Intermediate-term memory (ITM) is a stage of memory distinct from sensory memory, working memory/short-term memory, and long-term memory.[1][2] While sensory memory persists for several milliseconds, working memory persists for up to thirty seconds, and long-term memory persists from thirty minutes to the end of an individuals life, intermediate-term memory persists for about two to three hours.[3] This overlap in the durations of these memory processes indicates that they occur simultaneously, rather than sequentially. Indeed, intermediate-term facilitation can be produced in the absence of long-term facilitation.[4] However, the boundaries between these forms of memory are not clear-cut, and they can vary depending on the task.[5] Intermediate-term memory is thought to be supported by the parahippocampal cortex.[6] In 1993, Rosenzweig and colleagues demonstrated that, in rats conditioned with an aversive stimulus, percent avoidance of the stimulus (and, by implication, memory of the aversive ...
This study examined the development of declarative and procedural memory longitudinally in primary school-aged children. At present, although there is a general consensus that age-related improvements during this period can be found for declarative memory, there are conflicting data on the developmental trajectory of the procedural memory system. At Time 1 children aged around 5 years were presented with measures of declarative and procedural memory. The tasks were then administered 12 months later. Performance on the declarative memory task was found to improve at a faster rate in comparison to the procedural memory task. The findings of the study support the view that multiple memory systems reach functional maturity at different points in development ...
Introduction. SOPHIE ELLIS WORKING MEMORY MODEL WHAT IS THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL? The working memory model was proposed by two men called Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974. This model was an alternative to Atkinson & Shiffrins multi-store memory model (1968) to show that short-term memory was actually a lot more complex than the MSM (multi-store model) had previously suggested. Although the MSM was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. This is an improvement over the multi-store model of memory because it is more detailed, and therefore we can learn more about the stores of memory in the brain from it. The working model proposes an active, multi-component short-term memory store with each sub-system having its own role to play in learning, problem solving and concentration. ...read more. Middle. It is helpful to think of it as ...
Long-term memory consolidation such as remote fear memory formation is thought to depend on the gradual transfer of memory traces from hippocampal to cortical structures in a periodic and sleep-dependent process, which may involve the function of clock genes (40). In this study, we analyzed cognitive processing in single and double null mouse mutants of the clock modulators SHARP1 and -2. We discovered that S1/2−/− mice display enhanced performance in cortex-dependent learning tasks, which is paralleled by elevated Igf2 expression and MAPK signaling in the ACx but not the Hi. Moreover, virally modulated IGF2 signaling in the ACC altered remote fear memory formation in WT mice. We conclude that elevated IGF2 expression in the ACx might activate MAPK signaling to enhance memory consolidation in cortex-dependent learning tasks in S1/2−/− mice. MAPK signaling has already been reported to be important for hippocampal memory formation in mice (12) and in long-term memory consolidation in ...
In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about ones environment and spatial orientation. For example, a persons spatial memory is required in order to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rats spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze. It is often argued that in both humans and animals, spatial memories are summarized as a cognitive map. Spatial memory has representations within working, short-term memory and long-term memory. Research indicates that there are specific areas of the brain associated with spatial memory. Many methods are used for measuring spatial memory in children, adults, and animals. Short-term memory (STM) can be described as a system allowing one to temporarily store and manage information that is necessary to complete complex cognitive tasks. Tasks which employ short-term memory include learning, reasoning, and comprehension. Spatial memory is a cognitive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CASK and CaMKII function in the mushroom body α/ß neurons during Drosophila memory formation. T2 - CASK and CaMKII in memory. AU - Malik, Bilal R. AU - Gillespie, John M. AU - Hodge, James J L. PY - 2013/3/27. Y1 - 2013/3/27. N2 - CaMKII is a central molecule in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and memory. A vital feature of CaMKII in plasticity is its ability to switch to a calcium (Ca2+) independent constitutively active state after autophosphorylation at threonine 287 (T287). A second pair of sites, T306 T307 in the calmodulin (CaM) binding region once autophosphorylated, prevent subsequent CaM binding and inactivates the kinase during synaptic plasticity and memory. Recently a synaptic molecule called CASK has been shown to control both sets of CaMKII autophosphorylation events and hence is well poised to be a key regulator of memory. We show deletion of full length CASK or just its CaMK-like and L27 domains disrupts middle-term memory (MTM) and long-term memory (LTM), ...
A memory system is provided that enhances the memory bandwidth available through a memory module. The memory system includes a memory controller and a memory module coupled to the memory controller. In the memory system, the memory controller is coupled to the memory module via at least two independent memory channels. In the memory system, the at least two independent memory channels are coupled to one or more memory hub devices of the memory module.
The hippocampus replays experiences during quiet rest periods, and this replay benefits subsequent memory. A critical open question is how memories are prioritized for this replay. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pattern analysis to track item-level replay in the hippocampus during an awake rest period after participants studied 15 objects and completed a memory test. Objects that were remembered less well were replayed more during the subsequent rest period, suggesting a prioritization process in which weaker memories-memories most vulnerable to forgetting-are selected for replay. In a second session 12 hours later, more replay of an object during a rest period predicted better subsequent memory for that object. Replay predicted memory improvement across sessions only for participants who slept during that interval. Our results provide evidence that replay in the human hippocampus prioritizes weakly learned information, predicts subsequent memory performance, and relates to memory
The classic modal model of memory argues that short term memory (STM) serves as the primary gateway for the formation of long term memory (LTM) representations (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Over the years, though, this model has been disregarded by many because of various incompatible results. For example, one common interpretation of this model is that STM serves as an incubator that strengthens representations through repeated rehearsal so that they can be successfully transferred to LTM. However, several researchers have found that longer periods of retention and rehearsal in STM does not lead to better LTM representations (e.g. Craik Watkins, 1973). In this study, we took a different approach to test this model. Rather than conceptualizing STM as an incubator, we instead tested whether it serves as the gate that filters what information from the environment will ultimately be encoded into LTM. It is well known that individuals substantially and reliably vary in their STM capacity. ...
Memory consolidation requires a timely controlled interplay between the hippocampus, a brain region important for memory formation, and the cortex, a region recruited for memory storage. Here we show that memory consolidation is associated with specific epigenetic modifications on histone proteins that have a distinct dynamic in these brain areas. While in the hippocampus, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are rapidly and transiently activated after learning, in the cortex they are induced with delay but persist over time. When these histone PTMs are increased in vivo by transgenic intervention or intense training, they facilitate memory consolidation. Conversely, when they are pharmacologically blocked, memory consolidation is impaired. These histone PTMs are further associated with the expression of the immediate early gene zif268, a transcription factor that favours memory consolidation. These findings reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of histone marks during memory ...
