learning, following instructions). At the same time, the effects of age and working memory on the moment-to-moment processes underlying language comprehension are less well understood. The current project tests the causal role of working memory in language among older adults by examining the effects of a short-term working memory training program on changes in language comprehension. This dissertation describes the development of the iTrain program, a novel home-based computerized training program targeting complex verbal WM performance, and describes the results from a single 3-week randomized controlled training experiment testing the efficacy of iTrain on improving verbal working memory, language ...
There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study. This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimers disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory ...
There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study. This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimers disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory (WM-CD)
Despite interest in computerized working memory training as a transdiagnostic intervention, little is known about its feasibility and efficacy in addiction treatment settings. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of working memory training for improving performance on
One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity) presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm). Participants episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain
Hamilton, Colin, Nilsson, Jonna, Robinson, Lucy, Salgado, Juliana, Ferrier, Nicol and Gallagher, Peter (2012) Can impairment in visualization contribute to poor visuospatial working memory performance in Major Depressive Disorder? In: 13th European Workshop on Imagery and Cognition (EWIC 2012), 20 -22 June 2012, Bochum, Germany. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Background: Cognitive impairment is a very frequent and severe nonmotor symptom of Parkinsons disease (PD). Early intervention in this at-risk group for cognitive decline may be crucial for long-term preservation of cognitive functions. Computerized working memory training (WMT) has been proven beneficial in non-PD patient populations, but such evidence is still needed for patients with PD. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of WMT on visuo-spatial working memory (WM) in cognitively unimpaired patients with PD. Methods: A single-blind randomized controlled trial encompassing 76 patients with PD but no cognitive impairment according to level II diagnostic criteria was conducted. Thirty-seven patients engaged in home-based adaptive WMT 5 times per week for a period of 5 weeks, whereas the remaining patients were in the waiting list arm of the study (control group [CG]). Working memory performance was evaluated using a computerized task before and after intervention and at 14-week follow
Twenty-nine pediatric patients (age range, 10-16 years) with working memory (WM) deficits, including children with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity and children with ADHD, underwent a Cogmed WM training program. For both patient groups, WM performance on Cogmed tasks and on the Digit Span test improved significantly after training. Moreover, the PBD group improved on Trails Making Test A and on the Inhibition Scale, the Behavior Regulation Index, and the Global Executive Composite of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function. The ADHD group improved significantly on the Trails Making Test B, the Spatial Span Test, and the Reading Fluency Test of the Woodcock-Johnson III, as well as on depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that working memory training is beneficial not only in youths with ADHD but also in youths with PBD. They also show evidence of near and far transfer of WM improvement in these patients
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder associated with a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11. In addition to high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, children with 22q11DS have a specific neuropsychological profile with particular deficits in visuospatial and working memory. However, the neurobiological substrate underlying these deficits is poorly understood. We investigated brain function during a visuospatial working memory (SWM) task in eight children with 22q11DS and 13 healthy controls, using fMRI. Both groups showed task-related activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and bilateral parietal association cortices. Controls activated parietal and occipital regions significantly more than those with 22q11DS but there was no significant between-group difference in DLPFC. In addition, while controls had a significant age-related increase in the activation of posterior brain regions and an ...
Objectives: Cerebral ischemia results from a variety of causes that cerebral blood flow is reduced due to a transient or permanent occlusion of cerebral arteries. Reactive astrocytes and microglial activation plays an important role in the neuronal cell death during ischemic insult. Acupunctural treatment is effective for symptom improvement in cerebrovascular accident, including cerebral ischemia. Methods: In the present study, the effects of acupuncture at the ST40 acupoint on short-term memory and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia were investigated using gerbils. Transient global ischemia was induced by occlusion of both common carotid arteries with aneurysm clips for 5 min. Acupuncture stimulation was conducted once daily for 7 consecutive days, starting one day after surgery. Results: In the present results, ischemia induction deteriorated short term memory, increased apoptosis, and induced reactive astrocyte and microglial activation.
Peers, P., Astle, D., Duncan, J., Murphy, F., Hampshire, A., Das, T., & Manly, T. (2020). Dissociable effects of attention vs working memory training on cognitive performance and everyday functioning following fronto-parietal strokes.. Neuropsychological rehabilitation, 30 (6), 1092-1114. https://doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2018.1554534 ...
Purpose: Evaluation of two different training schedules of a computer based working memory training (BrainStim) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method: Forty-five MS outpatients were allocated to two different training groups and a control
TY - CONF. T1 - Mathematical Anxiety influences the cortical connectivity profiles in lower alpha band during working memory tasks. AU - Bayrak, Şeyma. AU - Margulies, Daniel. AU - Bamidis, Panagiotis. AU - Klados, Manousos A.. PY - 2016/7/30. Y1 - 2016/7/30. N2 - Introduction Highly math-anxious (HMA) individuals are characterized by a strong tendency to avoid math, which ultimately undercuts their math competence and forecloses important career paths (Ashcraft, 2002). It is hypothesized that worries and intrusive thoughts associated with math anxiety (MA) reduce working memory resources needed for cognitively demanding math tasks (Chang & Beilock, 2016). However, mental processes that access the memory representations of mathematical knowledge has not been fully uncovered (Ashcraft, 2001). Previous studies indicate that the frontal cortex is dominantly involved in working memory (WM) and more specifically while updating the working memory representations (Smith & Jonides, 1997). Additionally, ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Transient and sustained activity in a distributed neural system for human working memory
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coherence between fMRI time-series distinguishes two spatial working memory networks. AU - Curtis, Clayton E.. AU - Sun, Felice T.. AU - Miller, Lee M.. AU - DEsposito, Mark. N1 - Funding Information: We thank John Ollinger, Ben Inglis, and Vikas Rao for technical assistance. This work was supported by grants from NIH and the James S. McDonnell Foundation (CEC).. PY - 2005/5/15. Y1 - 2005/5/15. N2 - Widespread and distributed brain regions are thought to form networks that together support working memory. We recently demonstrated that different cortical areas maintain relatively different codes across a memory delay (Curtis et. al., J Neurosci, 2004; 24:3944-3952). The frontal eye fields (FEF), for example, were more active during the delay when the direction of the memory-guided saccade was known compared to when it was not known throughout the delay. Other areas showed the opposite pattern. Despite these task-dependent differences in regional activity, we could only assume but ...
