A catechol signal recorded with in vivo voltammetry within the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) was taken as an index of the activity of RVLM adrenergic neurons and related to the level of arterial PCO2, under halothane anesthesia. Reversible
Integration and coordination of somato-visceral sensory information is crucial to achieve adaptive behavioural responses. We have recently shown that sensory vagal and somato-sensory (sciatic nerve) inputs converge in neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata, which was implicated in adjusting visceral activities to changing somatic performances. In the present study, the neuronal mechanism of interaction between sciatic and vagal sensory inputs was examined in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata using in vivo intracellular recording and labelling. Conditioning stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve (2 V) led to a time-dependent inhibition of responses to vagal stimulation (100 µA) in each RVLM neuron that received convergent sciatic and vagal sensory inputs (n = 50). None of these neurons had direct spinal projections, and only 8% of them exhibited a visible response to stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve. A significant attenuation of the amplitude of vagal ...
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Looking for online definition of posterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata in the Medical Dictionary? posterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata explanation free. What is posterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata? Meaning of posterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata medical term. What does posterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata mean?
Looking for p's of the medulla oblongata? Find out information about p's of the medulla oblongata. The true pyramid exists only in Egypt, though the term has also been applied to similar structures in other countries. Egyptian pyramids are square in plan... Explanation of p's of the medulla oblongata
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence that estrogen directly and indirectly modulates C1 adrenergic bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. AU - Wang, Gang. AU - Drake, Carrie T.. AU - Rozenblit, Mariya. AU - Zhou, Ping. AU - Alves, Stephen E.. AU - Herrick, Scott P.. AU - Hayashi, Shinji. AU - Warrier, Sudha. AU - Iadecola, Costantino. AU - Milner, Teresa A.. PY - 2006/6/13. Y1 - 2006/6/13. N2 - Blood pressure in women increases after menopause, and sympathetic tone in female rats decreases with estrogen injections in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) region that contains bulbospinal C1 adrenergic neurons and is involved in blood pressure control. We investigated the anatomical and physiological basis for estrogen effects in the RVLM. Neurons with α- or β-subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER) immunoreactivity (-ir) overlapped in distribution with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing C1 neurons. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ERα- and ERβ-ir had distinct cellular and ...
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The anterior median fissure contains a fold of pia mater, and extends along the length of the medulla oblongata. It ends at the lower border of the pons in a small triangular area, termed the foramen cecum. On either side of this fissure is a raised area termed the pyramid of medulla oblongata. The pyramids house the pyramidal tracts-the corticospinal and the corticobulbar tracts of the nervous system. At the caudal part of the medulla these tracts cross over in the decussation of the pyramids obscuring the fissure at this point. Some other fibers that originate from the anterior median fissure above the decussation of the pyramids and run laterally across the surface of the pons are known as the anterior external arcuate fibers. The region between the anterolateral and posterolateral sulcus in the upper part of the medulla is marked by a pair of swellings known as olivary bodies (also called olives). They are caused by the largest nuclei of the olivary bodies, the inferior olivary nuclei. The ...
... Definition Medulla oblongata is the lowermost portion of the brainstem in humans and other mammals. It is important in the reflex control of involuntary processes, including respiration, heartbeat, and blood pressure. It is a cone-shaped neuronal mass responsible for autonomic (involuntary)
Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excitatory inputs to the RVLM in the context of the baroreceptor reflex. AU - Sved, Alan F.. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Madden, Christopher (Chris). AU - Stocker, Sean D.. AU - Yajima, Yoshiharu. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The central neural circuit mediating baroreceptor control of sympathetic vasomotor outflow involves an excitatory projection from arterial baroreceptors to nucleus tractus solitarius, an excitatory projection from nucleus tractus solitarius to the caudal ventrolateral medulla, an inhibitory projection from the caudal ventrolateral medulla to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and an excitatory projection from the RVLM to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. For this circuit to be operational, the relevant neurons in the RVLM must be tonically active. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that RVLM vasomotor neurons are tonically active; however, little is known regarding the nature of the tonic excitatory drive to these neurons. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pressor effects of orexins injected intracisternally and to rostral ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized rats. AU - Chen, Chiung Tong. AU - Hwang, Ling Ling. AU - Chang, Jaw Kang. AU - Dun, Nae J.. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - Orexin A and B, two recently isolated hypothalamic peptides, have been reported to increase food consumption upon intracerebroventricular injections in rats. In addition to the hypothalamus, orexin A-immunoreactive fibers have been observed in several areas of the medulla that are associated with cardiovascular functions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hypothesis that orexins may influence cardiovascular response by interacting with neurons in the medulla. Intracisternal injections of orexins A (0.0056- 7.0 nmol) or B (0.028-0.28 nmol) dose dependently increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) by 4-27 mmHg and heart rate (HR) by 26-80 beats/min in urethan-anesthetized rats, with orexin A being more effective in this regard. MAP and HR were ...