A memory device including an array of memory cells and a method for copying information within the memory device. Each memory cell includes a first memory sub-cell and a second memory sub-cell. Each memory cell also includes a device that copies information from the first memory sub-cell into the second memory sub-cell. Each memory cell may include a static random access memory (SRAM) cell and may utilize tri-state inverters to make overwriting information easier and reduce power consumption. Each memory cell may also include a second copy device that allows information to be copied from the second memory sub-cell to the first memory sub-cell. The memory device may be provided in a register file of a microprocessor to copy information from an architectural branch register (ABR) file to a speculative branch register (SBR) file.
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Acquired memory impairment commonly occurs after acquired brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizure disorder and encephalitis and is one the defining features of progressive disorders, such as Alzheimers disease. There is a growing body of knowledge about the use of compensatory memory aids in the rehabilitation of memory disorders. This study investigated the effect of the systematic training of compensatory memory aids on everyday memory performance within a Memory Aids Clinic, a specialised outpatient clinic which supplied and trained the use of memory aids. A comparison was made between subjects with acquired memory disorders in a treatment group (n=63) and control group (n = 28) in a between subjects design. All subjects underwent a baseline session which was comprised of a neuropsychological assessment, clinical interview and goal setting session. Treatment subjects then underwent three training sessions, matching memory aids to goals, across a six week period. Training ...
During tactile perception, long-range intracortical top-down axonal projections are essential for processing sensory information. Whether these projections regulate sleep-dependent long-term memory consolidation is unknown. We altered top-down inputs from higher-order cortex to sensory cortex during sleep and examined the consolidation of memories acquired earlier during awake texture perception. Mice learned novel textures and consolidated them during sleep. Within the first hour of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, optogenetic inhibition of top-down projecting axons from secondary motor cortex (M2) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) impaired sleep-dependent reactivation of S1 neurons and memory consolidation. In NREM sleep and sleep-deprivation states, closed-loop asynchronous or synchronous M2-S1 coactivation, respectively, reduced or prolonged memory retention. Top-down cortical information flow in NREM sleep is thus required for perceptual memory consolidation. ...
The shared memory systems should support parallelization at the computation (multi-core), communication (Network-on-Chip, NoC) and memory architecture levels to exploit the potential performance benefits. These parallel systems supporting shared memory abstraction both in the general purpose and application specific domains are confronting the critical issue of memory consistency. The memory consistency issue arises due to the unconstrained memory operations which leads to the unexpected behavior of shared memory systems. The memory consistency models enforce ordering constraints on the memory operations for the expected behavior of the shared memory systems. The intuitive Sequential Consistency (SC) model enforces strict ordering constraints on the memory operations and does not take advantage of the system optimizations both in the hardware and software. Alternatively, the relaxed memory consistency models relax the ordering constraints on the memory operations and exploit these optimizations ...
ubjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) or thinking your memory isnt as good as it should be, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) where you have short term memory issues, and, yes, any stage of Alzheimers disease (AD).. Why?. The Memory Caps may boost your memory by improving your brains chemicals, blood flow, and energy. This proprietary formula adds a heightened level of stress protection, brain regeneration, and mental strength. All of these taken together will revitalize, refresh, and renew your brain and maximize your memory. Beyond that, there is a new urgent reason to take them as well!. In the past, I have only prescribed Memory Caps to those people who were losing their memory. Like Sam from New York, who was diagnosed with a memory problem that could have become Alzheimers. He was moving beyond senior moments to where his memory loss was interfering with his life. The Memory Caps helped him.. State-of-the-Art Formula. The Memory Caps are based on my 20 years of clinical experience treating ...
ubjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) or thinking your memory isnt as good as it should be, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) where you have short term memory issues, and, yes, any stage of Alzheimers disease (AD).. Why?. The Memory Caps may boost your memory by improving your brains chemicals, blood flow, and energy. This proprietary formula adds a heightened level of stress protection, brain regeneration, and mental strength. All of these taken together will revitalize, refresh, and renew your brain and maximize your memory. Beyond that, there is a new urgent reason to take them as well!. In the past, I have only prescribed Memory Caps to those people who were losing their memory. Like Sam from New York, who was diagnosed with a memory problem that could have become Alzheimers. He was moving beyond senior moments to where his memory loss was interfering with his life. The Memory Caps helped him.. State-of-the-Art Formula. The Memory Caps are based on my 20 years of clinical experience treating ...
View Notes - 07 - LTM - encoding and retreival from episodic memory from PYSC 405 at South Carolina. 1 Long Term Long Term Memory (LTM) Memory (LTM) Some questions Some questions Different Kinds of
Long term memory consists of anything you remember that happened more than a few minutes ago. Long term memories can last for days or even years.
Old and recent memories are retrieved differently. For the very first time we were able to show that the retrieval of old and recent memories are supported by distinct brain networks, Prof. Dr. Magdalena Sauvage reports. The CA3 region, believed to be the place of memory storage in the hippocampus, no longer plays a role when we remember very old memories. Rather, the involvement of the CA1 region persists and the cortical areas adjacent to the hippocampus become involved. The reason for the differential involvement of the hippocampal subregions could lie in the mechanisms supported by CA3, explains Prof. Sauvage: In CA3, memories can be retrieved on the basis of single features of an original memory, which are used as cues. Since the memory for single features degrades over time, we speculate that they might ultimately be of no more use as cues, hence retrieving memory would then essentially rely on CA1 and other processes taking place in the parahippocampal region of the brain. ...
Computer - Memory Units - Memory unit is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. 6. They are the data and the set of instructions to execute a program. The memory hierarchy design in a computer system mainly includes different storage devices. The flash memory is among the special types of memory that can be erased and programmed with a block of data. When used by itself, the term RAM refers to read and write memory; that is, you can both write data into RAM and read data This article is about the Computer Memory.In this article, we are going to study about the types of Computer Memory.We will first define Memory and describe its Types and will also discuss Primary memory and its types (SRAM and DRAM), briefly learn about ROM and its types (PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM). The flash memory keeps its data even with no power at all. In a computer, all the programs are stored in hard disk drive. Every computer system contains two kinds of memory out of which one is primary and the other ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Modern architectures implement relaxed memory models which may reorder memory operations or execute them non-atomically. Special instructions called memory fences are provided, allowing control of this behavior. To implement a concurrent algorithm for a modern architecture, the programmer is forced to manually reason about subtle relaxed behaviors and figure out ways to control these behaviors by adding fences to the program. Not only is this process time consuming and error-prone, but it has to be repeated every time the implementation is ported to a different architecture. In this paper, we present the first scalable framework for handling real-world concurrent algorithms running on relaxed architectures. Given a concurrent C program, a safety specification, and a description of the memory model, our framework tests the program on the memory model to expose violations of the specification, and synthesizes a set of necessary
The PC Guide , Systems and Components Reference Guide , System Memory , Memory Errors, Detection and Correction ]. False Parity Memory (a.k.a. Logic Parity). Parity memory was replaced by non-parity memory as a cost-saving measure. However, the penny pinchers responsible for this had a problem--the large number of installed systems that had no way to turn off parity checking. So they came up with a solution--false parity memory. It is also called logic parity or parity generator memory--fancier names for the same crapola.. Regular parity checking works by storing a parity bit when a byte of data is written to memory, and then using it for error detection when the byte is read from memory. False parity memory replaces all the extra parity bits on a memory module with a special circuit. This circuit generates the correct parity bit each time any memory byte is read. So it is generating the bit at read time, instead of write time. The result is that a parity error will never occur--it ...
