Puts, D. A., Hill, A. K., Bailey, D. H., Walker, R. S., Rendall, D., Wheatley, J. R., ... & Jablonski, N. G. (2016, April). Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids. In Proc. R. Soc. B (Vol. 283, No. 1829, p. 20152830). The Royal Society.. Read More ...
Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individuals phenotypic traits. Evolutionary change is possible because the qualities that are desired in a mate are more frequently passed on to each generation over time. For example, if female peacocks desire mates who have a colourful plumage, then this trait will increase in frequency over time as male peacocks with a colourful plumage will have more reproductive success. Mate choice is one of two components of sexual selection, the other being intrasexual selection. Ideas on sexual selection were first introduced in 1871, by Charles Darwin, then expanded on by Ronald Fisher in 1915. At present, there are five mechanisms that explain how mate choice has evolved over time. These are direct phenotypic benefits, sensory bias, the Fisherian runaway hypothesis, indicator traits and genetic compatibility. In systems where mate choice exists, one sex is ...
The most widely contemplated theory attempting to explain the prevalence of sexual selection is that females choose among males because some males have better genes than others. Although intuitively appealing, this theory is highly controversial as genetic variance in sexually-selected traits should be depleted. Recent advances in multivariate quantitative genetics have confirmed that male sexually selected traits lack genetic variance. We will test the hypothesis that female choice against novel deleterious mutations prevents the accumulation of genetic variance while still providing a genetic benefit to choosing females, providing a mechanism for the maintenance of female choice in natural populations ...
Both are loud, and both cause colourful flashy things to pop up on lawns everywhere. And much like elections, the peacocks train is a costly endeavour. The species might be better off in terms of survival and abundance if they could just do away with those feathers. In terms of sheer waste, they remind me of the Green party pamphlets in our apartment building entrance way. They were stuffed blindly into all of the available mailboxes - which happen to be for street level businesses on our downtown block, not residents. Nice.. Peacocks and elections are both supposed to experience strong positive feedback effects. In politics, momentum can lead to rapid climbs in popularity. Sexual selection can be similar: as Ronald A. Fisher pointed out, exaggerated male traits can potentially evolve through a process of positive feedback. If enough females prefer the particular male trait initially, and the next generation inherits both the female preference and the exaggerated male trait, it can kick-start a ...
Altogether, the authors conclude, this evolutionary experiment shows that mating preferences â can evolve at least in part in correlation with the environment.â This result is consistent with the classic by-product model of speciation, in which new species arise as a side effect of divergent selection; in this case, mating preferences act as a premating isolation mechanism that arises along with the divergent environments. Interestingly, the authors found no correlation between the CHCs that adapted most and those for which female preferences changed. Teasing apart the relative contributions of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of CHCs and mating preferences may help shed light on the complicated relationship between trait and preference evolution in generalâ and on the role that preference plays in the emergence of new species. â Liza Gross ...
We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the under …
Research by Penton-Voak suggests that far from being constant, female mate choice varies across the menstrual cycle. They found that women chose a slightly feminised version of a male face as most attractive for a long-term relationship. However, for a short-term, sexual relationship, the preferred face shape was more masculinised. Sexual selection may well have favoured females who pursue a mixed mating strategy under certain conditions. A female might choose a main partner whose feminised appearance suggests kindness and cooperation in parental care, but might also copulate with a male with a more masculine appearance when conception is most likely. Such males are more likely to have higher levels of testosterone, which suppresses the immune system. Therefore, a male who is healthy must have a highly efficient immune system - a very valuable characteristic to pass to ...
Dont drills have beautiful rear ends? Since this weeks submissions have focused on paleoanthropology and human evolution, Im adding in a few interesting primatological posts. Beast Ape discusses primate coloration in Badge of Status in Drills. While male coloration is often though to be a result of sexual selection, particularly as a result of female choice, a recent study has found that while male coloration in drills is a badge of social status, it does not relate to female preference within a given a given rank. Over at Prancing Papio, Raymond Ho discusses recent evidence for Grandmothering in Japanese Macaques. Although the evidence is limited and anecdotal, this is one of the first published accounts in support of the Grandmother Hypothesis from nonhuman primates. I think this is important, because I suspect theres been more observations of grandmothering in primates (Im pretty sure Ive heard of it happening in rhesus macaques, and wouldnt be surprised if there were accounts from ...