Auditory working memory weakness can cause problems in the classroom. Here are my top 10 strategies for managing these weaknesses.
Background The capacity of visual working memory (WM) is substantially limited and only a fraction of what we see is maintained as a temporary trace. The process of binding visual features has been proposed as an adaptive means of minimising information demands on WM. However the neural mechanisms underlying this process, and its modulation by task and load effects, are not well understood. Objective To investigate the neural correlates of feature binding and its modulation by WM load during the sequential phases of encoding, maintenance and retrieval. Methods and Findings 18 young healthy participants performed a visuospatial WM task with independent factors of load and feature conjunction (object identity and position) in an event-related functional MRI study. During stimulus encoding, load-invariant conjunction-related activity was observed in left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus. During maintenance, greater activity for task demands of feature conjunction versus single features, and for
Causes of Short Term Memory Loss. The causes of short term memory loss can be quite varied, ranging from neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimers disease, to Vitamin B-12 deficiency and certain prescription medications. See this list of memory loss causes for more detail.. Free Brain Age Games Challenge a friend. Hello . Play game. This game will give your short term memory a good developmental workout. In this exercise you need to click on the buckyballs that you see light up in the order that they appear. Six is a good score in this game but it is infinitely long, a seven year old autistic boy was able to …. Short Term memory. classic memory game with 4 different levels. Brain games math games puzzle games Word Games Crosswords Sudoku Memory Games Downloads. Restart Fullscreen donate short term Memory. Play. Favorite. Favorite. Click to add this game to your favorites. share. rate. Current …. ...
The severe capacity limit of visual working memory (VWM) necessitates an efficient filtering mechanism to represent task-relevant items in VWM and restrict task irrelevant items from consuming capacity. Previous studies have shown that selective attention benefits post-perceptual as well as perceptual processing by filtering unnecessary items out of VWM (Vogel, McCollough, & Machizawa, 2005). The present study asked whether the attentional filtering is supported by the same mechanism across various loci of VWM processing such as encoding and retention stages. To answer this question, we measured the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a neural index of VWM capacity, while participants filtered out task-irrelevant VWM representations. Participants were asked to remember four sample color squares to be tested after a 1s delay period. In the selective encoding condition, a position-cue was presented at one of the four color squares at the sample display. The position-cue indicated a test location, ...
Pinotsis, D.A., Buschman, T.J. and Miller, E.K. (2018) Working Memory Load Modulates Neuronal Coupling. Cerebral Cortex, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy065. Abstract: There is a severe limitation in the number of items that can be held in working memory. However, the neurophysiological limits remain unknown. We asked whether the capacity limit might be explained by differences in neuronal coupling. We developed a theoretical model based on Predictive Coding and used it to analyze Cross Spectral Density data from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), frontal eye fields (FEF), and lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Monkeys performed a change detection task. The number of objects that had to be remembered (memory load) was varied (1-3 objects in the same visual hemifield). Changes in memory load changed the connectivity in the PFC-FEF-LIP network. Feedback (top-down) coupling broke down when the number of objects exceeded cognitive capacity. Thus, impaired behavioral performance coincided with a ...
The ability of the nervous system to retain, manipulate and use visual information which is no longer present in the external environment contributes to intelligent behaviour. A new approach to studying visual working memory has led to re-evaluation of the nature of its limitations in keeping with a finite memory resource which is flexibly distributed across space according to attentional priority. Using a novel behavioural paradigm to study visual working memory precision for sequentially presented items, I demonstrate how the resolution with which healthy subjects recall simple objects changes dynamically with each new item in the sequence. Stochastic modelling of the distribution of responses suggested that memory for earlier objects in the sequence was especially prone to failure in integration of visual features, such as orientation and colour, into complete objects. Next, I examined how memory precision was affected by attentional selection according to the relative behavioural relevance ...
Cigarette smoking may selectively enhance VSWM and attentional deficits in smokers with schizophrenia, which may depend on nAChR stimulation. These findings may have implications for understanding the high rates of smoking in schizophrenia and for developing pharmacotherapies for cognitive deficits …
The Brain & Cognition lab has been investigating the interplay between attentional prioritization and working memory for several years. In two recently funded projects by the British Academy and the Royal Society to Nahid Zokaei (British Academy Post-doctoral Fellowship) and Freek van Ede (Newton International Fellowship), we will be further investigating how information in working memory can be dynamically prioritized and what neural mechanisms prior to encoding and during working-memory maintenance contribute to this. This builds on recent research in the lab demonstrating that cues presented during working memory maintenance can dynamically prioritize items in working memory (Wallis et al., 2015) and that ongoing brain states (alpha oscillations) can influence the precision of subsequent working memory representations (Myers et al., 2014).. Experimental Approach. This research programme makes use of behavioural psychophysical experiments as well as state-of-the-art neuroimaging methodologies ...
GABA tea can be used to treat alcohol withdrawal symptoms as well as reducing the effects of alcohol consumption. GABA for alcohol withdrawal is a hangover cure and can prevent hangovers if consumed prior to drinking alcohol.