Episodic memories are established and maintained by close interplay between hippocampus and other cortical regions, but degradation of a fronto-striatal network has been suggested to be a driving force of memory decline in aging. We wanted to directly address how changes in hippocampal-cortical versus striatal-cortical networks over time impact episodic memory with age. We followed 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) for 3.5 years with repeated tests of episodic verbal memory and magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of functional and structural connectivity and regional brain atrophy. While hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity predicted memory change in young, changes in cortico-striatal functional connectivity were related to change in recall in older adults. Within each age group, effects of functional and structural connectivity were anatomically closely aligned. Interestingly, the relationship between functional connectivity and memory was strongest in the age ranges ...
The ability to learn and to establish new memories is essential to our daily existence and identity; enabling us to navigate through the world. A new study by researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital (The Neuro), McGill University and University of California, Los Angeles has captured an image for the first time of a mechanism, specifically protein translation, which underlies long-term memory formation. The finding provides the first visual evidence that when a new memory is formed new proteins are made locally at the synapse - the connection between nerve cells - increasing the strength of the synaptic connection and reinforcing the memory. The study published in Science, is important for understanding how memory traces are created and the ability to monitor it in real time will allow a detailed understanding of how memories are formed.. When considering what might be going on in the brain at a molecular level two essential properties of memory need to be taken into ...
Long -term Memory is often divided into two further main types: explicit (or declarative) memory and implicit (or procedural) memory.
storage,. Memory above the first megabyte of address space in an IBM PC with an 80286 or later processor. Extended memory is not directly available in real mode, only through EMS, UMB, XMS, or HMA; only applications executing in protected mode can use extended memory directly. In this case, the extended memory is provided by a supervising protected-mode operating system such as Microsoft Windows. The processor makes this memory available through a system of global descriptor tables and local descriptor tables. The memory is protected in the sense that memory assigned a local descriptor cannot be accessed by another program without causing a hardware trap. This prevents programs running in protected mode from interfering with each others memory. A protected-mode operating system such as Windows can also run real-mode programs and provide expanded memory to them. DOS Protected Mode Interface is Microsofts prescribed method for an MS-DOS program to access extended memory under a multitasking ...
The main finding of this study is that CB1R signaling critically modulates memory reconsolidation processes necessary for subsequent drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior in an instrumental model of drug relapse. Furthermore, memory retrieval induces CB1R-dependent changes in IEG expression, glutamate receptor subunit phosphorylation, and excitatory synaptic transmission in the BLA during memory reconsolidation.. Systemic CB1R antagonism during cocaine-memory reconsolidation (i.e., immediately after memory retrieval) reduced drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior 3 d later, relative to VEH (Fig. 1). The CB1R antagonist, AM251 does not alter inhibitory avoidance (Gobira et al., 2013) or grooming behaviors (Hodge et al., 2008) at similar doses, suggesting it is not aversive. Furthermore, AM251 alone did not alter the expression of drug-seeking behavior despite its long half-life (i.e., 22 h; McLaughlin et al., 2003; Fig. 2). These observations suggest that CB1R signaling is ...
Whereas other studies on the molecular processes underlying reconsolidation have mainly focused on consolidated memories a long time (days to weeks) after training (Nader et al., 2000; Abel and Lattal, 2001; Milekic and Alberini, 2002), here we investigated reconsolidation processes in an earlier time window (6-24 h) after acquisition. In this earlier time window of consolidated memory, we identified phase-dependent differences in the requirement for protein synthesis and PKA activity for memory reconsolidation after retrieval. Our study shows that translation-dependent processes are required for reconsolidation at both 6 and 24 h. This supports the notion that translation-dependent processes are critical for reconsolidation independently of the time of retrieval, at least within the time window investigated here. However, this is not the case for the function of PKA in reconsolidation in the same time window. Our direct measurements show that memory retrieval at 6 h after training, but not at ...
P>It has been postulated that memory consolidation process requires post-learning molecular changes that will support long-term experiences. In the present study, we assessed with in vivo microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis whether such changes involve the release of neurotransmitters at post-acquisition stages. Using conditioned taste aversion paradigm we observed spontaneous off-line (i.e. in absence of stimulation) dopamine and glutamate reactivation within the insular cortex about 45 min after the stimuli association. These increments did not appear in control groups that were unable to acquire the task, and it seems to be dependent on amygdala activity since its reversible inactivation by tetrodotoxin impaired cortical off-line release of both neurotransmitters and memory consolidation. In addition, blockade of dopaminergic D1 and/or NMDA receptors before the off-line activity impaired long- but not short-term memory. These results suggest that off-line extracellular increments of ...
The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative ...
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Medial temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus have been shown to play a critical role in mnemonic processes, with additional recruitment of the amygdala when memories contain emotional content. Thus far, studies that have examined the relationship between amygdala activity and memory have typically relied on emotional content of the kind that is rarely encountered in day-to-day interactions. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates whether amygdala activity supports emotional memory during the more subtle social interactions that punctuate everyday life. Across four training sessions, subjects learned common first names for unfamiliar faces in the presence or absence of additional contextual information that was positive, negative, and neutral in valence (e.g., Emily helps the homeless, Bob is a deadbeat dad, Eric likes carrots). During scanning, subjects performed a yes/no recognition memory test on studied and novel faces. Results ...
A compact nonvolatile programmable memory cell. The memory cell has a floating gate (118), control gate (123), drain (108), and source regions (112). The memory cell is an electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) cell or a Flash memory cell. Data may be stored the memory cell of the present invention for the required lifetime of the memory cell usage, and data is retained even when power is removed. The memory cell of the present invention has a substantially transverse or vertical channel (140), relative to a surface of a substrate. The memory may be used to create very high-density memory arrays.