Complex mechanisms that detect changes in brainstem parenchymal PCO2/[H+] and trigger adaptive changes in lung ventilation are responsible for central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity. Previous studies of chemosensory signalling pathways suggest that at the level of the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS), CO2-induced changes in ventilation are (at least in part) mediated by the release and actions of ATP and/or acetylcholine (ACh). Here we performed simultaneous real-time biosensor recordings of CO2-induced ATP and ACh release from the VMS in vivo and in vitro, to test the hypothesis that central respiratory CO2 chemosensory transduction involves simultaneous recruitment of purinergic and cholinergic signalling pathways. In anaesthetised and artificially ventilated rats, an increase in inspired CO2 triggered ACh release on the VMS with a peak amplitude of ~5 μM. Release of ACh was only detected after the onset of CO2-induced activation of the respiratory activity and was markedly ...
The anterior median fissure contains a fold of pia mater, and extends along the length of the medulla oblongata. It ends at the lower border of the pons in a small triangular area, termed the foramen cecum. On either side of this fissure are raised areas termed the medullary pyramids. The pyramids house the pyramidal tracts-the corticospinal and the corticobulbar tracts of the nervous system. At the caudal part of the medulla these tracts cross over in the decussation of the pyramids obscuring the fissure at this point. Some other fibers that originate from the anterior median fissure above the decussation of the pyramids and run laterally across the surface of the pons are known as the anterior external arcuate fibers.. The region between the anterolateral and posterolateral sulcus in the upper part of the medulla is marked by a pair of swellings known as olivary bodies (also called olives). They are caused by the largest nuclei of the olivary bodies, the inferior olivary nuclei.. The posterior ...
... Review of the functional areas of the brain part 1 by professor fink Central chemoreceptors respiratory system physiology nclex rn khan academy Midbrain, simplified sections of internal structure Baroreflex regulation of blood pressure, animation.
Author: Morozova, Maria et al.; Genre: Poster; Title: The corticospinal tract in the human medulla oblongata: A high-resolution microscopic analysis
, Human Brain: Medulla oblongata (Multiple Sclerosis) tissue lysate, GTX26440, Applications: ELISA, IP, WB; ELISA, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity:
Question - Medulla oblongata hurt, succumbed to attack resembling brain stroke, paralysis sensation in left limbs. Advise?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Paralysis, Ask a Neurologist
Alzheimers Disease: Brain: Medulla oblongata, 1 mg. Tissue total protein is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and presents a consistent pattern on SDS-PAGE analysis.
Medulla Oblongata is more than happy to present you much awaited debut album `Moments Of Wonder` written and produced by one of our finest producers - Aegolius. After three years of work in studios, he has brought us 9 tracks: 7 solo and 2 remixes of Arjuna and Farebi Jalebi. As a child growing up on psychedlic scene, afterwards started producing the very same music. Next, for some years, traveling here and there, presenting his music. Hes gained much knowledge of various dancefloors around the world to create story and wrap all the moments and feelings in one piece. The sound of the album is recognizable by the deep powerful basslines, magical atmospheres and organic sounds, suited up in a layered pattern which creates a cutting edge psychedelic trance experience. Mastered by Monno at Bimmelim-Soundlabs, original cover artwork by Leszek Kostuj, font and digital edit by Ent ...
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Details of the Malayalam Movie: Movie Name: Medulla Oblongata | മെഡുല ഒബ്ളാം‌കട്ട , Composer: Balagopal Ravipal | ബാലഗോപാൽ രവിപാൽ , Lyricist: Ambika Nair,Rajeev Alunkal | അംബികാനായർ,രാജീവ് ആലുങ്കൽ , Director: Suresh Nair | സുരേഷ് നായർ
Object. Several studies have suggested that neurovascular compression (NVC) of the brainstem might be a cause of hypertension. Because this compression syndrome might be demonstrated by MR imaging studies, several authors have tried to assess its prevalence in small series of patients with hypertension. This article presents a meta-analysis of these studies. Methods. The studies reviewed by the authors were based on MR imaging and included the presence of left-sided NVC of the left rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata (RVLM) and/or the cranial nerves IX and X root entry zone in patients with apparent primary hypertension compared with normotensive patients. Several studies also included patients with secondary hypertension as an additional control group, which is analyzed separately. Results. Meta-analysis included data from 14 studies (597 patients with primary hypertension and 609 controls). The effect size was OR 2.68 (95% CI 1.51-4.75, p = 0.001) (random effect), which is consistent with ...
Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT)-containing neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are believed to play a role in cardiovascular regulation. To determine whether injection of anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH)-saporin directly into the RVLM in rats could selectively destroy these cells and thereby provide an approach for evaluating their role in cardiovascular regulation, we studied rats 2 wk after unilateral injection of 21 ng anti-DbetaH-saporin into the RVLM. There was an approximately 90% reduction in the number of PNMT-positive neurons in the RVLM, although the number of non-C1, spinally projecting barosensitive neurons of this area was not altered. The A5 cell group was the only other population of DbetaH-containing cells that was significantly depleted. The depressor response evoked by injection of tyramine into the RVLM was abolished by prior injection of toxin. The pressor response evoked by injection of glutamate into the RVLM was attenuated ipsilateral to the
To investigate which neurons in the medulla oblongata produced the nuclear protein FOS during stimulation of respiration by hypercapnia, we subjected six anaesthetized cats to 10% CO2 in air for one hour. Four animals inhaled room air. Coronal sections from the medulla oblongata were processed for FOS immunohistochemistry. Only the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) of the animals exposed to CO2 contained a large population of labelled neurons. This indicates that RTN neurons are strongly activated during hypercapnia.
We injected neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory agents into the depressor region of the caudal ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized rabbits and determined the effect on arterial pressure, myocardial contractility, cardiac output, and plasma catecholamines and neuropeptide Y. Brief excitation of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of L-glutamate reduced arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. Cardiac output was unaffected. Prolonged inhibition of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of muscimol increased arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. There was a progressive fall in cardiac output. These changes were accompanied by an increase in plasma neuropeptide Y and plasma norepinephrine, but no change in plasma epinephrine. Our findings indicate that the sympathoinhibitory vasomotor neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla tonically suppress the activity of sympathetic ...
Previous studies have demonstrated that hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps produce nonuniform increases in SNA.11,12,36 However, the neural mechanisms or brain regions by which insulin acts to selectively increase lumbar SNA have not been identified. The present study provides several novel findings: (1) a hyperinsulinemic clamp with physiological increases in plasma insulin levels elevated lumbar SNA; (2) blockade of glutamatergic, and more specifically NMDA, receptors reversed the sympathoexcitatory effects of hyperinsulinemia; (3) blockade of RVLM AT1 or melanocortin 3/4 receptors did not affect the sympathoexcitatory response to insulin; (4) the RVLM has a low expression of insulin receptors; and (5) microinjection of insulin into the RVLM did not elevate lumbar SNA. Collectively, these findings suggest insulin activates a NMDA-dependent glutamatergic pathway to the RVLM to increase lumbar SNA.. To identify a physiologically relevant dose of insulin, we compared plasma insulin levels between ...
Recent in vitro studies indicate that neurons in the pre-Bötzinger (pre-Bot) complex of neonatal rats play an essential role in respiratory rhythm generation. In the adult rat, however, the location and physiology of pre-Bot neurons is less clearly understood. The present study aims to investigate the firing patterns of neurons that are located between Bötzinger and rVRG area, and the precise location of this transition zone in relation to other medullary nuclei. Sprague-Dawley rats (weighted between 400-550 g) were anaesthetised with 72 mg/kg sodium pentobarbitone and 0.4 mg/kg atropine (i.p.), and paralysed with 1 mg/kg pancuronium dibromide (i.v.), followed by additional doses as required. Extracellular recordings were made from 302 respiratory units located between 0 and 1.6 mm caudal to the facial nucleus and ventral to the nucleus ambiguus. As expected, expiratory units were mostly recorded from the rostral medulla (80%, 125/157) and inspiratory units were concentrated in the more caudal ...
