Martinez, C. C., Nagao, A. T., Takano, O. A., Vieira, V. S., & Carneiro-Sampaio, M. M. S. (1996). Placental transfer of igg and igg subclasses anti-escherichia coli purified lps antigens. In Resumos. Sao Paulo: Icb-Usp ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Placental transfer of indomethacin (I). AU - Anderson, Debra. AU - Phernetton, T. M.. AU - Rankin, J. H G. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018217477&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018217477&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018217477. VL - 21. JO - Physiologist. JF - Physiologist. SN - 0031-9376. IS - 4. ER - ...
Méhats C, Marcellin L, Schmitz T. [Immune cell activation at the maternal-fetal interface precedes human parturition]. Med Sci (Paris). 2018 Mar;34(3):208-210.. Dravet-Gounot P, Morin C, Jacques S, Dumont F, Ely-Marius F, Vaiman D, Jarreau PH, Méhats C, Zana-Taïeb E. Lung microRNA deregulation associated with impaired alveolarization in rats after intrauterine growth restriction. PLoS One 2017 29;12(12):e0190445.. Marcellin L, Schmitz T, Messaoudene M, Chader D, Parizot C, Jacques S, Delaire J, Gogusev J, Schmitt A, Lesaffre C, Breuiller-Fouché M, Caignard A, Vaiman D, Goffinet F, Cabrol D, Gorochov G, Méhats C. Immune Modifications in Fetal Membranes Overlying the Cervix Precede Parturition in Humans. J Immunol. 2017 Feb 1;198(3):1345-1356. Marcellin L, Santulli P, Gogusev J, Lesaffre C, Jacques S, Chapron C, Goffinet F, Vaiman D, Méhats C. Endometriosis also affects the decidua in contact with the fetal membranes during pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2015 Feb;30(2):392-405.. Santulli P, ...
PubMed 18382868 Yu Y, Jenkins AJ, Nankervis AJ, Hanssen KF, Scholz H, Henriksen T, Lorentzen B, Clausen T, Garg SK, Menard MK, Hammad SM, Scardo JC, Stanley JR, Dashti A, May K, Lu K, Aston CE, Wang JJ, Zhang SX, Ma JX, Lyons TJ (2008) ...
Principal Investigator:MATSUSAKA Naonori, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:基礎獣医学
Fetal Circulation Definition - Fetal circulation is an umbrella term for the circulatory system (through which blood and lymph flow throughout the...
Childhood leukaemia is resultant of a multiple causation factors. The exogenous or endogenous exposures, the intrinsic susceptibility of the child given by single-nucleotide polymorphism may increase the chances of childhood leukaemia [3, 8]. This unique study group comprises a series of EAL children with ALL and AML in which somatic mutations arise at the stem-cell level during fetal hematopoiesis [2, 31]. EAL represents an epidemiological particular group, because transplacental exposures to DNA damaging substances is proposed to be associated with an increased risk of such leukaemias [23, 32-34]. Very few studies have tested the association between smoking and the presence of selected genetic characteristics in childhood.. First of all, the analyses took into account the relatively high prevalence of MAPK mutations (mainly RAS mut 25.5%) in these EAL settings associated with MLL-r. The prognostic value RAS mut in childhood leukaemia with or without MLL-r was described and demonstrated the ...
Barbies sire stack, Shottle x Champion x Storm x Grand x Aerostar, is without question one that is highly balanced and pleasing to the most discerning of breeders. Barbies sire, Picston Shottle, is famous for producing daughters that are the balanced Canadian kind of cow. His credits do not stop there however. Shottle has produced many highly proven sons in many countries.. On the maternal side, Barbi ensures the continued success of a deep and prolific Gypsy Grand cow family. Her dam is the solid 4 Star Brood Cow, Gen-I-Beq Champion Bambi Ex 90, whose daughters include 1 EX, 6 VG, 3 GP and 1 G daughter. Two of her daughters are multiple star Brood Cows.. ...