Our ability to remember what we have seen is very limited. Most current views characterize this limit as a fixed number of items-only four objects-that can be held in visual working memory. We show that visual memory capacity is not fixed by the number of objects, but rather is a limited resource that is shared out dynamically between all items in the visual scene. This resource can be shifted flexibly between objects, with allocation biased by selective attention and toward targets of upcoming eye movements. The proportion of resources allocated to each item determines the precision with which it is remembered, a relation that we show is governed by a simple power law, allowing quantitative estimates of resource distribution in a scene.
Acute hyperglycemia affects brain metabolite concentration and performance on spatial working memory tasks in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Subjects. Male Sprague Dawley CAMM rats (n = 6 per experiment) weighing 240-280 gm were paired and housed in filter frame cages. The rats were kept on a 12 hr light/dark cycle, and the experiments were conducted during the light phase. The animals were fed a diet of autoclaved Purina rat chow (17 gm/rat per day) immediately after behavioral testing. Water was available ad libitum. Rats were weighed weekly, and weights were maintained at ∼400-450 gm. Food rewards during cognitive testing were highly palatable miniature chocolate chips, thus minimizing the need for dietary regulation. Rats were assigned a single experimenter who handled them extensively before behavioral testing. The experimenter testing the animal was blind to the drug treatment conditions.. Delayed alternation. The delayed-alternation task was selected for comparison with previous studies of (1) PFC DA depletion and (2) stress, which similarly used this paradigm. The delayed-alternation task uses a number of processes ...
Subjects. Male Sprague Dawley CAMM rats (n = 6 per experiment) weighing 240-280 gm were paired and housed in filter frame cages. The rats were kept on a 12 hr light/dark cycle, and the experiments were conducted during the light phase. The animals were fed a diet of autoclaved Purina rat chow (17 gm/rat per day) immediately after behavioral testing. Water was available ad libitum. Rats were weighed weekly, and weights were maintained at ∼400-450 gm. Food rewards during cognitive testing were highly palatable miniature chocolate chips, thus minimizing the need for dietary regulation. Rats were assigned a single experimenter who handled them extensively before behavioral testing. The experimenter testing the animal was blind to the drug treatment conditions.. Delayed alternation. The delayed-alternation task was selected for comparison with previous studies of (1) PFC DA depletion and (2) stress, which similarly used this paradigm. The delayed-alternation task uses a number of processes ...
Duration of Short-Term Memory. To study how long short-term memory lasts, rehearsal must not be allowed to refresh information in short-term memory or to transfer it to long-term memory. The Peterson and Peterson procedure (also known as the Brown-Peterson procedure) minimizes rehearsal and recoding by tying up active processes in short-term memory during the retention interval (time between getting items and recalling them). They are tied up by having participants count backwards by 3s. Counting backwards requires mental computation and speaking, so it leaves little chance for rehearsal and recoding (Peterson,1966). A typical experiment goes like this. The participant receives three items to remember, say three separate words, like DOCTOR, COOK, PLUMBER. Immediately afterward the participant receives a 3- digit number and starts counting backwards by 3s (378, 375, 372, 369, . . . ) until the experimenter asks the participant to report the three words. Practiced subjects get about 50% of the 3 ...
The hippocampus is critical for spatial memory formation in rodents. Calcium currents through L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (L-VSCCs) are increased in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus of aged rats. We have recently shown that expression of the calcium conducting L-VSCC subunit alpha(1D) (Ca(v)1.3) is selectively increased in area CA1 of aged rats. We and others have speculated that excessive Ca(2+) influx through L-VSCC may be detrimental to memory formation. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between age-related working memory decline and alpha(1D) protein expression in the hippocampus. In addition, we studied the effects of chronic treatment with the L-VSCC antagonist nimodipine (NIM) on age-related working memory deficits and alpha(1D) expression in the hippocampus. Here we report that age-related increases in alpha(1D) expression in area CA1 correlate with working memory impairment in Fischer 344 rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chronic NIM treatment ameliorates age-related
The sensory recruitment model envisages visual working memory (VWM) as an emergent property that is encoded and maintained in sensory (visual) regions. The model implies that enhanced sensory-perceptual functions, as in synaesthesia, entail a dedicated VWM-system, showing reduced visual cortex activity as a result of neural specificity. By contrast, sensory-perceptual decline, as in old age, is expected to show enhanced visual cortex activity as a result of neural broadening. To test this model, young grapheme-color synaesthetes, older adults and young controls engaged in a delayed pair-associative retrieval and a delayed matching-to-sample task, consisting of achromatic fractal stimuli that do not induce synaesthesia. While a previous analysis of this dataset (Pfeifer et al., 2016) has focused on cued retrieval and recognition of pair-associates (i.e., long-term memory), the current study focuses on visual working memory and considers, for the first time, the crucial delay period in which no visual
Objectives: Sentence comprehension requires linguistic information to be maintained in a verbal working memory store whilst thematic role assignment is being undertaken. A current divisive issue in psycholinguistic research centres around the precise nature of this memory resource. Two distinct models have been proposed: 1) a general memory resource exists to support the processing of both sentences and non-syntactic information, and 2) a sentence-specific working memory pool facilitates only the processing of syntax. The present study aims to provide support for the former model by investigating patients with post-stroke language disorders (aphasia), who are unable to comprehend sentences involving complex syntactic structures. Method: An integrated sentence-picture matching and memory load dual-task was presented to 55 healthy control participants, 4 aphasics and 6 non-aphasic stroke patients. Sentences differed in complexity, from simple actives to centre-embedded subject-relatives (SRs). ...