Lets pretend for a minute that there were not significant methodological concerns and just look at the data. What I notice are a few things. First, females primarily exhibit NO preference, not facial preference. If half my subjects exhibited no preference, Id probably have to say the methods and stimuli were flawed. Males might have a slight mobile preference, but even if that were statistically significant, Im not sure there is a lot of biological meaning to 19 vs 11 individuals preferences. Further, they mention that their statistical significance derives entirely from the greater male preference for the mobile (not a greater female preference for the face), yet their conclusions indicate female superiority in social cognition skills.. Table 2 is perhaps more damning. First, the difference in percent looking time is not really different between any of the four groups (male/face, male/mobile; female/face, female/mobile). This becomes more obvious when you consider the standard deviations. ...
We found that several pairwise distances differed between the sexes. For example, the distance from the brow to nasal bridge was found to be more than 5% larger in females than males. We then tested for an interaction between sex and genetic ancestry by testing for differences in the slopes of the ancestry association between males and females. Although the pattern differed slightly between samples, after Bonferroni correction many correlations were the found to be same in both sexes. However, females in all three samples had many additional significant correlations that were not seen in males, while males had very few correlations that were not found in females. The results of these analyses suggest that selection on females is driving the differentiation in facial features among populations. (Liberton et al., 2009 ...
We found that several pairwise distances differed between the sexes. For example, the distance from the brow to nasal bridge was found to be more than 5% larger in females than males. We then tested for an interaction between sex and genetic ancestry by testing for differences in the slopes of the ancestry association between males and females. Although the pattern differed slightly between samples, after Bonferroni correction many correlations were the found to be same in both sexes. However, females in all three samples had many additional significant correlations that were not seen in males, while males had very few correlations that were not found in females. The results of these analyses suggest that selection on females is driving the differentiation in facial features among populations. (Liberton et al., 2009 ...
Daily News Thousands of Mutations Accumulate in the Human Brain Over a Lifetime Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death.. ...
a weight session can have a cardiovascular effect if you have less rest between sets, thats what i was saying, not that a weight session should be seen as cardio. I recommend females use higher repitions and more sets such as 5 by 15-20... You can still work your muscles with higher reps/sets.... Regardless of the amount of sets/reps you are using, to get benifets from training you have to train at a high intensity where the last few repitions in a set are hard to lift. Using higher reps/ sets just means you wont be lifting as heavy, but just as intensly. This will give more of a toning affect and looks far better on females. With that said though, females can still train using the conventional 3 sets by 8 and not get to the size a male would, but if i was a female id stay away from that ...
Much more is now known about human origins and evolution than was the case almost 40 years ago, when I began to study primate reproductive biology. In the
Will you save the best chocolate in the box until last? Do you want the good news first or the bad? Your preferences may depend on your age, reports a Cornell study published in Psychology and Aging.
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Ben Stiller is giving you his best Blue Steel.Heres the 28-year-old back in 1994 (left) -- and 15 years later, the 43-year-old version at an event in…
Rosanna Arquette knows good work when she sees it.Heres the 26-year-old actress/director/producer back in 1986 (left) -- and 25 years later, the…
A lot of people tend to have a strange fascination with serial murders. When we picture them, we generally imagine creepy men with a lust for blood, but serial killing is not a uniquely male trait.
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A crucial question in sexual selection theory is whether post-copulatory sexual selection reinforces or counteracts conventional pre-copulatory sexual selection. Male body size is one of the traits most generally favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection; and recent studies of sperm competition often suggest that large male size is also favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection. In contrast to this general pattern, this study shows that pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection act antagonistically on male body size in Gerris lacustris. One large and one small male were kept together with two females in this experiment. Large males had a significant mating advantage, but small males copulated longer and gained higher fertilization success from each mating. Large and small males, however, gained similar reproductive success, and there was no overall correlation between mating success and reproductive success. These results suggest that estimates of male fitness based solely on mating success ...
Mate choice is often assumed to be a prerogative of females because of their putatively larger reproductive investment than males. However, recent evidence suggests that spermatogenesis is far from being limitless and that males show a high selectivity towards their mates, thus maximizing their reproductive success. We investigated mutual mate choice in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii through two experiments. The first experiment explored the effects of body size, chelar size and chelar symmetry and social status of a potential partner. In the second experiment, we asked whether this species can discriminate between partners of the same body size but with different mating status. We used a binary choice test paradigm, in which two targets with opposing characteristics were simultaneously presented to a test animal, the chooser. The results showed that P. clarkii males are more selective than expected. Similar to the other sex, they were significantly attracted by targets with large body ...