Fetal interventions to diagnose and treat congenital anomalies are growing in popularity but often lead to preterm labor. The possible contribution of the maternal adaptive immune system to postsurgical pregnancy complications has not been explored. We recently showed that fetal intervention in mice increases maternal T cell trafficking into the fetus and hypothesized that this process also may lead to increased maternal T cell recognition of the foreign conceptus and subsequent breakdown in maternal-fetal tolerance. In this study, we show that fetal intervention in mice results in accumulation of maternal T cells in the uterus and that these activated cells can produce effector cytokines. In adoptive transfer experiments, maternal T cells specific for a fetal alloantigen proliferate after fetal intervention, escape apoptosis, and become enriched compared with endogenous T cells in the uterus and uterine-draining lymph nodes. Finally, we demonstrate that such activation and accumulation can have ...
Polly Clayden, HIV i-Base. Modest placental transfer of dolutegravir (DTG) shown in an ex vivo human placenta perfusion model was presented in a poster at the 16th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV & Hepatitis Therapy.. Clinical data showing placental transfer of DTG is not yet available. Dual perfusion of a single placental lobule (cotyledon) is an experimental model used to predict placental drug transfer.. Investigators from the Departments of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, developed a placenta perfusion model to estimate foetal exposure to DTG pregnancy.. The method involves cannulating a foetal vein and artery of an intact cotyledon ex vivo. The foetal circulation (6 mL/min) and the maternal circulation (12 mL/min) were initiated by inserting four cannulas into the intervillous space.. The perfusion medium was Krebs-Henseleit buffer supplemented with 10.1 mM glucose, 30 ...
Chu, H., Tielsch, J., Katz, J., Magaret, A., Khatry, S., LeClerq, S., Shrestha, L., Kuypers, J., Steinhoff, M., & Englund, J. (2017). Transplacental Transfer of Maternal Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Antibody and Protection Against RSV Disease in Infants in Rural Nepal.. Journal of Clinical Virology : The Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 95 (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2017.08.017 ...
OBJECTIVE: In vitro and animal experiments suggest that P-glycoprotein forms a functional barrier between maternal and fetal blood circulation in the placenta, thus protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy. In this study we aimed to characterize the role of P-glycoprotein in the blood-placental barrier by use of dually perfused human placenta. METHODS: Twenty-eight human placentas were obtained after delivery, and both the maternal side and the fetal side were perfused for 2 hours. Saquinavir was used as a probe drug for P-glycoprotein-dependent active transfer, and PSC833 (valspodar) or GG918 was used as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein function in a maternal-to-fetal and fetal-to-maternal perfusion setting. Genotyping for ABCB1 (C3435T and G2677A/T) polymorphism and quantification of P-glycoprotein expression were done for each placenta. RESULTS: The fetal-to-maternal transfer of saquinavir was 108-fold higher (P = .003) compared with transfer from the maternal to the ...
... Our research aims to address two fundamental questions in reproductive biology: how does the endometrium prepare for pregnancy and, once the embryo implants, how is the placenta formed? During pregnancy, the maternal lining of the uterus, the decidua, and the fetal placenta interact together to provide support for the developing fetus. Despite advances in the field of reproductive biology, disorders of pregnancy resulting from aberrant placentation still occur frequently. There are ethical and practical difficulties in the use of human tissue for research and a lack of reliable in vitro tools. To overcome these issues, we have developed 3D cultures (organoids) of endometrium and placentas which show remarkable phenotypical and functional similarities to their tissue of origin. Using an interdisciplinary approach which will involve 3D culture techniques, single cell RNA sequencing and Crispr/Cas9 genome editing, we aim to unravel the basic ...