The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor shows age-related declines in expression across the frontal cortex and hippocampus. This decline is strongly correlated to age-related memory declines. This study was designed to determine if increasing GluN2B subunit expression in the frontal lobe or hippocampus would improve memory in aged mice. Mice were injected bilaterally with either the GluN2B vector, containing cDNA specific for the GluN2B subunit and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP); a control vector or vehicle. Spatial memory, cognitive flexibility, and associative memory were assessed using the Morris water maze. Aged mice, with increased GluN2B subunit expression, exhibited improved long-term spatial memory, comparable to young mice. However, memory was rescued on different days in the Morris water maze; early for hippocampal GluN2B subunit enrichment and later for the frontal lobe. A higher concentration of the GluN2B antagonist, Ro 25-6981, was required to ...
Memory pressure is caused when someone needs memory. Usually, that memory is simply any free memory. At times, more specialized memory is needed and you can see pressure when there is lots of free memory of other kinds. A few examples of these special needs would be DMA-capable memory, physical contiguity for large pages, low memory, and memory on one NUMA node. A common mistake is assuming that having any free memory means that there is no pressure. ...
Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can exert both positive and negative effects on memory. We have explored the idea that the complex effects of stress on learning and memory can be characterized by hormetic- and non-hormetic dose-response functions, in which stress may either stimulate or impair brain memory mechanisms, depending, in part, on the timing and duration of the stress experience. Extensive work has shown that acute stress or corticosteroid administration has a biphasic effect specifically on hippocampus-dependent learning, memory and synaptic plasticity. We suggest that brief stress exerts a rapid enhancement of memory-related functions of the hippocampus, produced by the amygdala-induced activation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in conjunction with excitatory effects of neuromodulators, including glucocorticoids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that the rapid stress-induced activation of the amygdala
The nature of specific memories and memory more generally is not well understood beyond the domain of memory researchers. However recent findings from memory research has important implications for the use of memory as evidence, not only in the case of the eyewitness testimony, but also for how jurors, barristers, and judges weight evidence. For example, in the legal arena alone, erroneous beliefs about memory have led to unsafe convictions - Innocence Project, USA.. These misunderstandings of memory can also be damaging, where in cases of rape, for example, memory as the major form of evidence is often undervalued due to circumstances surrounding the rape incident (only 18% of reported rapes result in a prosecution, and less than 7% in a conviction; Ministry of Justice, Home Office and National Office of Statistics 2013: 7).. The mission of this Research Centre is to produce research that has mutual benefit to both scientific and forensic inquiry. We, as scientists have been able to progress ...
The root cause and the appropriate solution for this error depends on your workload. You might have to try each of the following methods, in the following order, until the error is resolved. Before you continue to another method, reverse any changes that you made to spark-defaults.conf in the preceding section.. Increase memory overhead. Memory overhead is the amount of off-heap memory allocated to each executor. By default, memory overhead is set to either 10% of executor memory or 384, whichever is higher. Memory overhead is used for Java NIO direct buffers, thread stacks, shared native libraries, or memory mapped files.. Consider making gradual increases in memory overhead, up to 25%. Be sure that the sum of the driver or executor memory plus the driver or executor memory overhead is always less than the value of yarn.nodemanager.resource.memory-mb for your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance type:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging systems level consolidation of novel associate memories. T2 - A longitudinal neuroimaging study. AU - Smith, Jason F.. AU - Alexander, Gene E.. AU - Chen, Kewei. AU - Husain, Fatima T. AU - Kim, Jieun. AU - Pajor, Nathan. AU - Horwitz, Barry. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Previously, a standard theory of systems level memory consolidation was developed to describe how memory recall becomes independent of themedial temporal memory system. More recently, an extended consolidation theory was proposed that predicts seven changes in regional neural activity and inter-regional functional connectivity. Using longitudinal event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of an associate memory task, we simultaneously tested all predictions and additionally tested for consolidation-related changes in recall of associate memories at a sub-trial temporal resolution, analyzing cue, delay and target periods of each trial separately. Results consistent with the theoretical predictions ...
Abstract of Physical Exercise Performed Four Hours after Learning Improves Memory Retention and Increases Hippocampal Pattern Similarity during Retrieval. Persistent long-term memory depends on successful stabilization and integration of new memories after initial encoding [ 1, 2 ]. This consolidation process is thought to require neuromodulatory factors such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [ 3-7 ]. Without the release of such factors around the time of encoding, memories will decay rapidly [ 3, 5, 6, 8 ]. Recent studies have shown that physical exercise acutely stimulates the release of several consolidation-promoting factors in humans [ 9-14 ], raising the question of whether physical exercise can be used to improve memory retention [ 15-17 ]. Here, we used a single session of physical exercise after learning to exogenously boost memory consolidation and thus long-term memory. Three groups of randomly assigned participants first encoded a set of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing. AU - Newman, Lori A.. AU - Korol, Donna L. AU - Gold, Paul Ernest. PY - 2011/12/13. Y1 - 2011/12/13. N2 - When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on electrophysiological correlates of memory in healthy volunteers. AU - Linssen, A.M.W.. AU - Riedel, W.J.. AU - Sambeth, A.. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - Dopamine is well known for involvement in reinforcement, motor control and frontal lobe functions, such as attention and memory. Tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (TPD) lowers dopamine synthesis and can therefore be used as a model to study the effects of low dopamine levels. This is the first study to assess the effect of TPD on memory performance and its electrophysiological correlates. In a double blind placebo (PLA)-controlled crossover design, 17 healthy volunteers (six males, 11 females) aged between 18 and 25 were tested after TPD and PLA. Working memory was assessed using a Sternberg memory scanning task (SMS) and episodic memory using the Visual Verbal Learning Test (VVLT). Simultaneously, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured. The tyrosine and phenylalanine ratio ...
Autobiographical memory forms a network of memories about personal experiences that defines and supports well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways. During the last three decades, there have been two characteristics of autobiographical memory that have received special interest regarding their role in psychological well-being and psychopathology, namely memory specificity and memory coherence. Memory specificity refers to the extent to which retrieved autobiographical memories are specific (i.e., memories about a particular experience that happened on a particular day). Difficulty retrieving specific memories interferes with effective functioning of the self and is related to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory coherence refers to the narrative expression of the overall structure of autobiographical memories. It has likewise been related to psychological well-being and the occurrence of psychopathology. Research on memory specificity and memory coherence has
Hi, I am a friendly script caring about memory consumption in GCC. Please contact [email protected] if something is going wrong. Comparing memory consumption on compilation of combine.i, insn-attrtab.i, and generate-3.4.ii I got: comparing combine.c compilation at -O0 level: Overall memory needed: 25276k Peak memory use before GGC: 9567k Peak memory use after GGC: 8914k Maximum of released memory in single GGC run: 2648k Garbage: 40068k Leak: 6741k Overhead: 5738k GGC runs: 313 comparing combine.c compilation at -O1 level: Overall memory needed: 26900k Peak memory use before GGC: 17438k Peak memory use after GGC: 17259k Maximum of released memory in single GGC run: 2318k Garbage: 61617k Leak: 6881k Overhead: 7268k GGC runs: 388 comparing combine.c compilation at -O2 level: Amount of memory still referenced at the end of compilation increased from 6966k to 6974k, overall 0.12% Overall memory needed: 26900k Peak memory use before GGC: 17441k Peak memory use after GGC: 17259k Maximum of released memory in ...
