The behavioral mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced maternal behavior deficits were examined in the present study. Different groups of postpartum rats were treated with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), clozapine (10.0 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (5.0 mg/kg, an anxiolytic) or vehicle (0.9% saline) on Days 4 and 6 postpartum and their maternal behaviors were tested under either pup-separation (e.g. pups were removed from their mothers for 4 h before testing) or no-pup-separation condition. Maternal behavior and drug-induced sedation were further tested for 3 days from Day 8 to 12 postpartum. Results show that pup-separation, which putatively increases maternal motivation, did significantly shorten clozapine-elongated pup approach latency, increase pup licking and nursing but fail to reverse the deficits in pup retrieval and nest building in the lactating rats treated with haloperidol and clozapine. Repeated haloperidol treatment produced a progressively enhanced disruption on pup retrieval and nest building
Maternal behavioral problems are classified as either the lack of maternal behavior when dealing with the mothers own young or excessive maternal behavior in the absence of newborn kittens.
AMHERST, Mass. - In the first study of its kind, environmental health scientist Laura Vandenberg and neuroscientist Mary Catanese at the University of Massachusetts Amherst examined the effects of the compound bisphenol S (BPS) on maternal behavior and related brain regions in mice. They found subtle but striking behavior changes in nesting mothers exposed during pregnancy and lactation and in their daughters exposed in utero.. BPS, found in baby bottles, personal care products and thermal receipts, is a replacement chemical for BPA and was introduced when concern was raised about possible health effects of that plastic compound. Though studies have found human BPS exposure is likely low, it is widespread and has increased over the past 10 years, the authors note. As with BPA, there is evidence that BPS is an endocrine disruptor.. Assistant professor Vandenberg and Catanese, a recent graduate of UMass Amhersts neuroscience and behavior graduate program, report, "BPS affects maternal behavior as ...
View Notes - April 9- Epigenetic programing by Maternal Behaviour from BIOL 430 at Queens University. Adil Geresu Ernie Lin Rudi Lin Outline Introduction Goal of this Study To investigate the
One of the main components of an organisms energy budget is its baseline level of energy metabolism. Individual differences in this cost of self-maintenance (termed in this chapter, resting metabolic rate, RMR) are substantial, but the causes and consequences of this variation are obscure. In Chapter 2, I review the published literature and show that maternal influences (along with other factors) can contribute substantially to variation in offspring RMR. Also, the RMR - fitness relationship appears to be modulated by environmental conditions (e.g. food supply), suggesting that the fitness consequences of a given RMR may be context-dependent. Thus, I propose that broad-scale variation in RMR might persist in natural populations, due to both spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions and the trans-generational influence of mothers ...
The presence of the hormone oxytocin in the central amygdala makes a mother rat willing to put her life in danger in order to protect her offspring.
A 15 year cohort study researching whether breastfeeding protect against substantiated child abuse and neglect, suggest that long-term breastfeeding can protect infants against neglect and abuse.
In the early Fall of 2013, I prepared to begin the first blood collection for my project. Choosing and ordering the correct medical devices and accessories began as soon as grant funds were approved. This included selecting tools such as catheters and extensions, ports, suture, anticoagulant-saline flush, veterinary wrap and betadine solution. The selection of appropriate animals for my study began months before, in early Spring. I spoke with numerous professionals for informal advice as well as formal training on topics ranging from choosing a reproductive synchronization protocol to installing and maintaining indwelling jugular catheters. Creating a detailed schedule to which undergraduate assistants would be assigned was a surprisingly involved task, as was coordinating their time commitments such that I had the help I needed, when I needed it, around the clock.. The first experimental block of ewes were brought to campus during the last week in October. They departed the first week in ...
Real and phantom pregnancy can greatly affect the social level of a dog and its ability to concentrate during Dog Training Course work.
