Various species of algae can produce marine toxins under certain circumstances. These toxins can then accumulate in shellfish such as mussels, oysters and scallops. When these contaminated shellfish species are consumed severe intoxication can occur. The different types of syndromes that can occur after consumption of contaminated shellfish, the corresponding toxins and relevant legislation are discussed in this review. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP), Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) and Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) occur worldwide, Neurologic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) is mainly limited to the USA and New Zealand while the toxins causing DSP and AZP occur most frequently in Europe. The latter two toxin groups are fat-soluble and can therefore also be classified as lipophilic marine toxins. A detailed overview of the official analytical methods used in the EU (mouse or rat bioassay) and the recently developed alternative methods for the lipophilic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of oxidative DNA damage by the marine toxin okadaic acid depends on human cell type. AU - Valdiglesias, Vanessa. AU - Laffon, Blanca. AU - Pásaro, Eduardo. AU - Cemeli, Eduardo. AU - Anderson, Diana. AU - Méndez, Josefina. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - The marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) is the main representative of diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. Its ingestion induces nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal ache. It has also been found to trigger cellular and molecular effects at low concentrations. Its mechanism of action has not been described yet. Results of a previous study showed that OA can induce cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, both directly and indirectly, and modulations in DNA repair processes in three different types of human cells (leukocytes, SHSY5Y neuroblastoma and HepG2 cells). These effects varied depending on the type of cell and the concentration employed (Valdiglesias et al., 2010). On that basis, the ability of OA to induce ...
The excitatory amino acid domoic acid is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. The in vitro effects of domoic acid on rat neonatal brain microglia were compared with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known activator of microglia mediator release over a 4 to 24 hour observation period. LPS [3 ng/mL] but not domoic acid [1mM] stimulated a statistically significant increase in TNF-α mRNA and protein generation. Furthermore, both LPS and domoic acid did not significantly affect TGF- β1 gene expression and protein release. Finally, an in vitro exposure of microglia to LPS resulted in statistically significant MMP-9 expression and release, thus extending and confirming our previous observations. However, in contrast, no statistically significant increase in MMP-9 expression and release was observed after domoic acid treatment. Taken together our observations do not support the hypothesis that a short term (4 to 24 hours) in vitro exposure to domoic acid, at a concentration toxic to
Vibrantly colored creatures from the depths of the South Pacific Ocean...The research team has defined the structure of the toxins and provided... Weve determined how this class of toxins interacts with actin an i...The toxins which are produced naturally by organisms that exist symbi... Actin forms long chains or filaments that are essential for cellula...,Structures,of,marine,toxins,provide,insight,into,their,effectiveness,as,cancer,drugs,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
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Exposure to biotoxins occurs through ingestion, dermal absorbtion, or as an aerosol. Militarily or as a weapon of terror, aerosol forms of biotoxins pose the greatest risk not only in terms of numbers of people exposed, but the rapidity of symptom onset. With some of the biotoxins, inhalational effects are understood only from animal studies, leaving many open questions about how an inhalational exposure might present. Not all biotoxins are likely candidates for use as weapons of mass destruction or terrorist weapons. Due to their biological and physiochemical properties, Army biowarfare experts consider botulinum toxin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) to be of most concern from the point of view of battlefield exposures. SEB, a so-called superantigen, causes hyperactivation of the immune system and prompt incapacitation (see Chapter 19). As a Category A agent, botulinum is discussed in its own chapter (Chapter 18). ...
The largest panel of biotoxins to be simultaneously detected to date has been achieved using an assay platform developed by scientists at PNNL. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray simultaneously detected 10 plant and microbial toxins in buffer and clinical and environmental samples, including ricin, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT), shiga (STX), and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Previously, the largest number of toxins to be simultaneously detected has been six.
When algae found off the West Coast make a deadly neurotoxin called domoic acid, casualties rocket up the food chain. Now we know more about why.
It is difficult to correlate in vitro toxin concentration with in vivo exposure, however, the concentration of toxin used in both models are similar as 2.3 mg DON/kg of feed corresponds to 7.7 μM ( Sergent et al., 2006; Pinton et al., 2009). It is interesting to observe that in both models, there is a good correlation in the increase of expression of phosphorylated MAPK. The extent of MAPK activation, lower in samples obtained from the in vivo experiment than in explants, could be explained by the mode of exposure to the toxin, in the culture medium. or in ingested feed. A significant increase was observed only for ERK and p38. Following the same signaling arrangement, each individual MAPK pathway responds PF-02341066 in vivo to specific stimuli and then regulates their specific substrates ( Cui et al., 2007), which can explain the selective activation of MAPK. JNK and ERK are involved in regulation of both cell survival and death depending on cell types and stimulus, whereas p38 can promote ...