Episodic memory exercises such as reminiscing and storytelling have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits for older adults by prolonging their ability to lead an independent lifestyle. In this paper, we describe a mobile reminiscence tool called Memory Karaoke, which facilitates episodic memory exercise through contextualized storytelling of meaningful experiences by using contextual cues such as location, time, and photos. We present results from two studies we conducted with Memory Karaoke to explore which contextual cues contribute to best exercising a persons episodic memory. Our findings suggest that while viewing photos do exercise episodic memory to some extent, additional contextual cues (e.g. location and time) can solicit a greater amount of episodic memory exercise. This suggests that Memory Karaokes selective capture process and its ability to contextualize memories while users retell stories are two effective features which help it to support episodic memory use. These ...
Causes of Short Term Memory Loss. The causes of short term memory loss can be quite varied, ranging from neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimers disease, to Vitamin B-12 deficiency and certain prescription medications. See this list of memory loss causes for more detail.. Free Brain Age Games Challenge a friend. Hello . Play game. This game will give your short term memory a good developmental workout. In this exercise you need to click on the buckyballs that you see light up in the order that they appear. Six is a good score in this game but it is infinitely long, a seven year old autistic boy was able to …. Short Term memory. classic memory game with 4 different levels. Brain games math games puzzle games Word Games Crosswords Sudoku Memory Games Downloads. Restart Fullscreen donate short term Memory. Play. Favorite. Favorite. Click to add this game to your favorites. share. rate. Current …. ...
Spatial memory deficits have been well documented in older adults and may serve as an early indicator of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimers disease in some individuals. Pattern separation is a critical mechanism for reducing potential interference among similar memory representations to enhance memory accuracy. A small but growing literature indicates that spatial pattern separation may become less efficient as a result of normal aging, possibly due to age-related changes in subregions of the hippocampus. This decreased efficiency in spatial pattern separation may be a critical processing deficit that could be a contributing factor to spatial memory deficits and episodic memory impairment associated with aging. The present paper will review recently published studies in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents that have examined age-related changes in spatial pattern separation. The potential basic science, translational, and clinical implications from these studies are discussed to illustrate the
One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity) presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm). Participants episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indirect effects of elevated body mass index on memory performance through altered cerebral metabolite concentrations. AU - Gonzales, Mitzi M.. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Eagan, Danielle E.. AU - Tanaka, Hirofumi. AU - Vaghasia, Miral. AU - Haley, Andreana P.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Elevated body mass index (BMI) at midlife is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in later life. The goal of the current study was to assess mechanisms of early brain vulnerability by examining if higher BMI at midlife affects current cognitive performance through alterations in cerebral neurochemistry. METHODS: Fifty-five participants, aged 40 to 60 years, underwent neuropsychological testing, health screen, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy examining N-acetylaspartate, creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), choline, and glutamate concentrations in occipitoparietal gray matter. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline, mI, and glutamate were calculated as ...
0010]A memory device comprising a memory cell and dual access devices is described in which the memory cell has a first electrode, a second electrode and a memory element between the first and second electrodes. The memory cell comprises a phase change memory cell in embodiments described herein. The phase change material in the memory element in the memory cell has an amorphous phase and a crystalline phase. In the reset state of the memory cell, substantially all of an active region of the memory element is in the amorphous phase. In the set state at least a substantial portion of the active region of the memory element is in the crysatlline phase. In multilevel cells, there may be more than one set state in which various amounts of the active region are in the crystalline state. The memory device includes a first word line conductor and a second word line conductor, and first and second access devices responsive to voltages on the first and second word line conductors, respectively. The ...
0072] FIG. 7 is a flow diagram of exemplary operations that may be performed by the memory controller during operations for determining an operational write latency of a memory device. The operations may begin in step 710 by retrieving memory device parameters such as WL, BL, and latency window. The foregoing information may be retrieved from the memory device, from a device utilized for the retention of such information and used in conjunction with one or more memory devices (e.g. the EEPROM device on a memory card or DIMM), etc. In step 720, the memory controller may set the write length WL to WL-M/2 and the burst length BL to BL+2*M, wherein M is the number of clock cycles within the latency window of the memory device. At step 730, the memory controller may perform a write operation. Then in step 740, the memory controller may read back the written data. In step 750, the memory controller may determine whether the data read from the memory device is the data intended to be written. If not, ...
The subject invention provides systems and methods that facilitate formation of semiconductor memory devices comprising memory cells with one or more injecting bilayer electrodes. Memory arrays generally comprise bit cells that have two discrete components; a memory element and a selection element, such as, for example, a diode. The invention increases the efficiency of a memory device by forming memory cells with selection diodes comprising a bilayer electrode. Memory cells are provided comprising bilayer cathodes and/or bilayer anodes that facilitate a significant improvement in charge injection into the diode layers of memory cells. The increased charge (e.g. electrons or holes) density in the diode layers of the selected memory cells results in improved memory cell switching times and lowers the voltage required for the memory cell to operate, thereby, creating a more efficient memory cell.
An SDRAM memory chip device comprises a non-volatile memory controller for operating a non-volatile memory, e.g., a NAND-flash, and a FIFO memory buffer. The FIFO memory buffer serves to operate background store and load operations between a FIFO buffer array and the non-volatile memory, while a host system such as a CPU exchanges data with the SDRAM work memory. The SDRAM memory chip device, therefore, has at least two additional pins as compared with conventional SDRAM standard for generating a set of additional commands. These commands are employed by the FIFO memory buffer to manage the data transfer between the FIFO buffer and each of the non-volatile memory and the volatile SDRAM memory. Two further pins reflecting the flash memory status provide appropriate issuance of load or store signals by the host system.
An SDRAM memory chip device comprises a non-volatile memory controller for operating a non-volatile memory, e.g., a NAND-flash, and a FIFO memory buffer. The FIFO memory buffer serves to operate background store and load operations between a FIFO buffer array and the non-volatile memory, while a host system such as a CPU exchanges data with the SDRAM work memory. The SDRAM memory chip device, therefore, has at least two additional pins as compared with conventional SDRAM standard for generating a set of additional commands. These commands are employed by the FIFO memory buffer to manage the data transfer between the FIFO buffer and each of the non-volatile memory and the volatile SDRAM memory. Two further pins reflecting the flash memory status provide appropriate issuance of load or store signals by the host system.