Across species there is evidence that the quality of the early social environment can have a profound impact on neurobiology and behavior. In the present study we explore the effect of communal rearing conditions (3 dams with 3 litters per cage) during the postnatal period on offspring (F1) and grand-offspring (F2) anxiety-like and maternal behavior in Balb/c mice. Females rearing pups in communal nests exhibited increased levels of postpartum maternal care and communal rearing was found to abolish sex-differences in weaning weights. In adulthood, communally reared offspring were observed to display reduced anxiety-like behavior when placed in a novel environment. When rearing their own offspring under standard conditions, communally reared females demonstrated higher levels of motivation to retrieve pups, built higher quality nests, and exhibited higher levels of postpartum care compared to standard reared females. When exposed to an intruder male, communally reared females were more subordinate
A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the ...
The nature vs. nurture theory is a very debatable subject, so debatable that many areas of interest have been developed to attempt to answer this question and/or decide on which factor has more influence. Nature is depicted as.
This tutorial is guest blogged by Mike Goss,CSCS, and Level II USATF, jumps, throws, and combined events. Mike is also in the Coaches Advisory for
Bodily movements are an essential component of social interactions. However, the role of movement in early mother-infant interaction has received little attention in the research literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between automatically extracted motion features and interaction quality in mother-infant interactions at 4 and 13 months. The sample consisted of 19 mother-infant dyads at 4 months and 33 mother-infant dyads at 13 months. The coding system Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) was used for rating the quality of the interactions. Kinetic energy of upper-body, arms and head motion was calculated and used as segmentation in order to extract coarse- and fine-grained motion features. Spearman correlations were conducted between the composites derived from the CIB and the coarse- and fine-grained motion features. At both 4 and 13 months, longer durations of maternal arm motion and infant upper-body motion were associated with more aversive interactions, i.e.
Research suggests that the optimal wait time to conceive another baby is between 18 and 30 months after giving birth to your last. Too little time between pregnancies may increase the risk of premature birth and contribute to low birth weight, considered anything under 5 pounds 8 ounces. Until the early twentieth century the spacing of children was right in the middle of the recommendation; about two years. Then in the second half of the twentieth century child-spacing was shortened to about one year. What happened? According to research, a decline in, what has been labeled, "ecological breastfeeding.". Ecological breastfeeding is a type of breastfeeding that is dependent on "maternal behaviors." According to Natural Family Planning International, in ecological breastfeeding "mother and baby are one, and the mother uses her breasts to satisfy the babys hunger and suckling needs." The term "ecological breastfeeding" was coined and developed by breastfeeding expert and co-founder of the Couple to ...
Even before POC theory arose, debates took place over whether infants wean themselves or mothers actively wean their infants. Furthermore, it was discussed whether maternal rejections increase infant independence. It turned out that both mother and infant contribute to infant independence. Maternal rejections can be followed by a short-term increase in infant contact but they eventually result in a long-term decrease of contact as has been shown for several primates: In wild baboons infants that are rejected early and frequently spend less time in contact whereas those that are not rejected stay much longer in the proximity of their mother and suckle or ride even in advanced ages. In wild chimpanzees an abrupt increase in maternal rejections and a decrease in mother-offspring contact is found when mothers resume estrus and consort with males. In rhesus macaques a high probability of conception in the following mating season is associated with a high rate of maternal rejection. Rejection and ...
Maternal Investment Influences Expression of Resource Polymorphism in Amphibians: Implications for the Evolution of Novel Resource-Use Phenotypes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Milk records of up to the first three lactations of artificially sired Holstein daughters and their dams were used to estimate heritability from both daughter-dam regression and paternal half-sib correlation. The within-herd estimates from records expressed as deviations from herd-mate averages were .37, .30, and .24 from daughter-dam regression for the first three lactations ; and the corresponding estimates from half-sib correlation were .24, .21, and .23. These results suggest a large maternal effect in the first lactation, a small amount in the second, and little in the third lactation. Analysis of the records not as deviations gave the same pattern for the daughter-dam regressions, but confounding of sires with year-seasons apparently biased the half-sib correlations upward. The consequences of considering unequal heritability for different lactations if the apparent difference is due to maternal effects is illustrated for selection for first-lactation breeding value from up to three records on the
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it seems that this report constructs a theoretical viewpoint and then tries to squeeze the contrary observations of the real world into it - just like the naked emperor in Hans Andersons story, who in his vanity, and because enough courtiers agreed with him, considered himself clothed… In preparing this editorial I noticed that there seems to be no scientific literature on fetal behaviours that uses the maternal experience of quickening, or other aspects of fetal responsiveness, as its basis. This is a huge methodological gap… a sensible debate needs a solid base of rigorous empirical enquiry. As it stands, the report is an emperor with no clothes. We need to dress him. ...