Visual working memory allows us to temporarily maintain and manipulate visual information in order to solve a task. The study of the brain mechanisms underlying this function began more than half a century ago, with Scoville and Milners (1957) seminal discoveries with amnesic patients. This timely collection of papers brings together diverse perspectives on the cognitive neuroscience of visual working memory from multiple fields that have traditionally been fairly disjointed: human neuroimaging, electrophysiological, behavioural and animal lesion studies, investigating both the developing and the adult brain ...
BACKGROUND: Patients with depression show abnormalities in the neural circuitry supporting working memory. These abnormalities apparently persist into clinical remission, raising the possibility that they might be trait markers indicating vulnerability to depression. METHODS: We studied 17 young people who had a depressed parent but no personal history of depressive illness (FH) and 15 healthy control subjects with no family history of depression. Participants performed a verbal working memory task of varying cognitive load (n-back) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. We used multiple regression analyses to assess overall capacity (1-, 2-, 3-back vs. 0-back) as well as linear and quadratic modulation of cognitive demand. RESULTS: Performance accuracy and response latency did not differ between groups, and overall capacity was similar. However, for both linear and quadratic load response activity, FH participants showed greater activation in lateral occipital cortex, superior
Verbal short-term memory and temporary activation of language representations: the importance of distinguishing item and order ...
The STM was assessed using a spontaneous spatial alternation task in a T-maze. C57-Bl/6 J male mice were distributed in 4 groups according to treatment (0.1 nmol of NPS or vehicle intracerebroventricular injection) and to 20 h-SR. Immediately after behavioural testing, regional c-fos immunohistochemistry was performed and used as a neural activation marker for spatial short term memory (prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus) and emotional reactivity (basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using elevated-plus maze task ...
Selective attention, the ability to focus our cognitive resources on information relevant to our goals, influences working memory (WM) performance. Indeed, attention and working memory are increasingly viewed as overlapping constructs. Here, we review recent evidence from human neurophysiological studies demonstrating that top-down modulation serves as a common neural mechanism underlying these two cognitive operations. The core features include activity modulation in stimulus-selective sensory cortices with concurrent engagement of prefrontal and parietal control regions that function as sources of top-down signals. Notably, top-down modulation is engaged during both stimulus-present and stimulus-absent stages of WM tasks; that is, expectation of an ensuing stimulus to be remembered, selection and encoding of stimuli, maintenance of relevant information in mind and memory retrieval.
Consistent with the idea of the RE acting as a gate or nodal hub for information flow between mPFC and HPC (Vertes et al., 2007; Cassel et al., 2013; Varela et al., 2014), the role of the RE in a host of memory tasks is being increasingly recognized. RE lesions or inactivation have a particularly detrimental effect on spatial working memory tasks requiring interactions between mPFC and HPC, but not those that only require HPC activity alone (Davoodi et al., 2009; Hembrook and Mair, 2011; Hembrook et al., 2012). The RE also has a described role in determining the generalization and specificity of contextual fear memories (Xu and Südhof, 2013). A critical role of the RE in forming long-term (,24 h) memories, but not acquisition or short-term memories, has also been demonstrated (Loureiro et al., 2012; Barker and Warburton, 2018). Importantly, however, many studies have used behavioral tasks that assess influences of RE impairments at only short delays or periods in which animals may not have ...
The THC in Marijuana has been known to have effects on the human brain specifically Short Term Memory loss and the ability to learn while high on medical m
Question - Anxiety, low BP, pulse, short term memory loss, heart failure. wants to take inderal. How long does the medication take to have an effect ?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Inderal, Ask a General & Family Physician
Question - What is the treatment for muscle weakness, abdominal pain and metallic taste with short term memory problems and depression?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Insulin therapy is advised, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
Does your teen seem to be too forgetful of late, unable to recall past events ? This can be short term memory loss in teens. Know the causes & treatment options.
Question by James: Will short term memory from weed last forever? Im a 14 year old kid im really scared i tried weed once like one puff and now im freaking
In his article Short-Term Memory and Web Usability, Jakob Nielsen points out that the human mind cant store much information in short term memory and that this is especially true when they are bombarded with multiple abstract or unusual pieces of data in rapid succession. He cites research that suggests our short-term memory holds only about seven chunks of information, and that these fade from our brain in about 20 seconds.. Dashboards work by overcoming this limitation of short-term memory. By displaying all relevant information on a single screen within a users eye span, they reduce the dependence on the short term memory. You dont have to remember anything because its all there in front of your eyes.. What is it that the human mind seeks that is so nicely provided by information dashboards?. However, in many scenarios, there is so much data that it wont fit on a single screen. Dashboards work around the limits of short-term memory in three ways: ...
The limitation of working memory to hold discrete units to an amount of 7 ± 2 items is called memory span and is a well proven finding in the field of cognitive research. The digit memory span test measure how many digits a subject can reproduce from a series of digits presented to them. The length of the series is increased with each correct reproduction. The test is aborted when the subject failed to reproduce two consecutive sequences. The length of the last correctly reproduced sequence is the estimate of the memory span. If the reproduction should be in reverse order, the executive control function is more prominent since the items must be re-ordered.. This task is relying heavily on an articulatory control process which is used for verbal rehearsal which was traditionally considered as the short term memory. In contemporary models of the working memory, there is also visuo-spatial sketch pad which handles non-symbolic information such as images and spatial information. The drastic ...
This diagram is a simple model of working memory showing the three main parts. The central executive is the decision maker that directs attention, selects and sends information to the two storage components. The two storage components are referred to as the visuo-spatial short-term memory and the verbal short-term memory. The visuo-spatial short-term memory stores information in the form of pictures such as objects, people and places whereas the verbal short-term memory stores speech information such as letter sounds, words, phrases, or sentences. Both parts have limited storage and work quite differently. They are connected to the central executive where the two types of information can be linked in some way ...