The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the memory retention effects of methylene blue (MB) in both appetitive and aversive memory tasks in rats. Methylene blue is a metabolic enhancer that improves memory retention in a variety of tasks including inhibitory avoidance, object recognition, spatial memory, and extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Low dose MB has no side effects on behavior. MB works as a metabolic enhancer by increasing brain cytochrome oxidase activity and oxygen consumption. The first experiment was conducted to examine the effects of MB treatment in normal rats in the hole board spatial memory task, to determine if it could enhance memory of discrimination learning of rewarded versus non-rewarded trials. Subjects treated with MB discriminated better between rewarded and non-rewarded trials as compared to control subjects, indicated by a greater number of correct responses on rewarded trials than non-rewarded trials. The second experiment was conducted to ...
Memory Loss: When Should You Seek Help For Yourself or a Loved One.. Now that the holidays have passed, did you notice a visiting loved one who seemed to be having trouble with their memory?. Everyone forgets things at some time. How often have you misplaced your car keys or forgotten the name of a person you just met?. Some degree of memory problems, as well as a modest decline in other thinking skills, is a fairly common part of aging.. Theres a difference, however, between normal changes in memory and the type of memory loss associated with Alzheimers disease and related disorders.. Some memory problems are the result of treatable conditions. If youre experiencing memory problems, talk to your doctor to get a timely diagnosis and appropriate care.. Memory loss and aging. Normal age-related memory loss doesnt prevent you from living a full and productive life.. For example, you may forget a persons name, but recall it later in the day. You might misplace your glasses occasionally. Or ...
Episodic memory is a core feature of Alzheimers disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Impaired episodic memory in AD results from the dysfunction of an integrated network and involves both gray and white matter pathologies. We explored the neural correlates of episodic memory in AD, MCI and healthy aging by correlating a measure of episodic memory with hippocampal volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the cingulum and fornix. Episodic memory was associated with hippocampal volume and MD of the cingulum and fornix. In contrast, there were fewer significant associations between episodic memory and FA. These findings support a relationship between episodic memory and hippocampal circuitry, and suggest that MD is a more sensitive marker of decreased white matter integrity in the study of AD and MCI than FA. Furthermore, MD was significantly associated with hippocampal volume, indicating that white matter pathology is not completely independent of gray matter
However, cognitive enhancement remains to be controversial, especially with the notion of enhancer drugs becoming available for general consumption. That is because there are both short-term effects on cognition (delirium), and the potential for long-lasting changes in memory, attention and cognition. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. Mazes - Perfect for cognition and memory studies. Long-term memory can be broken into smaller groups, declarative memory and procedural memory. J Zhejiang Univ Sci. Memory & Cognition covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, psycholinguistics, problem solving, thinking, decision making, and skilled performance, including relevant work in the areas of computer simulation, information processing, mathematical psychology, developmental psychology, and experimental social psychology. What Are Memory and Cognition? Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer ...
Sleep, as defined by a state of rest, reduced sensory sensitivity, relaxed muscle tonus and altered neural activity, is well known across the animal kingdom from mollusks (Stephenson and Lewis, 2011) to humans. The role of sleep is likely to be manifold, but one particular property appears to exist across animal species - the supportive effect on memory consolidation. In humans, consolidation of different forms of memory appears to be supported by different sleep phases, e.g. perceptual memory (Mednick et al., 2003), sensory-motor memory (Brawn et al., 2008) and motor skill memory (Walker et al., 2002) by REM sleep, and declarative memory by slow wave sleep (Diekelmann and Born, 2010). Insects are known to go through rest phases that resemble key features of sleep [Drosophila (Hendricks et al., 2000; Shaw et al., 2000); honeybee (Kaiser, 1988)]. In Drosophila, the genes and signaling cascades that control sleep are already well understood (Sehgal and Mignot, 2011), and some of these regulatory ...
BACKGROUND: Subclinical doses of propofol produce anterograde amnesia, characterized by an early failure of memory consolidation. It is unknown how propofol affects the amygdala-dependent emotional memory system, which modulates consolidation in the hippocampus in response to emotional arousal and neurohumoral stress. We present an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of propofol on the emotional memory system in human subjects.. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomized to receive propofol, at an estimated brain concentration of 0.90 μg ml(-1), or placebo. During drug infusion, emotionally arousing and neutral images were presented in a continuous recognition task, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation responses were acquired. After a drug-free interval of 2 h, subsequent memory for successfully encoded items was assessed. Imaging analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping and behavioural analysis using signal detection ...
These experiments examined the effects of posttrial peripheral and intra-amygdala injections of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine on memory consolidation underlying extinction of amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained and tested for an amphetamine (2 mg/kg) CPP. Rats were subsequently given limited extinction training, followed by immediate posttrial peripheral or intrabasolateral amygdala injections of oxotremorine. A second CPP test was then administered, and the amount of time spent in the previously amphetamine-paired and saline-paired apparatus compartments was recorded. Peripheral (0.07 or 0.01 mg/kg) or intra-amygdala (10 etag/0.5 microL) postextinction trial injections of oxotremorine facilitated CPP extinction. Oxotremorine injections that were delayed 2 h posttrial training did not enhance CPP extinction, indicating a time-dependent effect of the drug on memory consolidation processes. The findings ...
ELF_MEMORY(3) BSD Library Functions Manual ELF_MEMORY(3) NAME elf_memory -- process an ELF or ar(1) archive mapped into memory LIBRARY ELF Access Library (libelf, -lelf) SYNOPSIS #include ,libelf.h, Elf * elf_memory(char *image, size_t size); DESCRIPTION Function elf_memory() is used to process an ELF file or ar(1) archive whose image is present in memory. Argument image points to the start of the memory image of the file or ar- chive. Argument size contains the size in bytes of the memory image. The ELF descriptor is created for reading (i.e., analogous to the use of elf_begin(3) with a command argument value of ELF_C_READ). RETURN VALUES Function elf_memory() returns a pointer to a new ELF descriptor if suc- cessful, or NULL if an error occurred. The return value may be queried for the file type using elf_kind(3). EXAMPLES To read parse an elf file, use: int fd; void *p; struct stat sb; Elf *e; ... if ((fd = open(./elf-file, O_RDONLY)) , 0 ,, fstat(fd, &sb) , 0 ,, (p = mmap(NULL, sb.st_size, ...
In the movie Slumdog Millionaire, the childhood memories of a young game show contestant trigger his correct answers. In Memento, the amnesiac hero uses tattoos as memory aids. In Away from Her, an older woman suffering from dementia no longer remembers who her husband is. These are compelling films that tell affecting stories about the human condition. But what can these movies teach us about memory? In this book, John Seamon shows how examining the treatment of memory in popular movies can shed new light on how human memory works.. After explaining that memory is actually a diverse collection of independent systems, Seamon uses examples from movies to offer an accessible, nontechnical description of what science knows about memory function and dysfunction. In a series of lively encounters with numerous popular films, he draws on Life of Pi and Avatar, for example, to explain working memory, used for short-term retention. He describes the process of long-term memory with examples from such ...