it seems that this report constructs a theoretical viewpoint and then tries to squeeze the contrary observations of the real world into it - just like the naked emperor in Hans Andersons story, who in his vanity, and because enough courtiers agreed with him, considered himself clothed… In preparing this editorial I noticed that there seems to be no scientific literature on fetal behaviours that uses the maternal experience of quickening, or other aspects of fetal responsiveness, as its basis. This is a huge methodological gap… a sensible debate needs a solid base of rigorous empirical enquiry. As it stands, the report is an emperor with no clothes. We need to dress him. ...
Stanford biologists are studying rare poison frogs as a way to answer a fundamental question: Is there more than one way to build a maternal brain?
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
In chapter 3, "The Sense of Sensibility," author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
Researchers at the University of Adelaide say addictive behavior such as drug and alcohol abuse could be associated with poor development of the so-called love hormone system in our bodies during early childhood. The idea resulted from a review of worldwide research into oxytocin, known as the love hormone or bonding drug because of its important role in enhancing social interactions, maternal behavior and partnership.
Alastair Macdonald is Emeritus Professor of Clinical Outcomes Research at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at Kings College London.. Lucy Stephenson is Clinical Research Associate, Mental Health and Justice Project at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at Kings College London.. Psychiatric Mother and Baby Inpatient Units (MBUs) are preferred by patients and clinicians. MBUs provide specialist in-patient care for mothers who experience severe mental illness (SMI) without separation from their baby. There are only 17 such units in the UK, although more are now planned. Such investment needs to be justified by measurement of outcomes - for mothers and infants. We set out to describe maternal clinical outcomes, mother-infant interaction outcomes and their relationship in patients admitted to one MBU over 32 months in South London. The unit provided an individualised treatment programme from the multidisciplinary team, including nursery nurses. Care ...
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. and acts as a transcription factor regulating approximately 20% of the entire human genome. As such, the GR plays important regulatory roles in a diverse number of physiological processes. including metabolism, development. neurobiology and immunity. The organism of choice for this study was, the pig (Sus scrofa as it is an excellent model organism for both the study of human disease (both - are similar size and physiology) and from an agricultural standpoint with fatness and maternal aggression traits of interest in both disciplines. Excess fat in the body can cause many conditions including heart disease, stroke and cancer and forms a commercially important trait due to market preferences for different fat levels in the meat. Maternal aggression is a condition where sows bite and kill their offspring within 24 hours of birth. This is commercia1ly important as after an aggressive episode the sow is generally ...
In parent-offspring communication, vocal signals are often used to attract attention and offspring might call to induce parental behaviour. In guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) mothers wean larger litters later than small ones, but it is unknow
The way that mothers provision their offspring can have important consequences for their offsprings performance throughout life. Models suggest that maternally induced variation in life histories may have large population dynamical effects, even perhaps driving cycles such as those seen in forest Lepidoptera. The evidence for large maternal influences on population dynamics is unconvincing, principally because of the difficulty of conducting experiments at both the individual and population level. In the soil mite, Sancassania berlesei, we show that there is a trade-off between a females fecundity and the per-egg provisioning of protein. The mothers position on this trade-off depends on her current food availability and her age. Populations initiated with 250 eggs of different mean sizes showed significant differences in the population dynamics, converging only after three generations. Differences in the growth, maturation and fecundity of the initial cohort caused differences in the ...
Weve pushed the boundaries a lot further than what has been done before," Hudson said. "Its been 100 to 150 million years since there was a common ancestor for paper wasps and honey bees, and during that time the DNA has changed a lot." But the proteins encoded by those genes that are important to the behaviors the researchers studied changed very little, Hudson said. This allowed for robust comparisons between the behavior-related genes in both species, and identification of those genes in the wasps that were important to the study ...