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One of the most potent toxins known acts by welding the two strands of the famous double helix together in a unique fashion which foils the standard repair mechanisms cells use to protect their DNA.
Abstract: Florida red tide is caused by Karenia brevis, a dinoflagellate that periodically blooms, releasing its potent neurotoxin, brevetoxin, into the surrounding waters and air along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Exposure to Florida red tide toxins has been associated with adverse human health effects and massive fish and marine mammal deaths. The articles in this mini-monograph describe the ongoing interdisciplinary and interagency research program that characterizes the exposures and health effects of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins (brevetoxins). The interdisciplinary research program uses animal models and laboratory studies to develop hypotheses and apply these findings to in situ human exposures. Our ultimate goal is to develop appropriate prevention measures and medical interventions to mitigate or prevent adverse health effects from exposure to complex mixtures of aerosolized red tide toxins. Key words: brevetoxins, harmful algal blooms (HABs), Karenia brevis, red tides, ...
Abstract: Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico are commonly formed by the fish-killing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces nine potent polyether brevetoxins (PbTxs). Brevetoxins can be transferred from water to air in wind-powered white-capped waves. Inhalation exposure to marine aerosol containing brevetoxins causes respiratory symptoms. We describe detailed characterization of aerosols during an epidemiologic study of occupational exposure to Florida red tide aerosol in terms of its concentration, toxin profile, and particle size distribution. This information is essential in understanding its source, assessing exposure to people, and estimating dose of inhaled aerosols. Environmental sampling confirmed the presence of brevetoxins in water and air during a red tide exposure period (September 2001) and lack of significant toxin levels in the water and air during an unexposed period May 2002). Water samples collected during a red tide bloom in 2001 showed moderate-to-high concentrations of ...
A substantial proportion of bacteria from five Alexandrium cultures originally isolated from various countries produced sodium channel blocking (SCB) toxins, as ascertained by mouse neuroblastoma assay. The quantities of SCB toxins produced by bacteria and dinoflagellates were noted, and the limitations in comparing the toxicities of these two organisms are discussed. The chemical nature of the SCB toxins in selected bacterial isolates was determined as paralytic shellfish toxins by pre- and postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and enzyme immunoassay.. ...
Brevetoxin B (Brevetoxin-2; PbTx-2) is a polyketide neurotoxin produced by Karenia species and other dinoflagellates. Brevetoxin B binds to site 5 on the alpha subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels (IC50=15 nM) on neurons at the neuromuscular junction, causing the channel to open irreversibly at potentials more negative than normal, discharging action potentials repetitively. Brevetoxin B is ichthyotoxic at nanomolar concentrations and is responsible for an illness described as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) and accumulation of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) in two types of shellfish; tuberculate cockles (Acanthocardia tuberculata) and sweet clams (Challista chione) was explored in Mdiq Bay,Morocco during 2007. The highest abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia were found during the period from March to October, with peaks occurring in May and September. Toxin analysis showed an accumulation of domoic acid in shellfish sampled during spring and autumn. The maximum toxin concentration was 4.9 mg DAg-1 of the whole tissue recorded in sweet clam during spring. Using transmission electron microscopy, thirteen Pseudo-nitzschia species were identified, eight of which are known as producers of domoic acid: P. multistriata, P. cuspidata, P. galaxiae, P. multiseries, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens var. aveirensis, P. calliantha and P. fraudulenta. The five non- toxic species observed were P. subpacifica, P. arenysensis, P. dolorosa, P. subfraudulenta, and ...
Toxic cyanobacteria are a concern worldwide because they can adversely affect humans, animals, and ecosystems. However, neurotoxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria are understudied relative to microcystin. Thus, the objective of this critical review was to provide a comprehensive examination of the modes of action, production, fate, and occurrence of the freshwater neurotoxins anatoxin-a and saxitoxin as they relate to human, animal, and ecosystem health. Literature on freshwater anatoxin-a and saxitoxin was obtained and reviewed for both laboratory and field studies. Current (2020) research identifies as many as 41 anatoxin-a producing species and 15 saxitoxin-producing species of freshwater cyanobacteria. Field studies indicate that anatoxin-a and saxitoxin have widespread distribution, and examples are given from every continent except Antarctica. Human and animal health concerns can range from acute to chronic. However, few researchers studied chronic or sublethal effects of freshwater
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
1. Maitotoxin (MTX) was an extraordinarily potent stimulant of phosphoinositide breakdown in the neuroblastoma hybrid NCB-20 cells. 2. Maximal responses were obtained at 0.25-0.5 ng MTX/ml, and...
