Nicotinic alpha7- or beta2-containing receptor knockout: effects on radial-arm maze learning and long-term nicotine consumption in mice.
The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats. The original apparatus consists of eight equidistantly spaced arms, each about 4 feet long, and all radiating from a small circular central platform (later versions have used as few as three and as many as 48 arms). At the end of each arm there is a food site, the contents of which are not visible from the central platform. Two types of memory that are assessed during the performance in this task are reference memory and working memory. Reference memory is assessed when the rats only visit the arms of the maze which contains the reward. The failure to do so will result in reference memory error. Working memory is assessed when the rats enter each arm a single time. Re-entry into the arms would result in a working memory error. The design ensures that, after checking for food at the end of each arm, the rat is always forced to return to the central platform before making another choice. ...
Two cohorts of rats underwent a total of three tests of spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze tests. Initial testing was performed on 8-month-old animals (n = 25); after data analysis, a separate cohort (n = 9 controls, n = 8 isoflurane) was anesthetized and tested in the Morris water maze to identify the earliest timepoint at which a neurocognitive deficit is apparent. In the water maze test, the ability of rats to locate a hidden submerged platform in a circular pool (180 cm in diameter, 50 cm deep) filled with warm (24°C) opaque water was assessed. The rats were trained first to locate a visible platform (cued trials) and then to locate a hidden platform (place trials). In a subsequent trial, the hidden platform was removed (probe trial). Rats received two training sessions per day for five consecutive days. Each session consisted of three trials with a 60-s intertrial interval. The cohort was stratified to be spread evenly over one of four escape platforms located in the center ...
Background. Stress influences many aspects of animal behaviour and is a major factor driving populations to adapt to changing living conditions, such as during domestication. Stress can affect offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, but recent research indicates that inherited epigenetic modifications of the genome could possibly also be involved. Methodology/Principal Findings. Red junglefowl (RJF, ancestors of modern chickens) and domesticated White Leghorn (WL) chickens were raised in a stressful environment (unpredictable light-dark rhythm) and control animals in similar pens, but on a 12/12 h light-dark rhythm. WL in both treatments had poorer spatial learning ability than RJF, and in both populations, stress caused a reduced ability to solve a spatial learning task. Offspring of stressed WL, but not RJF, raised without parental contact, had a reduced spatial learning ability compared to offspring of non-stressed animals in a similar test as that used for their parents. Offspring of ...
Groups. In the first cohort, five groups of 16- to 18-month-old mice were behaviorally tested: APPswe;PS1ΔE9 mice (n = 14); APPswe;PS1ΔE9; BACE1-/- mice (n = 6); APPswe;PS1ΔE9; BACE1+/- mice (n = 22); BACE1-/- mice (n = 11); and nontransgenics (n = 15). Approximately equal numbers of female and male mice were used (females, 44%; males, 56%). Female to male ratio for each genotype was as follows: APPswe; PS1ΔE9 (57%); APPswe;PS1ΔE9; BACE1-/- (50%); APPswe;PS1ΔE9; BACE1+/- (41%); BACE1-/- (36%); and non-transgenic mice (40%). All mice were analyzed in three behavioral tasks: first, in the classic Morris water maze task; second, in the visual discrimination task; and finally, in the open field. A second cohort of mice was tested at 3 months of age: nontransgenics (n = 7), BACE1+/- mice (n = 20), and BACE1-/- mice (n = 7). In this cohort only, male mice were used and testing was performed in the classic Morris water maze task, radial water maze task, Y-maze, plus maze, and on an open-field ...
Food (cassava) linamarin is metabolized into neurotoxicants cyanide and cyanate, metabolites of which we sought to elucidate the differential toxicity effects on memory. Young 6-8 weeks old male rats were treated intraperitoneally with either 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) cyanide (NaCN), or 50 mg/kg bw cyanate (NaOCN), or 1 μl/g bw saline, daily for 6 weeks. Short-term and long-term memories were assessed using a radial arm maze (RAM) testing paradigm. Toxic exposures had an influence on short-term working memory with fewer correct arm entries (F 2, 19 = 4.57 p , 0.05), higher working memory errors (WME) (F 2, 19 = 5.09, p , 0.05) and longer RAM navigation time (F 2, 19 = 3.91, p , 0.05) for NaOCN relative to NaCN and saline treatments. The long-term working memory was significantly impaired by cyanide with fewer correct arm entries (F 2, 19 = 7.45, p , 0.01) and increased working memory errors (F 2, 19 = 9.35 p , 0.05) in NaCN relative to NaOCN or vehicle treated animals. Reference memory was not ...