3TC readily crosses the placenta in humans, achieving cord blood concentrations comparable to maternal plasma concentrations.3 In a study of 123 mother/infant pairs, the placental transfer, expressed as the fetal-to-maternal area under the curve (AUC) ratio, was 0.86. The 3TC amniotic fluid accumulation, expressed as the amniotic fluid-to-fetal AUC ratio, was 2.9.4 Other studies have also noted that urinary excretion of 3TC by the fetus can cause 3TC to accumulate in the amniotic fluid.2. 3TC is excreted into human breast milk. In a study in Kenya of 67 nursing mothers who received a combination regimen of zidovudine, 3TC, and nevirapine, the median breast milk 3TC concentration was 1,214 ng/mL and the median ratio of 3TC concentration in breast milk to the concentration in plasma was 2.56.5 In infants who were exposed to 3TC only via breast milk, the median plasma 3TC concentration was 23 ng/mL (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] of 3TC against wild-type HIV = 0.6-21 ng/mL). In a separate ...
Concerning proof of foreseeability, Lilly conceded at trial that it was aware by 1947 that DES posed the threat of cancer to the user, that DES had been shown to cross the placental barrier and that DES had caused malformations in the offspring of pregnant mice to which the drug had been administered. Lilly contends, however, that because no human transplacental carcinogen was discovered until 1962, when the first thalidomide babies were born, it could not have foreseen the occurrence of DES-caused cancer in human offspring. Although Lillys experts supported this position, plaintiffs experts testified to the contrary conclusion, which the jury accepted and which we have no reason to disturb. We note, moreover, that the proof shows that a researcher had in 1947 conducted an experiment in which pregnant mice were injected with urethane, an anesthetic administered to women during delivery, in order to determine if the offspring developed cancer from the drug. Obviously, this researcher was ...
Mathematical modelling provides a tool to enhance the interpretation of placental transfer experiments. In this thesis, physiologically based compartmental models were employed for the study of nutrient transfer between the mother and the fetus and validated with data from ex vivo placental perfusion and in vivo clinical experiments. With respect to previous models, a more extensive range of modelling applications is presented in this thesis including several different transport mechanisms. Model implementation was carried out for fatty acids, amino acids and cortisol. In particular, fatty acids were studied extensively in vivo and in vitro. In addition, a 3D image based modelling approach of the placental microstructures was carried out. The main novelty compared to previous approaches was that the transport of nutrients in the maternal blood was modelled explicitly and a study of nutrient uptake with respect to different maternal blood flow rates was performed ...
The American Society for Reproductive Immunology (ASRI) was founded to foster the field of Reproductive Immunology so both clinicians and basic researchers could better understand the immune-based etiologies underlying reproductive anomalies. The annual ASRI meetings are designed to acquaint attendees with new questions and new techniques underlying the normal and abnormal events at the maternal-fetal interface. It is increasingly clear that the immunity, placenta and hormones play a pivotal role in orchestrating in utero embryonic development. There appears to be a composite triad of dynamic equilibrium involving the placental milieu, the fetus and the mother. Thus, the maternal-fetal interface can provide a blueprint for the events that lead to a normal or a compromised pregnancy. Recent revolutionary advances in technical know-how and thematic excellence now make it possible to not only investigate the issues in animals but to transport this knowledge from bench to bedside. The Clinical ...
Transcriptomes of about 70,000 single cells from first-trimester deciduas and placentas reveal subsets of perivascular, stromal and natural killer cells in the decidua, according to new research by CTR published on Nature
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An Empa team has succeeded in developing a new three-dimensional cell model of the human placental barrier. The "model organ" can quickly and reliably deliver new information on the intake of substances, such as nano-particles, by the placental barrier and on any possible toxic effects for the unborn child.
Page 2 - Problems, Problems!!! I hope someone can shed some light. I am in the Pediatrics rotation. I will be taking an exam and my teacher said know Fetal circulation. We are on a break so I am a little
Main research line: Identification of metabolic and genetic markers associated with metabolic alterations of pregnancy and offspring, and their relation to pre and postnatal growth. Specific research lines Alterations of prenatal development: gestational obesity and restriction of fetal growth. Postnatal recovery growth (catch-up). Metabolic programming during pregnancy.