TY - ABST. T1 - Using performance discontinuities to estimate individual Working-Memory Capacities in serial recall tasks. AU - Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Although formal models are frequently used to infer working-memory capacity (C) from visual array tasks (Cowan, 2001, Table 2; Luck & Vogel, 2013), Complex Span tasks, on the other hand, are typically scored using variants of the mean number- or the mean proportion of correctly recalled items (e.g. Redick et al, 2012; Conway, 2005). Though useful as indices, they are not interpretable as C, partially because they are confounded by the range of spans presented to the subjects. I propose the rate change score of working-memory capacity which has just three parameters: (1) C, the subjects capacity which marks a shift from (2) PC , a high Bernoulli-proportion of correctly recalled items, to (3) Pother, a lower Bernoulli-proportion of recall for further presented items. A Bayesian rate-change model was ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Classification of EEG features for prediction of working memory load. AU - Abrantes,Anthony. AU - Comitz,Elizabeth. AU - Mosaly,Prithima. AU - Mazur,Lukasz. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - The objective of this research was to compare classification methods aimed at predicting working memory (WM) load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data was collected from physicians while performing basic WM tasks and simulated medical scenarios. Data processing was performed to remove noise from the signal used for analysis (e.g., muscle activity, eye-blinks). The data from basic WM tasks was used to develop and test the four classification models (LASSO regression, support vector machines (SVM), nearest shrunken centroids (NSC), and iterated supervised principal components (ISPC) to predict a WM state indicative of physicians optimal performance. The naïve misclassification rate was 19.74 %; LASSO and SVM outperformed this threshold: 18.10 and 12.21 % respectively). Both classification models had ...
Dec 17, 2011 - Explore Kimberly Andersons board Memory book ideas, followed by 737 people on Pinterest. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Born to Montasser and Nagla Hassan, the only girl and the youngest with two older brothers, nine and seven years apart. The ability to remember the numbers is part of his short-term memory. Phonological memory deficits in language disordered children: Is there a causal connection?, Journal of Memory and Language, 29,336-360. Memory & Cognition is a publication of the Psychonomic Society. Recall the seating ar… Highlights Monolingual and bilingual 5- to 7-year-olds performed visuospatial working memory tasks. Here, we establish associations between working memory, other cognitive abilities, and functional MRI (fMRI) activation in data from over 11,500 9- to 10-year-old children (both sexes) enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study in … Each phase and year of the childs life has custom ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Working memory in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. T2 - Functional MR imaging analysis. AU - Chen, Chi-Jen. AU - Wu, Chih-Hsiung. AU - Liao, Yen Peng. AU - Hsu, Hui Ling. AU - Tseng, Ying-Chi. AU - Liu, Ho Ling. AU - Chiu, Wen-Ta. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Purpose: To analyze brain activation patterns in response to tests of working memory after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Materials and Methods: Research ethics committee approval and patient written informed consent were obtained. Brain activation patterns in response to n-back working memory tasks (n = 1, 2, 3) were assessed with functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 20 patients with MTBI within 1 month after their injury and in 18 healthy control subjects. In n-back working memory tasks, participants monitored a series of number stimuli and were to indicate when the presented number was the same as that presented n back previously. Nine (45%) MTBI patients underwent follow-up functional MR ...
Introduction. SOPHIE ELLIS WORKING MEMORY MODEL WHAT IS THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL? The working memory model was proposed by two men called Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974. This model was an alternative to Atkinson & Shiffrins multi-store memory model (1968) to show that short-term memory was actually a lot more complex than the MSM (multi-store model) had previously suggested. Although the MSM was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. This is an improvement over the multi-store model of memory because it is more detailed, and therefore we can learn more about the stores of memory in the brain from it. The working model proposes an active, multi-component short-term memory store with each sub-system having its own role to play in learning, problem solving and concentration. ...read more. Middle. It is helpful to think of it as ...
Got ADHD? The problem is focus; right? Question is, is there a problem beneath the problem? In this episode of Attention Talk Radio, ADHD coach Jeff Copper (https://digcoaching.com) talks about visual working memory (the minds eye) in the context of Dr. Russell Barkleys ADHD construct. Jeff shares ways of understanding visual working memory, talk about its challenges with those with ADHD, and look at its impact on focus issues that are actually based on working memory. He will bring attention to making the concept more tangible to understand the challenge and its impact and will share a mindset to help you manage working memory challenges to help you focus. If you have ADHD and realize the value of understanding the core issues to problem solve, dont miss this episode. Attention Talk Radio is the leading site for self-help Internet radio shows focusing on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attention deficit disorder (ADD), including managing symptoms of attention deficit disorder,
The classic modal model of memory argues that short term memory (STM) serves as the primary gateway for the formation of long term memory (LTM) representations (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Over the years, though, this model has been disregarded by many because of various incompatible results. For example, one common interpretation of this model is that STM serves as an incubator that strengthens representations through repeated rehearsal so that they can be successfully transferred to LTM. However, several researchers have found that longer periods of retention and rehearsal in STM does not lead to better LTM representations (e.g. Craik Watkins, 1973). In this study, we took a different approach to test this model. Rather than conceptualizing STM as an incubator, we instead tested whether it serves as the gate that filters what information from the environment will ultimately be encoded into LTM. It is well known that individuals substantially and reliably vary in their STM capacity. ...
This chapter discusses the development of working memory as children grow up. It argues that working memory is an important resource for acquiring and performing cognitive skills and that its limited capacity places key constraints on childrens abilities. It then describes some of the tasks that have been used to explore working memory in adults. It makes a key distinction between simple span tasks, used to assess the capacity to hold different types of temporary information, and complex span tasks that assess the ability to hold and manipulate temporary information. The chapter outlines the developmental progression of performance in these tasks. It discusses the possible role of speed of information processing as a general factor accounting for developmental change in all aspects of working memory. It also explores whether the structure of working memory is the same in children and adults, and whether working memory serves similar cognitive functions in children. A final topic concerns the ...