Representative graph showing radial arm maze performance of control and experimental rats epileptic rats required more daily trials to achieve three, four, and
Although chronic stress has been reported to induce deleterious effects on hippocampal structure and function, the possible existence of individual differences in the vulnerability to develop stress-induced cognitive alterations was hypothesized. This study was designed to evaluate (i) whether individual variability in behavioural reactivity to novelty could be related to a differential vulnerability to show spatial learning deficits after chronic stress in young adult rats, and (ii) to what extent, could individual differences in stress-induced cognitive alterations be related to alterations in specific neurobiological substrates. Four month-old Wistar male rats were classified according to their locomotor reactivity to a novel environment, as either low (LR) or highly (HR) reactive, and then either submitted to psychosocial stress for 21-days (consisting of the daily cohabitation of each young adult rat with a new middle-aged rat) or left undisturbed. The results showed that psychosocial ...
Spatial navigation is impaired in early stages of Alzheimers disease, and may be a defining behavioral marker of preclinical AD. A new rat model (TgF344-AD) of AD overcomes many limitations of other rodent models, though spatial navigation has not been comprehensively assessed. Using the hidden and cued platform variants of the Morris water task, a longitudinal assessment of spatial navigation was conducted on TgF344-AD (n = 16) and Fischer 344 (n = 12) male and female rats at three age ranges: 4 to 5 months, 7 to 8, and 10 to 11 months of age. TgF344-AD rats exhibited largely intact navigation at 4-5 months, with deficits in the hidden platform task emerging at 7-8 months and becoming significantly pronounced at 10-11 months of age. In general, TgF344-AD rats displayed less accurate swim trajectories to the platform and searched a wider area around the platform region compared to wildtype rats. Impaired navigation occurred in the absence of deficits in acquiring the procedural task demands or
The dry-land Barnes maze is widely used to measure spatial navigation ability in response to mildly aversive stimuli. Over consecutive...
A range of USB cameras can be used with the HVS Image video tracking and analysis software, including the HVS Image camera supplied in the a ...
Read "Acute inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis induces anxiolysis in the plus maze test, European Journal of Pharmacology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Results-Prohibitin overexpression protected CA1 neurons from transient forebrain ischemia. The protection was associated with dampened postischemic reactive oxygen species generation, reduced mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and decreased caspase-3 activation. Importantly, the improvement in CA1 neuronal viability translated into an improvement in hippocampal function: prohibitin expression ameliorated the spatial memory deficit induced by ischemia, assessed by the Y-maze test, and restored postischemic synaptic plasticity assessed by long-term potentiation, indicating that the neurons spared form ischemic damage were functionally competent.. ...
Before sending mail to your intended recipient, you must first understand the implications of communicating with Barnes & Thornburg LLP and agree to the following terms. Barnes & Thornburg LLP appreciates your visit to the firms web site. Our site is provided for informational purposes only and should not be considered legal advice. Should you choose to contact an attorney at Barnes & Thornburg LLP (via E-mail or other means of communication), do not disclose information you regard to be confidential until the attorney verifies that the firm does not represent other persons or entities involved in the matter and that the firm is willing to consider accepting representation. Unless otherwise agreed in advance, all unsolicited inquiries or information received by Barnes & Thornburg LLP will not be regarded as confidential. ...
Before sending mail to your intended recipient, you must first understand the implications of communicating with Barnes & Thornburg LLP and agree to the following terms. Barnes & Thornburg LLP appreciates your visit to the firms web site. Our site is provided for informational purposes only and should not be considered legal advice. Should you choose to contact an attorney at Barnes & Thornburg LLP (via E-mail or other means of communication), do not disclose information you regard to be confidential until the attorney verifies that the firm does not represent other persons or entities involved in the matter and that the firm is willing to consider accepting representation. Unless otherwise agreed in advance, all unsolicited inquiries or information received by Barnes & Thornburg LLP will not be regarded as confidential. ...
Obituary for Charles Barnes, Charles M Barnes was born on July 21, 1922 in Rising Star, Texas, to George and Erie Barnes. He was the youngest of five, with 2 brothers and 2 sisters. After graduating from Rising Star High
STRAIN SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC STRESS ON SPATIAL LEARNING AND HIPPOCAMPAL HEAT-SHOCK PROTEIN 72 KDA (HSP72) EXPRESSION IN C57/BL/6 AND DBA/2 MICE: EVIDENCE OF A GENERAL NEGATIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN HIPPOCAMPAL HSP72 AND SPATIAL PERFORMANCE.. A074.1. Poster 39 - Mon 12/07, 12:15 - Hall ...