Viral infections in pregnancy are major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Infections can develop in the neonate transplacentally, perinatally (from vaginal secretions or blood), or postnatally (from breast milk or other sources).
Fetal Circulation Dr.(Mrs.)S.Valliammal Lecturer College of Nursing NIMHANS Bangalore
In a longitudinal cohort of ∼700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (|25%) is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC) DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5′-CpG island(s) (5′-CGI). Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) exhibited the highest concordance between
OBJECTIVES: The perfused cotyledon model is a very useful method to study placental transfer of drugs. Here we studied placental transfer of the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir using the non-recirculating dual human placent
Trophoblast adhesion to the uterine wall is the requisite first step of implantation and, subsequently, placentation. At the maternal-fetal interface, we investigated the expression of selectin adhesion systems that enable leukocyte capture from the bloodstream. On the maternal side, human uterine epithelial cells up-regulated selectin oligosaccharide-based ligands during the window of receptivity. On the fetal side, human trophoblasts expressed L-selectin. This ligand-receptor system was functional, because beads coated with the selectin ligand 6-sulfo sLex bound to trophoblasts, and trophoblasts bound to ligand-expressing uterine luminal epithelium in tissue sections. These results suggest that trophoblast L-selectin mediates interactions with the uterus and that this adhesion mechanism may be critical to establishing human pregnancy. ...
PhD-vejledning. Tina Mose: development and optimization of an ex-vivo human placental perfusion system - Placental transfer of chemical compounds. Afsluttet 2009. Hovedvejleder.. Marie Frederiksen: Human exposure to polybrominated dephenyl ethers. An exposure study of pregnant women and their un- and newborn children. Afsluttet 2010. Hovedvejleder.. Marie Pedersen: Transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants. Biomarkers of exposures and effects in blood from mother-newborn pairs. Afsluttet 2010. Hovedvejleder.. Mia B. Kjærstad: Potential endocrine disturbance of fetal development by azole compounds used as antifungals in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals - a study on placental transport and effects on steroid receptors and steroid metabolizing enzymes. Afsluttet 2011. Medvejleder.. Line Mathiesen: Aktiv transport over den humane placenta. Afleveret 1.4.2011. Hovedvejleder.. Thit Aarøe Mørck: Eksponering for skadelige miljøfaktorer hos skolebørn og deres mødre. Afleveret sommer2015. ...
A substantial portion of placental function is committed to the regulation of nutrient transfer from the dam to the fetus, with glucose being the major substrate for conceptus metabolism. Due to its homomorphism with glucose, xylose can be used as tracer for the assessment of placental nutrient transfer capacity. This study was designed to evaluate transplacental permeability to xylose in bovine pregnancies on Days 90 and 180 of gestation. In Experiment 1, pregnant and nonpregnant females were infused into the jugular vein or into the allantoic sac with a 10% xylose solution to evaluate the maternal plasma xylose disappearance and the existence of feto-maternal xylose transfer, respectively. Glucose and xylose concentrations were determined in venous blood samples collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min. A materno-fetal but not a feto-maternal xylose transport was observed in both gestational periods. In Experiment 2, pregnant animals were slaughtered on Days 90 or 180 of ...
Objective:. To evaluate the feasibility of functional MRI method developed in an animal model and to construct normal reference ranges for in vivo placental perfusion using functional MRI. This will be based on imaging studies in patients undergoing termination of pregnancy (TOP) at 16 to 32 weeks for fetal reason in a tertiary referral center.. Method:. All patients undergoing TOP at 16 to 32 weeks will be offered to participate in this study.. 120 patients will be included. 15 per group of weeks of gestation: 16+0-17+6 SA, 18+0-19+6 SA, 20+0-21+6 SA, 22+0-23+6 SA, 24+0-25+6 SA, 26+0-27+6 SA, 28+0-29+6 SA, 30+0-31+6 WG.. MRI will be performed in the same hospital, during hospital stay, within 45 minutes.. Two MRI sequences will be used to measure placental perfusion:. ...