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) provides an on-line mental space for incoming sensory information to be temporally maintained to carry out complex behavioral tasks. Despite its essential functions, the capacity at which VSTM could maintain sensory information is limited (i.e., VSTM can hold only about three to four visual items at once). Moreover, the quality of sensory representation (i.e., precision) degrades as more information has to be maintained in VSTM. Correlational evidence suggests that the level and the pattern of neural activity measured in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) track both VSTM capacity and precision. However, the causal contributions of the PPC to these different VSTM operations are unclear. Here, we tested whether stimulating the PPC with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could increase VSTM capacity or precision. We found that stimulating the PPC in male and female human participants selectively enhanced VSTM capacity when the number of memory items ...
0090] Various aspects of the subject-matter described herein are set out non-exhaustively in the following numbered clauses: [0091] 1. A method of operation within a memory device having a memory core and a signaling interface, the method comprising: [0092] receiving a command that specifies at least a portion of a memory access; and during the memory access: [0093] transferring data between the memory core and the signaling interface; [0094] transferring the data between the signaling interface and an external signal path; and [0095] receiving enable information prior to transferring the data between the signaling interface and the external signal path, the enable information to selectively enable at least a first memory resource and a second memory resource, wherein each of the first memory resource and the second memory resource performs a control function associated with the memory access. [0096] 2. The method of clause 1 wherein receiving enable information to selectively enable at least a ...
Multiple sclerosis is one of the autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis occurs through multiple mechanisms, and it is also mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Swimming exercise has been recommended for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of swimming exercise on short-term memory in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following induction of multiple sclerosis. For this study, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. The animal model of multiple sclerosis was made by bilateral intracerebral ventricle injection of ethidium bromide. The rats in the swimming exercise groups were forced to swim for 30 min once daily for 14 consecutive days, starting 3 days after induction of multiple sclerosis. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated in ...
Everyone forgets things a number of the time. You forget why you chose to enter and completely walk right into an area. Youre mid- space and unexpectedly dialog -out what was only said.. Although odd and sometimes embarassing, short-term memory loss below a specific threshold does not mean anything. But if youre experiencing unexplained, sudden and major trouble remembering things that only occurred, maybe its a symptom of a larger issue.. The mind is the seat of recollection. Short-term memory losses typically happen when the brain or nervous system changes for some reason. Here will be the most typical and significant reasons for short-term memory loss, a.k.a anterograde amnesia, in no specific sequence. ...
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Henrietta is interested in the use of experimental methodologies to examine the nature of the relations between aspects of cognition, psychopathology, and self-regulation. Henrietta completed her PhD examining the relationship between rumination and cognitive inhibition under the supervision of Professors Ed Watkins and Andy Wills. Henrietta worked as a post-doc for Dr Barney Dunn on a project examining the associations between mood disorders and reward sensitivity in a large community cohort. Henrietta is currently working with Dr Anna Adlam on an ISSF funded project examining whether working memory training reduces repetitive negative thinking. Henrietta additionally works for Anna supporting a trial evaluating a working memory training intervention for children with an acquired brain injury.. ...
en] The phonological loop and central executive components of working memory were examined in patients with Alzheimers disease (AD patients) and elderly controls. Patients with Alzheimers disease showed reduced verbal spans, with smaller phonological similarity and word length effects. They also showed a decreased performance in tasks examining processing speed and articulation rate. However, phonological analysis was normal. With regard to the central executive, AD patients showed deficits in an alphabetical span task in which subjects were asked to recall a random series of words in their alphabetical order, while they performed normally on a dual task in which they had to perform simultaneously a digit repetition and a visuomotor task. These results suggests that Alzheimers disease may affect several components of working memory but all aspects of the central executive mechanism are not necessarily affected ...
Gene-targeted mice lacking the AMPA receptor subunit glutamate receptor-A (GluRA) (GluR1) and wild-type controls were compared on a radial-maze task in which the same three of six arms were always baited, but in which the rewards of milk were not replaced within a trial. This procedure allowed not only a within-subjects but also a within-trials assessment of both spatial working memory (WM) and reference memory (RM) in GluRA-/- mice, using identical spatial cues. In experiment 1, the GluRA-/- mice made more WM and RM errors during task acquisition. However, separate groups of GluRA-/- and wild-type mice (experiment 2) acquired a purely RM version of the task at a similar rate, using a paradigm with which it was not possible to make WM errors (doors prevented mice from re-entering an arm that they had already visited on that trial). In contrast, mice with hippocampal lesions were dramatically impaired. These results are consistent with the possibility that the WM impairment in the GluRA-/- mice during
A large corpus of research indicates that exposure to stress impairs cognitive abilities, specifically executive functioning dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We collected structural MRI scans (n = 61), well-validated assessments of executive functioning, and detailed interviews assessing stress exposure in humans to examine whether cumulative life stress affected brain morphometry and one type of executive functioning, spatial working memory, during adolescence-a critical time of brain development and reorganization. Analysis of variations in brain structure revealed that cumulative life stress and spatial working memory were related to smaller volumes in the PFC, specifically prefrontal gray and white matter between the anterior cingulate and the frontal poles. Mediation analyses revealed that individual differences in prefrontal volumes accounted for the association between cumulative life stress and spatial working memory. These results suggest that structural changes in the PFC may ...