Parasite-stress theory, illustrated by researchers Corey Fincher and Randy Thornhill, is a theory of human evolution proposing that parasites and diseases encountered by a species shape the development of species values and qualities. The differences in how parasites and diseases stress peoples development is what leads to differences in their biological mate value and mate preferences, as well as differences across culture. Parasites causing diseases pose potential ecological hazards and, subsequently, selection pressures can alter psychological and social behaviours of humans, as well as have an influence on their immune systems. Several hypotheses have attempted to explain how parasite load influences female mate choice, as certain traits are thought to be costly and the expression of such traits may be indicative of genetic quality. According to the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis, female mate choice is based on the extent to which male secondary sexual characteristics are expressed, as these are ...
Parasites are thought to play an important role in sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies, which in turn are likely to be critical to the transmission and therefore the evolution of parasites. Despite this clear interdependence we have little understanding of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the context of reciprocal parasite evolution. Here we develop a general coevolutionary model between host mate preference and the virulence of a sexually transmitted parasite. We show when the characteristics of both the host and parasite lead to coevolutionarily stable strategies or runaway selection, and when coevolutionary cycling between high and low levels of host mate choosiness and virulence is possible. A prominent argument against parasites being involved in sexual selection is that they should evolve to become less virulent when transmission depends on host mating success. The present study, however, demonstrates that coevolution can maintain stable host mate choosiness and ...
A large body of literature has centred on whether female resistance evolves as a result of sexual conflict or as a form of female choice for superior mates (also known as resistance as a screen, or resistance as choice) [50,101-103]. According to this hypothesis, open-ended female resistance will ensure that a female copulates only with dominant males that are best able to overcome female resistance; male offspring will be superior competitors/coercers, and female resistance will evolve through the indirect benefits of their superior coercive male offspring [50,101-103]. This type of screening has been hypothesized to occur during pre-copulatory struggles, and during and/or after copulation via cryptic female choice mechanisms [50]. The main argument against the resistance as a screen hypothesis is that the magnitude of the direct costs imposed by coercive males may be much greater than the magnitude of any potential indirect benefit that females may gain [56], but this issue is far from ...
My research interests lie in the field of Behavioural Ecology. I study how variation in the social and physical environment shapes behavioural differences at the individual- and group- level, which in turn have important evolutionary consequences. My work is mainly lab-based and uses guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model system.. During my PhD, I tested the hypothesis that females alter their sexual behaviours in response to variation in the distribution of male phenotypes experienced during development. I also explored whether learned preferences acquired in a foraging context while growing could be transferred into a mating context. The study showed the key role played by the social environment experienced during ontogeny in the expression of female mate preferences in a species that lack parental care.. Currently, my research centres on the study of social network structure and its adaptive value. Specifically, I am analyzing how the dynamic structure of established social networks responds ...
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Background: One of Darwins chosen examples for his idea of sexual selection through female choice was the "sword", a colourful extension of the caudal fin of male swordtails of the genus Xiphophorus. Platyfish, also members of the genus Xiphophorus, are thought to have arisen from within the swordtails, but have secondarily lost the ability to develop a sword. The sustained increase of testosterone during sexual maturation initiates sword development in male swordtails. Addition of testosterone also induces sword-like fin extensions in some platyfish species, suggesting that the genetic interactions required for sword development may be dormant, rather than lost, within platyfish. Despite considerable interest in the evolution of the sword from a behavioural or evolutionary point of view, little is known about the developmental changes that resulted in the gain and secondary loss of the sword. Up-regulation of msxC had been shown to characterize the development of both swords and the ...
New research indicates that the genetic quality of sperm worsens as men get older, increasing a mans risk of being infertile, fathering unsucces
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We studied sampling behaviour and mate choice in the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi. Once a female selects a mate, she copulates in his burrow and remains there until releasing her aquatic larvae. U. mjoe
I almost didnt write this review. A couple of months ago, my friend Tracy at Fanserviced-B published her extensive and detailed review of Sunday Riley Good Genes, and I wasnt sure, when I started testing the product, that Id have anything to add to the conversation. The more time I spent with Good Genes, however,…
Most of the time you pick a potential mate based on what you see, but with this dating trend youll pick someone based on their scent. In fact, you wont see what they even look like until later in the game.. This type of dating usually takes place at pheromone dating parties. If youre planning to attend a party like this, youll be given specific instructions for how to capture your scent for potential dates.. Participants are often asked to sleep in the same t-shirt for three nights. Then, you place it in a Ziploc freezer bag and freeze it until its time for the party. This is designed to capture your scent and preserve it.. Once you arrive, your bag will receive a number. Youll get the opportunity to smell the shirts of potential mates and they will get the chance to smell yours. At the end of the evening, participants can choose to talk with people whose scent they were attracted to.. The idea behind this is the idea that pheromones cause you to be biologically attracted to other people. ...