Objective To compare the Double Memory Test (DMT) with standard memory tests in the diagnosis of early dementia.. Background Diagnosis of dementia requires memory impairment, but few memory tests coordinate acquisition and retrieval to optimize encoding specificity for high sensitivity and specificity. The DMT was developed to improve early diagnosis.. Design We compared the discriminative validity of the DMT, Paired Associates (PA), and Logical Memory (LM) memory tests in a nested case-control study of 30 cases of early dementia and 90 controls matched for age, education, and sex.. Methods The DMT includes memory tests with (CCR) and without (ICR) encoding specificity. Both tests use category cues to elicit retrieval, but CCR optimizes encoding specificity because the same cues are used for acquisition and retrieval. ICR does not because category cues are used only for retrieval. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.. Results The median BIMC ...
Memory Systems Description Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk by Bruce Jacob, Spencer Ng and David Wang Is your memory hierarchy stopping your microprocessor from performing at the high level it should be? Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk shows you how to resolve this problem. The book tells you everything you need to know about the logical design and operation, physical design and operation, performance characteristics and resulting design trade-offs, and the energy consumption of modern memory hierarchies. You learn how to to tackle the challenging optimization problems that result from the side-effects that can appear at any point in the entire hierarchy. As a result you will be able to design and emulate the entire memory hierarchy. 900 pages 634 ills Trim size 7 1/2 X 9 1/4 in Copyright 2008 Memory Systems Key Features Understand all levels of the system hierarchy -Xcache, DRAM, and disk. Evaluate the system-level effects of all design choices. Model performance and energy consump
Purpose: Circadian rhythm affects learning process, memory consolidation, and long-term memory. In this study, the alleviating effect of exercise on circadian rhythm disruption-induced memory deficits was investigated. Methods: BMAL1 knockdown transgenic mice (BMAL1 TG) were used as the BMAL1-TG group and the BMAL1-TG with treadmill exercise group. Female C57BL/6J mice of the same age were used as the wildtype group and the wildtype with treadmill exercise group. The mice in the treadmill exercise groups performed running on a motorized treadmill under the dark-dark conditions for 8 weeks. Short-term memory, nonspatial object memory, and spatial learning memory were determined using step-down avoidance test, novel object-recognition test, and radial 8-arm maze test. Immunohistochemistry for doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was conducted for the determination of hippocampal neurogenesis. Using the western blot analysis, we determined the expressions of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and ...
Aging is typically associated with declining mental abilities, most prominent for some forms of memory. There are, however, large inter-individual differences within the older population. Some people experience rapid decline whereas others seem almost spared from any adverse effects of aging. This thesis examined the neural underpinnings of such individual differences by using longitudinal observations of episodic memory change across 15-20 years, combined with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Study I found significant correlations between volume and activity of the hippocampus (HC), and memory change over a 6-year period. That is, individuals with decline in HC function also had declining memory. In contrast, Study II showed that successfully aged individuals, who maintained high memory scores over 15-20 years, had preserved HC function compared to age-matched elderly with average memory change. The successful agers had HC activity levels comparable to those of ...
Up to 65 percent of people who suffer from multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some degree of long-term memory loss. Montclair State Psychology Professor Joshua Sandry hopes his exploration of the cognitive and neural processes associated with long-term memory impairment in MS will eventually contribute to new memory rehabilitation techniques and treatments for patients with the disease.. Sandry is the principal investigator on a research project funded by the Consortium of MS Centers through the Kessler Foundation, where he is a visiting scientist. Together with co-investigator and Kessler Foundation research scientist Ekaterina Dobryakova, he will study how disease-related damage to the hippocampus affects working memory and long-term memory impairment in MS. The main purpose of this grant is to increase our understanding of the relationship between MS disease pathology and memory impairment, he says.. We know from past research that memory impairment in MS is related to hippocampal ...
The limitation of working memory to hold discrete units to an amount of 7 ± 2 items is called memory span and is a well proven finding in the field of cognitive research. The digit memory span test measure how many digits a subject can reproduce from a series of digits presented to them. The length of the series is increased with each correct reproduction. The test is aborted when the subject failed to reproduce two consecutive sequences. The length of the last correctly reproduced sequence is the estimate of the memory span. If the reproduction should be in reverse order, the executive control function is more prominent since the items must be re-ordered.. This task is relying heavily on an articulatory control process which is used for verbal rehearsal which was traditionally considered as the short term memory. In contemporary models of the working memory, there is also visuo-spatial sketch pad which handles non-symbolic information such as images and spatial information. The drastic ...
Previous research has demonstrated that glucose administration facilitates long-term memory performance. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of glucose administration on different components of long-term recognition memory. Fifty-six healthy young individuals received (a) a drink containing 25 g of glucose or (b) an inert placebo drink. Recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory were measured using the remember-know paradigm. The results revealed that glucose administration led to significantly increased proportion of recognition responses based on recollection, but had no effect on the proportion of recognition responses made through participants detection of stimulus familiarity. Consequently, the data suggest that glucose administration appears to facilitate recognition memory that is accompanied by recollection of contextual details and episodic richness. The findings also suggest that memory tasks that result in high levels of hippocampal ...
The recall of a memory by a reminder stimulus places this memory back into an active and labile state, from which it is reconsolidated into an inactive and stable state. Is this cellular reconsolidation of memory simply a recapitulation of the events engaged at consolidation, or is there a more complicated process at work (see the Perspective by Izquierdo and Cammarota)? Lee et al. show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but not transcription factor Zif268, is necessary for the consolidation of contextual fear conditioning within the hippocampus. However, Zif268, but not BDNF, is required for reconsolidation of the contextual fear memory. Frankland et al. show that processing fear memories involves the activation of multiple cortical regions of the brain. Cortical activation was greater after remote, rather than recent, memory tests, which is consistent with an increasingly important role for the cortex over time. The anterior cingulate cortex, an area involved in processing ...
Women entering menopause sometimes report feeling fuzzy or less sharp mentally, or that they cant remember or concentrate as well as they once did. Its not clear to what extent natural menopause affects memory, or whether this is a consequence of normal aging. Right now, we dont have much evidence to show that natural menopause affects memory or mental function. It may be that the hot flashes and/or sleep disturbances that come with menopause are affecting memory and concentration. However, there is some evidence that experiencing a sudden medical menopause can have an adverse effect on memory. Researchers are still working to figure out how estrogen levels impact mental functioning and memory. Its certainly conceivable that when your estrogen levels are low, or you are taking a drug that blocks the effects of estrogen (such as tamoxifen), your brain cells ability to receive, communicate, and store information may be reduced, resulting in decreased memory. At the same time, other factors ...