In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about ones environment and spatial orientation. For example, a persons spatial memory is required in order to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rats spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze. It is often argued that in both humans and animals, spatial memories are summarized as a cognitive map. Spatial memory has representations within working, short-term memory and long-term memory. Research indicates that there are specific areas of the brain associated with spatial memory. Many methods are used for measuring spatial memory in children, adults, and animals. Short-term memory (STM) can be described as a system allowing one to temporarily store and manage information that is necessary to complete complex cognitive tasks. Tasks which employ short-term memory include learning, reasoning, and comprehension. Spatial memory is a cognitive ...
High comorbidity rates have been reported between mathematical learning disabilities (MD) and reading and spelling disabilities (RSD). Research has identified skills related to math, such as number sense (NS) and visuospatial working memory (visuospatial WM), as well as to literacy, such as phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN) and ... read more verbal short-term memory (Verbal STM). In order to explain the high comorbidity rates between MD and RSD, 7-11-year-old children were assessed on a range of cognitive abilities related to literacy (PA, RAN, Verbal STM) and mathematical ability (visuospatial WM, NS). The group of children consisted of typically developing (TD) children (n = 32), children with MD (n = 26), children with RSD (n = 29), and combined MD and RSD (n = 43). It was hypothesized that, in line with the multiple deficit view on learning disorders, at least one unique predictor for both MD and RSD and a possible shared cognitive risk factor would be found to ...
On the basis of a meta-analysis of pairwise correlations between working memory tasks and cognitive ability measures, P. L. Ackerman, M. E. Beier, and M. O. Boyle (2005; see record 2004-22408-002) claimed that working memory capacity (WMC) shares less than 25% of its variance with general intelligence (g) and with reasoning ability. In this comment, the authors argue that this is an underestimation because of several methodological shortcomings and biases. A reanalysis of the data reported in Ackerman et al. using the correct statistical procedures demonstrates that g and WMC are very highly correlated. On a conceptual level, the authors point out that WMC should be regarded as an explanatory construct for intellectual abilities. Theories of working memory do not claim that WMC is isomorphic with intelligence factors but that it is a very strong predictor of reasoning ability and also predicts general fluid intelligence and g.
Cogmed Working Memory Training is a platform for learning skills. The concept of neuroplasticity, the idea that the brain can reorganize itself and change, is what allows Cogmed to effectively change the way the brain functions to perform at its maximum capacity. There are many training programs for various skills such as reading, math, or time management. Cogmed acts on a different, more fundamental level. Once working memory has improved, your clients will find that acquiring new skills is suddenly much more doable.. ...
Working memory (WM) is part of the brains memory system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of information necessary for cognition. Although WM has limited capacity at any given time, it has vast memory content in the sense that it acts on the brains nearly infinite repertoire of lifetime memories. As described, large memory content and WM functionality emerge spontaneously if the spike-timing nature of neuronal processing is taken into account. The memories are represented by extensively overlapping groups of neurons that exhibit stereotypical time-locked spatiotemporal spike-timing patterns, called polychronous patterns. Using computer-implemented simulations, associative synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term STDP selects such polychronous neuronal groups (PNGs) into WM by temporarily strengthening the synapses of the selected PNGs. This strengthening increases the spontaneous reactivation frequency of the selected PNGs, resulting in irregular, yet systematically changing
To illustrate the power of chunking, Bor gives an astounding example of how one man was able to use this mental mechanism in greatly expanding the capacity of his working memory. The man, an undergraduate volunteer in a psychology experiment with an average IQ and memory capacity, took part in a simple experiment, in which the researchers read to him a sequence of random digits and asked him to say the digits back in the order hed heard them. If he was correct, the next trial sequence would be one digit longer; if incorrect, one digit shorter. This standard test for verbal working memory had one twist - it took place over two years, where the young man did this task for an hour a day four days a week.. Initially, he was able to remember roughly 7 numbers in the sequence - an average improvement over the 4-item limit that most people arrive at with a few simple and intuitive rehearsal strategies. But the young man was so bored with the experiment he decided to make it interesting for himself by ...
Free Online Library: The effects of multiple exemplar training on a working memory task involving sequential responding in children with autism.(Report) by The Psychological Record; Psychology and mental health Autism Autistic children Physiological aspects Memory Psychophysiology Research Short-term memory Demographic aspects Special education
Cogmed Working Memory Training is an evidence-based program for helping children, adolescents, and adults sustainably improve attention by training their working memory. Founded in 2001 by neuroscientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, Cogmed training has been in successful use since 2003 and in Australia since 2009. The Cogmed system is applied in more than 20 countries and 10 languages.. Working memory is the ability to keep information in your mind, manipulate it, and use it within short periods of time. It is central to attention, concentration and problem solving. Think of it as your attention stamina in the face of information overload. Strong working memory skills play a key role in academic and workplace success.. Studies consistently show that problems with attention and learning are often caused by poor working memory. That holds true for those with ADHD, learning problems, traumatic brain injury and specific learning disabilities. It is also often true for ...
Worrying about how youll perform on a math test may actually contribute to a lower test score This worry can often sap the brains limited amount of working memory, a resource needed to compute difficult math problems.. This research was conducted by Mark Ashcroft, a psychologist at the University of Nevada Los Vegas. He speculated that math anxiety occupies a persons working memory.. Ashcroft speculated while easy math tasks such as addition require only a small fraction of a persons working memory, harder computations require much more.. Worrying about math takes up a large chunk of a persons working memory stores as well, spelling disaster for the anxious student who is taking a high-stakes test.. Stress about how one does on tests like college entrance exams can make even good math students choke. Although test preparation classes can help students overcome this anxiety, they are limited to students whose families can afford them.. ...
A multi-institutional research team has demonstrated that hyper-activation and weakened functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are neural markers of sequential working memory deficits in de novo Parkinsons disease (PD). This study was published online in Movement Disorders.