Low susceptibility to transplacental induction of tumours by 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (5/5) (Diwan et al., 1973., 1973). Susceptible to skin ulceration by DMBA (cf. 13/22) (Thomas et al., 1973., 1973). Low susceptibility to tumour induction by 3-methylcholanthrene (8/8) (Whitmire and Salerno, 1972). Resistant to the induction of tumours by N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) due to a gene on chromosome 7 (Angel et al, 1993). Susceptible to teratogenic effects of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (1/5) (Diwan, 1974). Sensitive to Warfarin (4/12) (Lush and Arnold, 1975). Long sleeping time under hexobarbital anaesthetic (14/15) (Lovell, 1976), long sleeping time under pentobarbitone anaesthetic (21/23), Lovell (1986). Resistant to chloroform toxicity (cf. 5/9) (Deringer et al., 1953., 1953). Susceptible to the development of lung fibrosis following a single dose of thoracic irradiation (Franko and Sharplin, 1994). Estrogen induces an increase in VLDL and LDL-cholesterol (like C57BL/6, contrast BALB/c and C3H) ...
The role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in thymic development is uncertain. Not surprisingly, IL-2 knockout (KO) mice have been used to address this question. However, as we report here, such mice are chimeric, containing both IL-2 KO cells and IL-2-expressing cells transferred in utero from their heterozygous mothers. These cells produce IL-2 in amounts detectable by conventional means, and their presence in lymphoid tissues confounds efforts to define the true IL-2 KO phenotype. To minimize the amount of IL-2 available to the thymus, we subjected recombinase activating gene-1 KO mice to bone marrow transplantation using IL-2 KO donors, and then followed the reconstitution of the thymus. The thymuses of these mice became increasingly aberrant over time, including abnormalities in both stromal cells and thymocytes. These results demonstrate that IL-2 is critical to several aspects of thymic function, a finding previously obscured by the presence of IL-2 in IL-2 KO mice.
Based on an estimated incidence of cancer during pregnancy of 1 per 1000-1500 pregnancies, annualy 3000-5000 new patients can be expected in Europe. The treatment of cancer in pregnant women is a challenge since both the maternal and the foetal well-being need to be considered. This study was initiated to gain better insights into the problems associated with cancer and chemotherapy during pregnancy. A multicentric registration study was set up to evaluate the currently applied treatment modalities for cancer during pregnancy, and the consequences of their use for the pregnancy. Secondly, a preclinical and clinical pharmacological study addressing pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy in pregnant women and transplacental passage of chemotherapy was performed. Thirdly, we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to chemotherapy on foetal neurological development. We observed an equal distribution of tumour types between pregnant and age matched nonpregnant women. Data on neonatal outcome suggest that
There is increasing evidence that certain nanoparticles (NPs) can overcome the placental barrier, raising concerns on potential adverse effects on the growing fetus. But even in the absence of placental transfer, NPs may pose a risk to proper fetal development if they interfere with the viability and functio
Mast cells (MCs) are largely known as primary responders in allergic reactions and important cells of the innate immune system. However, recent studies reveal that MCs in fact also play a critical role in the Treg-dependent allograft tolerance by secreting interleukin-9 (IL)-9. In the light of this breaking role for MCs we embarked on a series of studies aiming to analyze whether MCs may be implicated in tolerance towards the semiallogenic fetus growing within the maternal uterus. We confirmed the presence of MCs at the fetal-maternal interface preferentially in maternal decidua (Fig. 1). Their peak is observed around implantation. Fetal rescue by means of antigen-specific Treg was associated with an augmented number of MCs as well as with enhanced expression of MC-related molecules (Tph-1, Mcpt-1 and Mcpt-5) at the fetal-maternal interface and in other organs. Treg treatment was further associated with an increase in the levels of well-known MC growth factors mSCF and IL-3, while IL-9 remained ...