Sexual selection, a concept introduced by Charles Darwin in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, is a significant element of his theory of natural selection. The sexual form of selection;. ... depends, not on a struggle for existence, but on a struggle between the males for possession of the females; the result is not death to the unsuccessful competitor, but few or no offspring.. ... when the males and females of any animal have the same general habits ... but differ in structure, colour, or ornament, such differences have been mainly caused by sexual selection.. The coloration of feathers is believed to be primarily evolved in response to sexual selection. In many cases the physiological condition of the birds is indicated by the quality of their feathers and this is used, mainly by the females, in mate choice.. The females cannot be as outrageously decorated, since they cannot afford to be discovered by a predator while hatching the offspring. Nonetheless they are very beautiful and many ...
Remarkably, we have actually kind of obtained a similar result in one of our previous study (Svensson et al. 2006 Evolution), where we found that strong divergent sexual selection was accompanied by a significant decrease of female response towards conspecifics from other populations. This is corroborated by another study yet from our group, that found reduced gene flow between some of these populations (Svensson et al. 2004 Heredity), like it has been found in other systems (Rice and Pfennig 2010). I had myself never really thought about it that way, and this opened my mind a lot I must say on what Erik and others of our group have done in the past. And what about learning then? Well, we know it is likely to play an important role in divergence of mate preferences in our system (Svensson et al. 2010 Evolution), and all things considered it might even facilitate this process, as mate choice may change faster and thus the constraining effects of gene flow in the early stages will then not be an ...
The example of the !Kung woman who did not want to kill her light-skinned daughter is illustrative of Judys hypothesis, but, it is simply a starting point. Nevertheless, I think it highlights a weakness: the genomic data is shedding light on the possibility that selection for loci which cause light skin (or, more properly explain a proportion of the intergroup variance) occurred long after the first humans settled the temperate zone. If the parental preference for light skin (which derives from the deep seated sensory bias which is also the root of sexual selection) existed prior to the arrival in the northern latitudes why is it that Eurasian populations seem to exhibit pulses of selection relatively late in history? One could make the argument, assuming that parental and sexual selection were paramount, that child and mate choice were simply not operative prior to this time period. Sexual selection works ideally through polygynous mating systems where there is a great deal of reproductive ...
It used to be said that men predominantly liked salty snacks and women liked sweets. Food preference, in that sense, was related to chromosomes. It may go deeper than that. Even your preference for fats, carbohydrates and proteins may be genetic.
In Fragile X syndrome-a genetic mishap that results in cognitive delays-the lack of a translation-repressing protein leads to the rampant accumulation of other proteins in the mouse brain.. 0 Comments. ...
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Also, Sykess characterization of sexual selection is flat-out wrong. He writes, Sexual selection disappears for the simplest of reasons - there are no longer two sexes ... The destructive spiral of greed and ambition fuelled by sexual selection diminishes. The world no longer reverberates to the sound of mens clashing antlers and the grim repercussions of conflict, but only right after saying that the baby girls will not be clones ... They have two biological parents, not just one. Their only difference from any other child is that both parents are women. Sexual selection is the theory that competition for mates between individuals of the same sex drives the evolution of certain traits. If women still have to seek out mates, they will still want to seek out the best mate possible, and an intra-sex competition will stil be in effect. Some traits will be more attractive than others ...
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Does anyone know what kind of swordtail this is? I just bought it. It looks blue when the light hits right, and its grey when it doesnt. Also what would...
2000 words I was alerted to a response to my article r/K Selection Theory Rebuttals on Twitter. I enjoy when people write responses to my pieces as I can better build my arguments. Its also fun defending what I wrote. This Pastebin is where the response is. He states that he disagrees with AC (Anonymous Conservative) on two…
What is the point, really, of kissing? Humans make such a big deal of it, but almost no other animals smooch. A new study out of Oxford University suggests that kissing may actually have a purpose beyond the obvious -- its a mating audition. Potential mates are doing a taste test.
What is the point, really, of kissing? Humans make such a big deal of it, but almost no other animals smooch. A new study out of Oxford University suggests that kissing may actually have a purpose beyond the obvious -- its a mating audition. Potential mates are doing a taste test.
This is a cool case of sexual selection acting on females, specifically because the males make an unusually large parental investment and thus must be choosy. Totally confirms my prejudices about the situations in which sexual selection should be expected. The fact that it involves lying is just gravy.. ...
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