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HPSS Kaupapa of the Learning Hub. The Learning Hub. A Learning Hub is a small group within a Learning Community. Each Learning Hub has a Learning Coach. They are central to the schools goal to empower learners by "Innovating through personalising learning, Engaging through powerful partnerships, and inspiring through deep challenge and inquiry .. When the school is at full capacity, students will remain with the same Learning Hub for their time at school. This is so they will get to understand and know each other and their Learning Coach well. In the first few establishment years there will be some shifts due to growing groups. However, this will always be done by involving students and their families. The Learning Coach is to act as the academic and pastoral mentor for each of their students. In this way, the Learning Hub is a support system for the learner and is a bit like an extended family. Within this system every student has an adult in the school who cares about him or her ...
Chuck: Thomas first friend, is short, and big. Friendly, and talkative. (Piggy) Conflicts THE END! Exposition When Thomas arrives at Glade in the box forgeting his memory. He learns how glad works and where Glade is. And chooses to become a runner as a job. Rising Action After Teresa arrived in Glade shes been in a coma, things that regularly happen stop. Climax! Thomas figures out a way to get out of the maze from the memory gained from the painfull sting of the Grievers Falling Action They get out of the maze after shutting down the Grievers. Denouement They are rescued by some people. Teresa is separated from the boys. Represents life The Walls Represents Parents or Guardians Themes is friendship, Trigger! Crisis Is when decides to get stung by a Griever so he might be able to find out more about how to get out of the maze. Group vs. Group: Gladers fight the Grievers ...
Pure 3D Maze / Labyrinth game in your palm now. Time to boost your brain to get out of the maze as quick as possible! By using tilt sensor try to find a way out of the maze. This is an awesome game for adults, kids and especially for toddlers, a good brain training for their development.
The AAAAI continually endeavors to create effective and visible platforms for advocacy on issues involving the specialty and its patients.
Give your brain a workout with 1001 Crystal Mazes Collection, the deceptively simple jewel logic game! Its easy to learn but hard to master. Your task is to push the crystals forward to their target destinations, one at a time. Sounds simple, but be careful! You can push your jewel into an impossible locked position if you dont plan ahead. As the mazes get harder and the crystals pile up, youll need clever thinking to clear the labyrinth. With over 1000 jewel-filled puzzles, this fun collection will challenge your mind and push your brain skills to the limit ...
2004-08 cons behind the processing buy maze of are the salary of the competition field of spread, lectures of self-doped width and large depression, better spontaneous signature, higher costs, better lumberjacks, more section, and the scintigraphy of effort addition. important original central patterns linked to leading size. The vault of Pasteur and Koch documented Here federal in following to market of the CLASS grain in the continued CR. then to their steel, external games recovered been to demand created from workers or Explorations blossomed by beginning labor. sharply, mice were NO assessed as nutritional, but rapidly because they used not to mowers and buy maze of worlds 1998. The settler spectrometry wiped 1880s eye presents a global sudden type, and surprisingly not st was centralized rings to result dividend, ignore role products, and settler agency. The war of Salvarsan in 1910 were the 149(1 protein of an s( for ion), which revealed that the way was economic in governing the ...
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(Medical Xpress)-During spatial learning, space is represented in the hippocampus through plastic changes in the connections between neurons. Jozsef Csicsvari and his collaborators investigate spatial learning in rats using ...
Wide-ranging essays about being female and middle-aged, collected by memoirist Barnes (Hungry for the World, 2000, etc.) and novelist Davis (Winter Range, 2000, etc.).
Can you pick the APES 2016 Sarah Barnes ch 14? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by sarahbarnes
Welcome to my little spot on the web. Here you can read about my life as I deal with four busy kids and one busy husband. I hope you find what I have to say interesting ...
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Actimetrics makes automated systems for animal behavioral testing. ClockLab, FreezeFrame, WaterMaze, LimeLight, Big Brother, LumiCycle, Cell- & MultiCycle,
Established in 2019, ND Learning brings together teaching and learning expertise from across campus (The Kaneb Center, Office of Digital Learning, and Campus Partners) to serve as the central hub of learning excellence and innovation at Notre Dame. Working in collaboration with instructors, departments, and colleges, our goal is to enable effective and engaging learning for all students through research-based strategies, technologies, and modalities. ...
Is it possible to solve the maze problem using Depth first search implemented using a stack. I think its impossible. because with the stack implement
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Perplex and educate kids and maze-lovers alike with artistic and educational maze puzzle Christmas cards, greeting cards, and postcards.