The period of pregnancy and childbirth is an important and sensitive time for mens upcoming parenthood. Research into fathers experiences of childbearing has received less attention compared to maternal experiences. The purpose of this thesis was to study the sources fathers use to obtain information about pregnancy and childbirth, fathers preference for the mode of birth of their baby, and fathers childbirth experience and their perception of postnatal care quality.In 2007, 1105 expectant fathers were enrolled in the study when their partner had reached the middle of pregnancy. The fathers were followed until one year after the birth of their baby. The fathers were living in the county of Västernorrland in Sweden and their babies were born in one of the three hospitals in the county. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and content analysis. An index was created from a combination of fathers experiences of postnatal care quality.iiiCommon sources of information ...
A systematic study was carried out to investigate the attachment of inorganic particles to fabric media in the presence of divalent cations and the dissolved or
In this episode of Mommy Brain Revisited I talk with Dr Joseph Lonstein a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Michigan State University about his research on the neuroscience of postpartum an... - Listen to Anxiety and the Maternal Brain by Mommy Brain Revisited instantly on your tablet, phone or browser - no downloads needed.
The course contains an in-depth study of normal and abnormal behavior of farm and companion animals. Emphasis is placed upon the application of the course material as it applies to the practical aspects of the animal industry. Topics include developmental behavior, sexual and maternal behavior, aggression, ingestive behavior and behavioral disorders ...
The habenula has been implicated in the regulation of diverse behavioral functions, including learning and memory, reward, maternal behaviors, sleep, stress and affective states, and the behavioral effects of nicotine (Klemm, 2004; Lecourtier and Kelly, 2007). However, most prior studies have disrupted habenula function with lesions of the entire nucleus or the fasciculus retroflexus (FR), the output tract for the entire nucleus, and thus have not allowed the specific functions of MHb and LHb, or their subnuclei, to be discerned. The distinct neurotransmitter properties of the dMHb, characterized by the expression of the neuropeptide SP, and the specific projection of the dMHb to the lateral subnucleus of the IP, have been known for ,30 years (Swanson and Cowan, 1979; Lecourtier and Kelly, 2007; Quina et al., 2009), yet no unique function has been assigned to this structure. To determine the role of the dMHb in behavior, we have created two mouse models: a developmental/genetic ablation model of ...
Estrogen and progesterone, long considered for their roles as primary hormones in reproductive and maternal behavior, are now being studied as neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agents in stroke and traumatic brain injuries. Collectively, the hormones reduce the consequences of the injury cascade …
First-time mothers are suffering through a litany of undiagnosed, under-reported and untreated health issues in every aspect of their lives, a major research project has revealed.
The mechanistic factors responsible for the increase in allergic diseases are still not fully understood, but a reduced microbial stimulation seems to be one of the key issues. Research is now aiming at investigating the relationship between the innate immune system, involving the toll-like receptors, and allergy development. Further, the maternal influence on the child, possibly through in utero effects, but also through the breast milk, has shown to be of great importance. This thesis aimed at understanding how the maternal immune system is influenced by early exposures and allergic disease, but also to investigate the consequences of the maternal phenotype on the innate immune system of the developing child.. The Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern in allergic diseases has been extensively studied. Here we were interested in comparing the innate cytokines in allergic and non-allergic women, and to see if the allergic status was influencing the effect of pregnancy differently. We demonstrate that IL-1β, ...
Reproduction and development Two modes of reproduction asexual: one parent; offspring are clonal sexual: two parents produce gametes, which fuse to form a zygote
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Within these colonies are monogamous family groups called clans, led by a single breeding pair and their numerous, non-breeding family members. These helpers (which may be siblings of the parents, adult offspring, or even in some cases completely unrelated birds) contribute greatly to the raising of offspring that are not their own. They assist in nest building, they bring food to the mother, and they even incubate and feed the young! All in all, about half of all nesting attempts have assistance from helpers ...
This weeks report on viruses and intruders will focus on three worms Mytob.CX, Mytob.CU and Sdbot.DKE, two Trojans, Whiter.F and Kelvir.AS, a vulnerability, MS05-024, and a hacking tool, QuickKeylog.