Analysis of Food Toxins and Toxicants consists of five sections, providing up-to-date descriptions of the analytical approaches used to detect a range of food toxins. Part I reviews the recent developments in analytical technology including sample pre-treatment and food additives. Part II covers the novel analysis of microbial and plant toxins including plant pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Part III focuses on marine toxins in fish and shellfish. Part IV discusses biogenic amines and common food toxicants, such as pesticides and heavy metals. Part V summarizes quality assurance and the recent developments in regulatory limits for toxins, toxicants and allergens, including discussions on laboratory accreditation and reference materials. ...
Contamination of seafood by marine toxins has been a consistent public health problem. Gymnodimine (GYM) is a member of a family of spirocyclic imine containing marine natural products which was shown to be highly toxic ...
Swimming orientation in autotrophic marine dinoflagellates often follows a pattern attributed to positive phototaxis during the day and positive geotaxis at night. Exceptions that occur in field and laboratory observations most often describe ascents or descents that anticipate sunrise or sunset. These exceptions may originate in biochemical synthesis patterns that use sequential photosynthate (carbohydrate and lipid) production and dissolved nitrogen absorption for subsequent cell growth (RNA and protein) and division (DNA). Instantaneous biochemical state may influence orientation either through mechanical ballasting or through growth optimization that influences sensory-mediated responses to environmental cues. In the present mesocosm (150 cm length x 44 cm diameter) study, samples from a quantized (all cells divide together at approximately 3 d intervals) population of Gymnodinium breve Davis collected at the surface and mid-column support comparisons of diel orientation preferences and ...
Kudos $4.1 million in funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) will advance McGill research in next-generation nanomaterials, infrastructure solutions to support the Internet of Things, novel technology to detect marine toxins, and more.. ...
|p style=text-indent:20px;|We present a model for the life cycle of a dinoflagellate in order to describe blooms. We prove the mathematical well-posedness of the model and the possibility of extinction in finite time of the alga form meaning that the full population is under the cysts from.|/p|
Researchers at University of North Carolina Wilmington announce the continuation of funding to study the effects of inhaled Florida red tide brevetoxins and ultimately yield treatments.
Marine biotoxins are poisons that are produced by certains types of algae in seawater. Normally their concentrations in seafood are too low to be harmful, but when changes in environmental conditions cause
Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide didentification du phytoplancton marin de lestuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.. Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majestys Stationery Office.. Dodge, J.D. (1985). Atlas of dinoflagellates. A scanning electron microscope survey. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-119. Farrand Press.. Gómez, F., Moreira, D. & López-Garcia, P. (2010). Neoceratium gen. nov., a new genus for all marine species currently assigned to Ceratium (Dinophyceae). Protist 161: 35-54.. Lin Yongshi [Lin, Y.S.] (2009). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus VI Pyrrophyta No. I Dinophyceae Ceratiaceae. pp. [i]-xx, 1-93, pls I-XVIII. Beijing: Science Press.. McDermott, G. & Raine, R. (2006). The dinoflagellate genus Ceratium in Irish shelf seas. pp. [viii] + 1-86, 31 figs. Galway: ...
These are poisonous to various organisms in the sea, such as fish and clams and if they enter the food chain, they may also be ingested by humans. Numerous cases have been reported of people dying after eating poisoned shellfish. Scientists have also verified the deaths of marine mammals from algal toxins that they ingested with their food. These toxic algal blooms occur along the coast of Texas, for example. Because they discolour the water they are commonly called red tides or brown tides. The blooms of non-toxic algae can also create problems when the algae die. The dead algae sink to the bottom where they are broken down by microorganisms through a process that depletes oxygen in the seawater. Low oxygen concentrations in the water can lead to large-scale mortality of fish and crustaceans. When the oxygen levels begin to drop, the animals that can actively move, such as fish and crabs, leave the area first. Within the sea floor, the population of animals that require a healthy oxygen ...
Yessotoxin molecular model. Yessotoxins are a group of poisonous substances produced by the algae blooms that cause the phenomenon known as red tide along the Pacific Coast of the United States. Red tides can be deadly to sealife. Black=carbon, white=hydrogen, red=oxygen, yellow=sulfur. - Stock Image C028/0991
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Our scientists on the Toxins and Harmful Algal Blooms Research Team of the U.S. Geological Survey Environmental Health Mission Area (EHMA) work with multiple stakeholders to quantify toxin exposure and effects, identify hazards and vulnerabilities, develop tools to quantify and forecast toxin occurrence and exposure, and estimate socioeconomic impacts. Knowledge gained is being used to identify actual versus perceived health risks posed by harmful algal toxins.. ...