UC San Diego Healths Maternal-Fetal Care team provides 24-hour consultation and management of pregnancy complications, overseeing the health of mother and baby through delivery.
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- For the first time ever it is shown that human fetal immune system arises from a completely different source than the adult immune system, and is more likely to tolerate than fight foreign substances in its environment.. This finding could lead to a better understanding of how newborns respond to infections and vaccines, and may explain some mysteries as to why many infants of HIV-positive mothers are not infected with the disease before birth. In addition, it could help scientists better understand how childhood allergies develop, as well as how to manage adult organ transplants.. Until now, the fetal and infant immune system had been thought to be simply an immature form of the adult system, one that responds differently because of a lack of exposure to immune threats from the environment. The new research has revealed an entirely different immune system in the fetus at mid-term that comes from a completely different set of stem cells than the adult system.. "In the fetus, ...
PMID: 24926663. Macdonald EM, Natale R, Regnault TR, Koval JJ, Campbell MK. Obstetric conditions and the placental weight ratio. Placenta. 2014 Aug;35(8):582-6. PMID: 24909371. Thompson JA, Piorkowska K, Gagnon R, Richardson BS, Regnault TR. Increased collagen deposition in the heart of chronically hypoxic ovine fetuses. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2013 Dec;4(6):470-8. PMID: 24924226. Regnault TR, de Vrijer B, Galan HL, Wilkening RB, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Umbilical uptakes and transplacental concentration ratios of amino acids in severe fetal growth restriction.Pediatr Res. 2013 May;73(5):602-11.PMID: 23407119. Kim-Fine S, Regnault TR, Lee JS, Gimbel SA, Greenspoon JA, Fairbairn J, Summers K, de Vrijer B. Male gender promotes an increased inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide in umbilical vein blood.J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Nov;25(11):2470-4. PMID: 22506729. Thompson JA, Gros R, Richardson BS, Piorkowska K, Regnault TR. Central stiffening in adulthood linked to aberrant aortic ...
The presence of the hormone oxytocin in the central amygdala makes a mother rat willing to put her life in danger in order to protect her offspring.
A study published in Nature Communications presented evidence of transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an infected mother to her unborn child.
Scientists have found a possible link between maternal cholesterol levels and the risk of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, with boys being more susceptible to the effect than girls.
Inside the uterus, the fetus is tethered to its mother via the umbilical cord, which is attached to the uterine wall by a mass of tissue called the pl...
Mihaela Pavličev, PhD of the Center for Prevention of Preterm Birth, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center and colleagues use the word "negotiation" to describe the unique relationship that must be established early in a pregnancy and then maintained, for a birth to result.. "We cannot understand pregnancy by focusing on the fetal side (placenta) alone, or on the maternal (uterus) alone. How do we maintain stability, not as a war, but rather without damage to mom or fetus? Most pregnancy defects can be seen as interrupting this temporary stable unit. But to be able to study that, we need to know which cells are talking to which other cells," explains Dr. Pavličev.. Instead of looking macroscopically at the pancake-like organ, they conducted an elegant and extensive analysis of individual cells, using single-cell transcriptomics. (Im departing from not calling a pregnant woman a mother because when discussing a placenta, its important to name the sides: fetal and ...
Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta.
Background: One of the options for resuscitating fetuses with nonreassuring fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns during labor is to use maternal oxygen supplementation. However, various studies have found inconsistent results with this intervention. Fetal pulse oximetry was developed to provide an accurate reading of fetal oxygenation during labor, and two studies that used fetal pulse oximetry to determine the effect of maternal oxygen supplementation on fetal oxygen saturation showed inconsistent results. The studies were small, varied in their study design, and evaluated the effect of maternal oxygen supplementation in a fetus with reassuring FHR patterns. This suggests that the fetus in the study probably had normal oxygenation and that oxygen supplementation likely did not increase fetal oxygen saturation. Haydon and colleagues evaluated the effect of maternal oxygen supplementation on fetal pulse oximetry during labor in fetuses with nonreassuring FHR patterns.. The Study: Participants in the ...