Nature, Nurture, and Thought Those of us who pay attention to such things know that what is commonly called the nature vs. nurture debate continues to generate interest and controversy and that, despite claims to the contrary by advocates of one side or the other, it is neither settled nor ever likely to be. This lack…
Nurture Liquid information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Wanbury, Nurture Liquid indications, usages and related health products lists
Is it possible at present to provide a definitive answer about the role nature (hereditary) and nurture (non-hereditary) plays in allergies? Find out more here.
Abstract: We examined the extent to which the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were related to sensitive maternal behavior directly or indirectly via maternal social cognition. Participants were 207 (105 European-American and 102 African-American) mothers and their children (52% females). Sensitive maternal behavior was rated and aggregated across a series of tasks when infants were 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old. At 6 months, mothers were interviewed about their empathy, attributions about infant behavior and beliefs about crying to assess their parenting-related social cognition. Mothers with long alleles for AVPR1a and DRD4 engaged in more mother-oriented social cognition (i.e. negative attributions and beliefs about their infants crying, ß = 0.13, P < 0.05 and ß = 0.16, P < 0.05, respectively), which in turn predicted less sensitive maternal behavior (ß = -0.23, P < 0.01). Both indirect effects were statistically significant independent of one ...
Abstract: We examined the extent to which the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were related to sensitive maternal behavior directly or indirectly via maternal social cognition. Participants were 207 (105 European-American and 102 African-American) mothers and their children (52% females). Sensitive maternal behavior was rated and aggregated across a series of tasks when infants were 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old. At 6 months, mothers were interviewed about their empathy, attributions about infant behavior and beliefs about crying to assess their parenting-related social cognition. Mothers with long alleles for AVPR1a and DRD4 engaged in more mother-oriented social cognition (i.e. negative attributions and beliefs about their infants crying, ß = 0.13, P < 0.05 and ß = 0.16, P < 0.05, respectively), which in turn predicted less sensitive maternal behavior (ß = -0.23, P < 0.01). Both indirect effects were statistically significant independent of one ...
Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in serum prolactin levels that is essential for the normal increase in neurogenesis in the maternal brain, and for the associated expression of maternal behaviours after birth. As yet, it is not known which neurons prolactin acts on in the maternal brain to induce these changes, but it has been shown that prolactin receptors are present on GABAergic neurons in forebrain nuclei implicated in the regulation of maternal behaviour. This study aimed to examine the effect that prolactin action on forebrain neurons has on expression of maternal behaviour and on levels of neurogenesis, employing conditional deletion of the prolactin receptor using cre-lox technology. This technology allowed the creation of mice with prolactin receptors removed from CaM kinase II containing neurons (most forebrain neurons; CKC mice), and more specifically from neurons containing the vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT mice). When cre positive mice and controls (wildtype ...
We describe a novel negative association between mothers supportive and guiding behaviour and the AVPR1A RS3 target allele, independent of the childs sex and RS3 genotype. The allele previously associated with autism [10], higher marital problems [12], lower generosity [11] and higher amygdala activation in an emotional face-matching task [13] is shown here to be related to lower levels of maternal structuring and supportive behaviour.. Baumrinds three widely used parenting style characterizations (permissive, authoritative and authoritarian) [20] are combinations of different degrees of warmth and control, the two main dimensions of parenting that were examined in this study. Authoritative parenting, a balanced combination of warmth and control, is considered to be the most adequate in Western societies, as it is associated with childrens self-reliance, self-control and contentment [20]. The RS3 target allele was found here to be associated with focused support but not with warmth or ...
In the United States, there are millions more owned cats than owned dogs, yet cats visit veterinarians less frequently than dogs. A major reason is that it is very stressful to take cats to the veterinary practice and often owners believe their cat doesnt need routine check-ups for wellness and preventive care. The Cat Friendly Practice® (CFP) program, created by expert feline practitioners, provides a solution to this trend and provides an opportunity for veterinary practices to elevate care for cats and reduce the stress during the visit ...