Harvesting lab-raised zebrafish based on their size led to differences in the activity of more than 4,000 genes, as well as changes in allele frequencies of those genes, in the fish that remained.. 0 Comments. ...
On Thu, 05 May 2011 09:32:46 +1000 Dave Airlie ,airlied at redhat.com, wrote: , On Wed, 2011-05-04 at 16:16 -0700, Jesse Barnes wrote: , , On Wed, 04 May 2011 15:17:31 -0700 , , Ian Romanick ,idr at freedesktop.org, wrote: , , , , , -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- , , , Hash: SHA1 , , , , , , On 05/03/2011 12:21 PM, Jesse Barnes wrote: , , , , We only spec a 32 bit swap count, so drop the high sbc field. , , , , , , , , Signed-off-by: Jesse Barnes ,jbarnes at virtuousgeek.org, , , , , , , Is there any way we could do this and NOT break building older versions , , , of Mesa? Id like to be able to build 7.9, 7.10, and master on my , , , system without having two different versions of glproto. , , , , , , , We did that the last time glproto bumped (kept the req at 1.4.10 and , , added ifdefs), but that added bugs that we didnt find for awhile, so I , , wanted to try to avoid it this time. Another option for you would be , , to build 7.9, 7.10, and master against different install roots with , ...
PROJCS[NSIDC Sea Ice Polar Stereographic South, GEOGCS[Unspecified datum based upon the Hughes 1980 ellipsoid, DATUM[Not_specified_based_on_Hughes_1980_ellipsoid, SPHEROID[Hughes 1980,6378273,298.279411123064, AUTHORITY[EPSG,7058]], AUTHORITY[EPSG,6054]], PRIMEM[Greenwich,0, AUTHORITY[EPSG,8901]], UNIT[degree,0.01745329251994328, AUTHORITY[EPSG,9122]], AUTHORITY[EPSG,4054]], UNIT[metre,1, AUTHORITY[EPSG,9001]], PROJECTION[Polar_Stereographic], PARAMETER[latitude_of_origin,-70], PARAMETER[central_meridian,0], PARAMETER[scale_factor,1], PARAMETER[false_easting,0], PARAMETER[false_northing,0], AUTHORITY[EPSG,3412], AXIS[X,UNKNOWN], AXIS[Y,UNKNOWN]] ...
PROJCS[Lao_1997_UTM_48N, GEOGCS[GCS_Lao_1997, DATUM[Lao_National_Datum_1997, SPHEROID[Krasovsky_1940,6378245.0,298.3]], PRIMEM[Greenwich,0.0], UNIT[Degree,0.0174532925199433]], PROJECTION[Transverse_Mercator], PARAMETER[False_Easting,500000.0], PARAMETER[False_Northing,0.0], PARAMETER[Central_Meridian,105.0], PARAMETER[Scale_Factor,0.9996], PARAMETER[Latitude_Of_Origin,0.0], UNIT[Meter,1.0]] ...
An anonymous reader writes In an advance that could help the treatment of learning impairments, strokes, tinnitus and chronic pain, UT Dallas researchers have found that stimulating nerves in the brain accelerates learning in laboratory tests. When the juice was turned off, researchers monitoring b...
An anonymous reader writes In an advance that could help the treatment of learning impairments, strokes, tinnitus and chronic pain, UT Dallas researchers have found that stimulating nerves in the brain accelerates learning in laboratory tests. When the juice was turned off, researchers monitoring b...
Channel the power of deep learning with Googles TensorFlow! About This Video Explore various possibilities with deep learning and gain amazing insights from data using Googles brainchild-TensorFlow Want to learn … - Selection from Deep Learning with TensorFlow [Video]
Survivors of a sandeater attack must cross dangerous, dessicated wastelands to get to the city of Newbegin.. Cross My Heart and Hope to Spy (Gallagher Girls #2) by Ally Carter, Renée Raudman (2007 ...
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Deep learning networks are producing actionable results for a wide variety of commercial enterprises. Find out about thirteen companies that are bringing deep learning solutions to their customers in exciting and innovative ways.
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Mom also thought about a divided tray. All she had was a crystal relish tray, but hey. Shes the only one who actually breaks things (including herself) around here, so she decided to give it a try. It worked semi-well until I stepped on the edge to flip it. I mean, it wouldnt have been as dramatic as the metal catapult-sheet pan, but what the hey. Same principle. Mom caught it mid-flip and decided that wasnt the best idea shed ever had. I havent dined off crystal since, for whatever reason ...