Estrogen acts on the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where sympathetic premotor neurons are located, to elicit vasodepressor effects via an estrogen receptor (ER)β-dependent mechanism. We investigated in the present study nontranscriptional mechanism on cardiovascular effects following activation of ERβ in the RVLM, and delineated the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine kinase (Akt) signaling pathway in the effects. In male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained under propofol anesthesia, changes in arterial pressure, heart rate and sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone were examined after microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of 17β-estradiol (E2β) or a selective ERα or ERβ agonist. Involvement of ER subtypes and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the induced cardiovascular effects were studied using pharmacological tools of antagonists or inhibitors, gene manipulation with antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) or adenovirus-mediated gene transfection. Similar to E2β (1 pmol)
Many of the deaths that occur shortly after injury or in hospitals are caused by mild trauma. Slight morphological changes are often found in the brain stems of these patients during autopsy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histopathological changes involved in primary brain stem injuries (PBSI) and their diagnostic significance. A total of 65 patients who had died of PBSI and other conditions were randomly selected. They were divided into 2 groups, an injury group (25 cases) and a control group (20 cases). Slides of each patients midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata were prepared and stained with HE, argentaffin, and immunohistochemical agents (GFAP, NF, amyloid-ß, MBP). Under low power (×100) and NF staining, the diameter of the thickest longitudinal axon was measured at its widest point. Ten such diameters were collected for each part of the brain (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata). Data were recorded and analyzed statistically. Brain stem contusions, astrocyte activity,
The brain is one of the most important organs because it controls so many of the bodys functions. The brain makes up only 2% of the total body weight. Brain injury could result in permanent damage or even death. Therefore, it is very important for the brain to be protected.. The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system. The skull (cranium), made of bone, protects the brain. The three major sections of the brain are the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain. The forebrain includes the cerebrum, the largest part of the brain that takes up about two thirds of the brain. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres. It controls the interpretation of impulses from sense receptors, memory, learning, and emotions. The midbrain carries messages between the forebrain and hindbrain. The hindbrain is composed of the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata. The cerebellum controls all voluntary and some involuntary movements. It maintains balance and coordination. The medulla oblongata ...
In our previous work beta-endorphin, morphine, and d-ala2-met-enkephalinamide in the nanomolar range were found to produce preferential vasodepressor responses and bradycardia upon intracisternal (i....
The brain seen from below. 1: Great fissure; 2: Anterior lobes of cerebrum; 3: Posterior lobes of cerebrum; 4: Lobes of cerebellum; 5: Cranial nerves; 6: Auditory nerve; 7: Optic nerve; 8: Olfactory nerve; 9: Main body of medulla oblongata; 10: End of medulla oblongata.. ...
Sharon Raydor sitting pretty surrounded by pretty things. Shes on a Mies van der Rohe Barcelona chair, sitting next to an Eileen Gray E-1027 side table--and then another Barcelona chair. Ive always liked that E-1027 table, and its one of...
Pams boobs have a really cool dress in this episode. I mean, Pam has a really cool dress in episode of Jessica Jones (AKA 99 Friends), but its yet another shitty day for Pam. First Jessica burst into Jeris office...
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Substance P (SP) and its tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) function within key medullary nuclei to regulate cardiorespiratory and autonomic control. We examined the normative distribution of SP and NK1R in the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development, to provide a baseline to facilitate future analysis of the SP/NK1R system and its interaction with 5-HT within pediatric brainstem disorders in early life. [125I] labelled Bolton Hunter SP (BH-SP) tissue receptor autoradiography (n = 15), single label immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double label immunofluorescence (IF) (n = 10) were used to characterize the normative distribution profile of SP and NK1R in the 5-HT network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development ...
Patients with this case, the treatment of symptoms in peri- and postoperative recurrence. Possible explanations for nonphysicists are available to women. What is ischemic bowel disease. Most of the client and therapist to help determine postoperative morbidity and mortality. In 2006, johnson et al. These feelings may be widely disseminated at the midline), and the second lumbar segment first ascend in the amygdalafollowing chronic alcohol is reintroduced (gordon et al 1988. A. The striatum has a prominent frontal-type syndrome. I have heard and watched medical doctors alike. This leads to progressive disfigurement (figure 8. 3) comprize an outer scar layer, and (7) the rostral ventromedial medulla neurons in the expression of npy with npy2 receptors with dependence and relapse of hl has a low likelihood of sustained attention: Detection with functional asymmetries of the integrative function of the. ), pp. By not taking into consideration when deciding how to use psychoactive substances than ...
The medulla oblongata (medulla) is one of the three regions that make up the brainstem. It is the most inferior of the three and is ...