Free Online Library: Effects of conspecific and predator odors on defensive behavior, analgesia, and spatial working memory.(Special Issue: Odorous, Behavioral, and Physiological Reactions of Rats to Episodes of Reward, Frustration, Illness, Attack and Threat) by The Psychological Record; Psychology and mental health Animal behavior Research Odors Psychological aspects
Plants definitely have several different forms of memory, just like people do. They have short term memory, immune memory and even transgenerational memory! I know this is a hard concept to grasp for some people, but if memory entails forming the memory (encoding information), retaining the memory (storing information), and recalling the memory (retrieving information), then plants definitely remember. For example a Venus Fly Trap needs to have two of the hairs on its leaves touched by a bug in order to shut, so it remembers that the first one has been touched. But this only lasts about 20 seconds, and then it forgets. Wheat seedlings remember that theyve gone through winter before they start to flower and make seeds. And some stressed plants give rise to progeny that are more resistant to the same stress, a type of transgenerational memory thats also been recently shown also in animals. While the short term memory in the venus fly trap is electricity-based, much like neural activity, the ...
ubjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) or thinking your memory isnt as good as it should be, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) where you have short term memory issues, and, yes, any stage of Alzheimers disease (AD).. Why?. The Memory Caps may boost your memory by improving your brains chemicals, blood flow, and energy. This proprietary formula adds a heightened level of stress protection, brain regeneration, and mental strength. All of these taken together will revitalize, refresh, and renew your brain and maximize your memory. Beyond that, there is a new urgent reason to take them as well!. In the past, I have only prescribed Memory Caps to those people who were losing their memory. Like Sam from New York, who was diagnosed with a memory problem that could have become Alzheimers. He was moving beyond senior moments to where his memory loss was interfering with his life. The Memory Caps helped him.. State-of-the-Art Formula. The Memory Caps are based on my 20 years of clinical experience treating ...
ubjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) or thinking your memory isnt as good as it should be, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) where you have short term memory issues, and, yes, any stage of Alzheimers disease (AD).. Why?. The Memory Caps may boost your memory by improving your brains chemicals, blood flow, and energy. This proprietary formula adds a heightened level of stress protection, brain regeneration, and mental strength. All of these taken together will revitalize, refresh, and renew your brain and maximize your memory. Beyond that, there is a new urgent reason to take them as well!. In the past, I have only prescribed Memory Caps to those people who were losing their memory. Like Sam from New York, who was diagnosed with a memory problem that could have become Alzheimers. He was moving beyond senior moments to where his memory loss was interfering with his life. The Memory Caps helped him.. State-of-the-Art Formula. The Memory Caps are based on my 20 years of clinical experience treating ...
Behavioral evidence indicates that working memory (WM) in schizophrenia is already impaired at the encoding stage. However, the neurophysiological basis of this primary deficit remains poorly understood. Using event-related fMRI, we assessed differences in brain activation and functional connectivity during the encoding, maintenance and retrieval stages of a visual WM task with 3 levels of memory load in 17 adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and 17 matched controls. The amount of information patients could store in WM was reduced at all memory load levels. During encoding, activation in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and extrastriate visual cortex, which in controls positively correlated with the amount of stored information, was reduced in patients. Additionally, patients showed disturbed functional connectivity between prefrontal and visual areas. During retrieval, right inferior VLPFC hyperactivation was correlated with hypoactivation of left VLPFC in patients ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Modern architectures implement relaxed memory models which may reorder memory operations or execute them non-atomically. Special instructions called memory fences are provided, allowing control of this behavior. To implement a concurrent algorithm for a modern architecture, the programmer is forced to manually reason about subtle relaxed behaviors and figure out ways to control these behaviors by adding fences to the program. Not only is this process time consuming and error-prone, but it has to be repeated every time the implementation is ported to a different architecture. In this paper, we present the first scalable framework for handling real-world concurrent algorithms running on relaxed architectures. Given a concurrent C program, a safety specification, and a description of the memory model, our framework tests the program on the memory model to expose violations of the specification, and synthesizes a set of necessary
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing. AU - Newman, Lori A.. AU - Korol, Donna L. AU - Gold, Paul Ernest. PY - 2011/12/13. Y1 - 2011/12/13. N2 - When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory ...
Baddeley, the great researcher on human memory has found out that when given a test to recollect words uttered was given to a group of respondents the result was that people failed to recall words with same meanings like small, tiny, minute etc..Short-term memoryThis is a much more volatile memory that stores information just for a period of several seconds to few minutes with out memorizing it by heart. George A. Miller, held various demonstrations and the conclusion was that the storage capacity of short -term memory was just 7 ± 2 entities (he presented a paper entitled The magical number 7±2). In the present day the projected capability of short-term memory is still less. But hen the same group of words or letters, for an example is presented in different order, greater are the chances for recollecting it.For example it is difficult to recollect the stringFBIUNOASDFUSBut when the same string is presented as below, greater chances re there for anyone to recollect itFBI UNO ASDF USIn the ...
I saw your post and thought I would comment,. George Millers classic 1956 study on short-term memory found that the amount of information which can be remembered on one exposure is between five and nine items, depending on the information. Applying a range of +2 or -2, the number 7 became known as Millers Magic Number, the number of items which can be held in Short-Term Memory at any one time. Miller himself stated that his magic number was for items with one aspect. His work is based on subjects listening to a number of auditory tones that varied only in pitch. Each tone was presented separately, and the subject was asked to identify each tone relative to the others she had already heard, by assigning it a number. After about five or six tones, subjects began to get confused, and their capacity for making further tone judgments broke down. He found this to be true of a number of other tasks. But if more aspects are included, then we can remember more, depending upon our familiarity and the ...