It has consistently been reported that negative subsequent memory effects-lower study activity for later remembered than later forgotten items-are attenuated in older individuals. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether these findings extend to subsequent memory effects associated with successful encoding of item-context information. Older (n = 25) and young (n = 17) subjects were scanned while making 1 of 2 encoding judgments on a series of pictures. Memory was assessed for the study item and, for items judged old, the items encoding task. Both memory judgments were made using confidence ratings, permitting item and source memory strength to be unconfounded and source confidence to be equated across age groups. Replicating prior findings, negative item effects in regions of the default mode network in young subjects were reversed in older subjects. Negative source effects, however, were invariant with respect to age and, in both age groups, the magnitude ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Mathematical Anxiety influences the cortical connectivity profiles in lower alpha band during working memory tasks. AU - Bayrak, Şeyma. AU - Margulies, Daniel. AU - Bamidis, Panagiotis. AU - Klados, Manousos A.. PY - 2016/7/30. Y1 - 2016/7/30. N2 - Introduction Highly math-anxious (HMA) individuals are characterized by a strong tendency to avoid math, which ultimately undercuts their math competence and forecloses important career paths (Ashcraft, 2002). It is hypothesized that worries and intrusive thoughts associated with math anxiety (MA) reduce working memory resources needed for cognitively demanding math tasks (Chang & Beilock, 2016). However, mental processes that access the memory representations of mathematical knowledge has not been fully uncovered (Ashcraft, 2001). Previous studies indicate that the frontal cortex is dominantly involved in working memory (WM) and more specifically while updating the working memory representations (Smith & Jonides, 1997). Additionally, ...
Propranolol administered immediately after learning or after recall has been found to impair memory consolidation or reconsolidation (respectively) in animals, but less reliably so in humans. Since reconsolidation impairment has been proposed as a treatment for mental disorders that have at their core an emotional memory, it is desirable to understand how to reliably reduce the strength of pathogenic memories in humans. We postulated that since humans (unlike experimental animals) typically receive propranolol orally, this introduces a delay before this drug can exert its memory impairment effects, which may render it less effective. As a means to test this, in two double-blind placebo-controlled experiments, we examined the capacity of propranolol to impair consolidation and reconsolidation as a function of timing of ingestion in healthy subjects. In Experiment 1, (n=36), propranolol administered immediately after learning or recall failed to impair the consolidation or reconsolidation of the ...
The ability of the nervous system to retain, manipulate and use visual information which is no longer present in the external environment contributes to intelligent behaviour. A new approach to studying visual working memory has led to re-evaluation of the nature of its limitations in keeping with a finite memory resource which is flexibly distributed across space according to attentional priority. Using a novel behavioural paradigm to study visual working memory precision for sequentially presented items, I demonstrate how the resolution with which healthy subjects recall simple objects changes dynamically with each new item in the sequence. Stochastic modelling of the distribution of responses suggested that memory for earlier objects in the sequence was especially prone to failure in integration of visual features, such as orientation and colour, into complete objects. Next, I examined how memory precision was affected by attentional selection according to the relative behavioural relevance ...
From: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/nr/2004/memory.html. FEBRUARY 5 , 2004. CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- MIT neuroscientists have discovered a new brain mechanism controlling the formation of lasting memories. This mechanism explains how signals between neurons stimulate production of the protein building blocks needed for long-term memory storage. The study, which will appear in the Feb. 6 issue of the journal Cell, has broad implications for our understanding of how learning and memory normally occur, and how these abilities may be undermined in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. Long-lasting memories are stored in the brain through strengthening of the connections, or synapses, between neurons. Researchers have known for many years that neurons must turn on the synthesis of new proteins for long-term memory storage and synaptic strengthening to occur, but the mechanisms by which neurons accomplish these tasks have remained elusive. The MIT research team, led by Nobel laureate Susumu Tonegawa, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retrieval cue and delay interval influence the relationship between prospective memory and activities of daily living in older adults. AU - Tierney, S.M.. AU - Bucks, Romola S.. AU - Weinborn, Michael. AU - Hodgson, Erica R.. AU - Woods, Steven P.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Objective: Older adults commonly experience mild declines in everyday functioning and the strategic aspects of prospective memory (PM). This study used multiprocess theory to examine whether the strategic demands of retrieval cue type (event vs.Time based) and delay interval length (2 vs. 15 min) influence the relationship between PM and activities of daily living (ADLs) in older adults. Method: Participants included 97 community-dwelling older adults recruited from the Western Australia Participant Pool. Participants were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) as part of a larger neurocognitive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Volumetric correlates of spatiotemporal working and recognition memory impairment in aged rhesus monkeys. AU - Shamy, Jul Lea. AU - Habeck, Christian. AU - Hof, Patrick R.. AU - Amaral, David G. AU - Fong, Sania G.. AU - Buonocore, Michael H.. AU - Stern, Yaakov. AU - Barnes, Carol A.. AU - Rapp, Peter R.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Spatiotemporal and recognition memory are affected by aging in humans and macaque monkeys. To investigate whether these deficits are coupled with atrophy of memory-related brain regions, T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired and volumes of the cerebrum, ventricles, prefrontal cortex (PFC), calcarine cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were quantified in young and aged rhesus monkeys. Subjects were tested on a spatiotemporal memory procedure (delayed response [DR]) that requires the integrity of the PFC and a medial temporal lobe-dependent recognition memory task (delayed nonmatching to sample [DNMS]). Region of interest analyses ...
Memory Mechanisms is an edited review volume that summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on memory mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and circuit level. Each review is written by leading experts in the field, presenting not only current knowledge, but also discussing the concepts, providing critical reflections and suggesting an outlook for future studies. The memory mechanisms are also discussed in the context of diseases. Studies of memory deficits in disease models are introduced as well as approaches to restore memory deficits. Finally, the impact of contemporary memory research for psychiatry is illustrated.. ...
Activated naive B cells that seed a GC and undergo SHM, Ig isotype switching, and selection by a specific Ag can differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. It is generally accepted that the processes of SHM and isotype switching are markers of memory B cells. In human tonsils, memory B cells were historically identified by the loss of IgD together with other markers such as CD38 (5, 10, 11, 17). The case for using IgD and CD38 to separate memory (IgD−CD38−) from naive (IgD+CD38−) and GC (IgD−CD38+) B cells was supported by the finding that the majority of tonsil IgD+ cells expressed unmutated IgV region genes, while those expressed by IgD− cells were mutated (5, 11, 25, 26). Studies using these markers demonstrated that although both naive and memory B cells were in a quiescent state, memory cells exhibited enhanced responses compared to naive B cells in vitro (10, 17, 18, 19, 20). Together, these articles established a scheme to identify human memory B cells.. However, ...