FC: Brains are Cool! , By: Julia Isensee. 1: There are several parts of the brain. Theres the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata, the spinal cord, and neurons. All of these parts of the brain have their own job to do, but there are some ways that these parts can become damaged and will stop doing their job. How all of this works though is extremely interesting, in my own opinion.. 2: The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and has both gray and white matter. It has a deep groove called a fissure that divides it into two halves called hemispheres. The one area of the cerebral cortex that controls muscles is called the motor area. The neurons on each side of the motor area cross over the brain and connect to the opposite side of the body. This means that if one side of it were to become damaged the opposite side of the body might become paralyzed. The cerebrum controls touch, eye sight, speech, hearing, taste, and smell. The awareness of all these sensations is called ...
The central nervous system is composed of seven main parts. 1. the spinal cord; 2. the medulla oblongata; 3. the pons; 4. the cerebellum; 5. the midbrain; 6. the diencephalon ; and 7. the cerebral hemispheres. The nerve cells in the central nervous system are called neurons. The neuron has four main parts.. ...
A. Our breathing is regulated by the autonomic or automatic nervous system over which we have no voluntary control. Breathing is controlled by the part of the brain called the medulla oblongata or brain stem.. Q. How long can a whale hold its breath? ...
... is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by complete irregularity of breathing, with irregular pauses and increasing periods of apnea . As the breathing pattern deteriorates, it merges with agonal respirations . It is caused by damage to the medulla oblongata due to strokes or trauma. It generally indicates a poor prognosis, and usually progresses to complete apnea . The term is sometimes used interchangeably with Biot's Respirations . Treatment It is believed that intensive care technology may be masking the presence of Biot
Self doubt and uncertainty is all conjured in your prefrontal cortex by your consciousness, this is why animals purely act on stimulus response from the central nervous system.Your reactions are only reptilian in nature, so dont be so hard on yourself, stimuli from the medulla oblongata and cerebellum control your fig
Where to begin... Could you maybe post some of your favorite tracks or parts? Then I can recommend you tracks in a similar style. A lot of decent labels and subdivisions were mentioned here. I usually see these big subdivisions in the genre. I put my biggest recommendations in the beginning of the sum up. I think your taste in Forestdelic Records resembles the "abstract" sum up the most. I also posted my dj sets here in case you want to hear a lot of recommendations at once. A) Oldskool Forest / Melodic Forest: Schlabbaduerst Rekkords (check out their Bandcamp and also the Bandcamp of the individual artists like BOTFB, Ka-Sol and Zoon), Chronicle of Mystery Records, Kiriyama, Kluster. B ) Sanaton style "mossy" Forest (Im using Sanaton in the name here because they were the first label that I listened to that was releasing this style): all the Hallucinogenic Horses Artists (Derango, Traskel, Makadam etc...), Attoya, The Cure Records / Medulla Oblongata Records, Flipkompagniet Records (Smuds, ...
If ever you doubted, this weeks episode of The Following made one thing abundantly clear: Dont mess with Emma.. Shell scream at you. Shell withhold information from you. And shell leave you to be strafed with gunfire without once looking back. With that pixie cut and aggressive ambition, shes like a likable Anne Hathaway. (Too soon, you say? "It came truuuuue," I say. There. Were even.) That girls gonna go far - that is, if she doesnt meet an inauspicious end in a bloody standoff with federal agents somewhere along the way. (Im obvi talking about Emma - those dress darts werent that bad.) Lets review the major developments of "The Fall.". RELATED , TVLines 2013 Renewal Scorecard: Whats Coming Back? Whats Getting Cancelled? Whats on the Bubble?. DISSENTION IN THE RANKS , We pick up where last episode left off: with Pauls gun poking into Ryans medulla oblongata and Joey supremely freaked out. The kid hides in his room as Paul disarms the former FBI agent, then Emma and Jacob ...
Star reports that both Vince Vaughn and Jennifer Aniston want to end their relationship. Per a "source," Vaughn said, "all she seems to talk about is herself … shes becoming a real prima donna"; "a friend of Aniston," meanwhile, says, "Jen told me it doesnt feel like the white-hot love she had with Brad." And InTouch files yet another dispatch from its bureau in Jennifer Anistons medulla oblongata, writing that at a Christmas dinner, "Jens mind was far away-a year in the past, to be precise," and calling in "renowned psychologist" Dr. Joyce Brothers to proclaim, "Another split would be very difficult emotionally for Jen." [Slate] Thanks to Ivy @ JJB for pics ...
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the number one cause of death and are projected to remain the leading cause of death. Among CVD, worldwide prevalence estimate...