As maternal immunization becomes an increasingly important strategy for protection of very young infants, identification of factors that could impact vaccine effectiveness by modifying the efficiency of transplacental antibody transport will be critical. This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study that measured respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) neutralizing antibodies in maternal/cord pairs. The results showed that one-third of infants were born without protective levels of RSV neutralizing antibody, confirming the need to increase levels in pregnant women through maternal immunization. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to journal articles.). Author: Atwell JE, Thumar B, Robinson LJ, et al. Published: 2016 ...
In this study we demonstrate that the placental drug-transporting P-gp can profoundly limit the passage of various potentially toxic or therapeutically beneficial P-gp substrate drugs into the fetus. We further show that this placental P-gp can be completely blocked by orally administered PSC833 or GG918, resulting in greatly increased transplacental passage of drugs into the fetus. Previously, Lankas et al. showed that the absence of Mdr1a P-gp in the placenta of naturally occurring Mdr1a mutant fetuses is associated with increased fetal accumulation and toxicity of the pesticide avermectin (13). Taken together, the data demonstrate that the mouse Mdr1a P-gp makes a major contribution to yet another biologically important protective barrier. The list now includes the blood-brain barrier, the blood-nerve barrier, the blood-testis barrier, the maternal-fetal barrier, and the intestinal barrier (10, 12, 13, 25-28). Thus, P-gp activity protects the central blood circulation and a range of tissue ...
The aquatic environment is severely impacted by xenobiotics that are released due to anthropogenic activities, threatening ecosystem health. Some of these contaminants accumulate in lipophilic fish tissues and are maternally transferred to developing offspring, affecting their growth and performance. However, knowledge about the long-term and generational impacts associated with maternal transfer of contaminants is limited in fish. In this thesis, the hypothesis tested was that maternal transfer of bisphenol A (BPA) leads to disruption in the developmental programing of growth and stress axes functioning in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and that these changes are passed on to the next generation. This was tested by exposing oocytes to either control (vehicle; ,0.01% ethanol) 0.3, 3.0, and 30.0 mg l-1 BPA in ovarian fluid for 3 h, prior to fertilization, to mimic maternal transfer. This led to the accumulation of 0, 0.8, 4.4 and 41.3 ng BPA embryo-1. Oocytes were fertilized with milt from ...
The purpose of the program project grant is to evaluate the placental, decidual and maternal immune interactions from a new perspective, that a positive interaction between placental and maternal components exist together to support and protect pregnancy and does not represent the classic graft/rejection interaction. Trophoblast cells, decidual (stromal and endothelial) cells, as well as cells of the innate immune system, communicate with each other throughout a network of cytokines and chemokines. Such crosstalk occurs through the expression of innate immune sensors, known as Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) that are expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and serve as sensors for the recognition and response to the environment throughout implantation and gestation. Our studies focus on the expression, regulation and function of TLRs in each of the cellular components of the maternal-fetal interface, and to evaluate their role in pregnancy success providing a complete picture of molecular ...
In the modern society, people accumulate POPs through daily exposure (here, the contaminated adult stage). If individuals do not adopt measures to reduce their level of contamination, then those contaminants can be transferred from parents to fetuses. If people of reproductive age reduce the contaminants in their body before conception occurs, they can decrease pollutant levels in sperm and oocytes. If expecting mothers reduce their intake of fatty meat and fatty fish during pregnancy, they could reduce their exposure to environmental chemicals. Lower levels of exposure to the mother would then lead to diminished transplacental exposure and a less contaminated uterine environment (the fetal stage).. As noted above, reducing the breastfeeding period to a maximum of 1 year has been shown to decrease POP levels for newborns and infants.3 However, if the level of contaminants in the mothers body can be reduced before pregnancy so that breast milk is less contaminated, the breastfeeding period ...