Lundholm, N.; Guiry, Michael D. (2017). Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima (Hasle) Hasle, 1993. In: Kociolek, J.P.; Balasubramanian, K.; Blanco, S.; Coste, M.; Ector, L.; Liu, Y.; Kulikovskiy, M.; Lundholm, N.; Ludwig, T.; Potapova, M.; Rimet, F.; Sabbe, K.; Sala, S.; Sar, E.; Taylor, J.; Van de Vijver, B.; Wetzel, C.E.; Williams, D.M.; Witkowski, A.; Witkowski, J. (2017). DiatomBase. Accessed through: Moestrup, Ø.; Akselmann, R.; Fraga, S.; Hoppenrath, M.; Iwataki, M.; Komárek, J.; Larsen, J.; Lundholm, N.; Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae at http://www.marinespecies.org/hab/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=156548 on 2017-12- ...
Principal Investigator:ISOBE Minoru, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:製造化学・食品
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Identification of species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is troublesome as a result of a number of species have been poorly described, others misidentified in the literature, and the type species, O. siamensis, has not been described by up to date taxonomic strategies. In the current research, its argued that Ostreopsis sp. 6 as described …. Morphological and genetic analyses of Ostreopsis (Dinophyceae, Gonyaulacales, Ostreopsidaceae) species from Vietnamese waters with a re-description of the type species, O. siamensis Read More ». ...
Cachon, J. 1964. Contribution a létude des Péridinies parasites. Cytologie, cycles évolutifs. Ann. Sci. Nat., 12 ser. 6: 1-158.. Cachon, J. & Cachon, M. 1987. Parasitic dinoflagellates. In Taylor, F. J. R. (Ed.). Biology of dinoflagellates. Blackwell, New York. pp. 571-610. Coats, D. W., Adam, E. J., Gallegos, C. L. & Hedrick, S. 1996. Parasitism of photosynthetic dinoflagellates in a shallow subestuary of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 11: 1-9.. Fritz, L. & Nass, M. 1992. Development of the endoparasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya ceratii within host dinoflagellate species. J. Phycol. 28: 312-320.. Taylor, F. J. R. 1968. Parasitism of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella by the endoparasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya ceratii. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 25: 2241-2245.. ...
Today, mercury is one of the most potent neurotoxins known, causing severe alterations in the body tissues that lead to a wide range of adverse health effects in animals and humans. Mercurys creeping neurotoxicity is highly devastating, particularly in the central and peripheral nervous system. Decreased performance in areas of motor function and memory has been reported[…]. ...
Today, mercury is one of the most potent neurotoxins known, causing severe alterations in the body tissues that lead to a wide range of adverse health effects in animals and humans. Mercurys creeping neurotoxicity is highly devastating, particularly in the central and peripheral nervous system. Decreased performance in areas of motor function and memory has been reported[…]. ...
Maynes, J. T. ; Luu, H. A. ; Cherney, M. M. ; Andersen, R. J. ; Williams, D. ; Holmes, C. F. B. ; James, M. N. G. Crystal Structures Of Protein Phosphatase-1 Bound To Motuporin And Dihydromicrocystin-La: Elucidation Of The Mechanism Of Enzyme Inhibition By Cyanobacterial Toxins. Journal of Molecular Biology 2006, 356, 111-120. ...
2)* Others include agents other than bacteria, chemicals, biotoxins, viruses, unknown agents and outbreaks pending classification. ...
C. minutum is aptly named for it is only 1 cm tall body, it is in fact one of the smallest or dwarf succulent that offsets readily forming small clumps. Produces a profusion of violet flowers in autumn.
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Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis ...
99521 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet. Avhandling: Chemical ecology of paralytic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellates.
Alexandrium are toxic organsims. They live in marine environments, mainly in costal regions. They are also associated with high-nitrogen environments. Alexandrium tamarense is noted for its ability to adapt to changes in the amount of nitrogen in its environment. Some species of Alexandrium are colonial organisms. For example, Alexandrium catenella is a catenate (chain-forming) organism. Alexandrium produce paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PST). PSTs are neurotoxins. They inhibit transmisison of nerve impulses by blocking sodium channels. PSTs are extremely dangerous humans if they consume contaminated fish. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) can be fatal. While not all strains and species are harmful, many can have serious consequences on animal health. In addition to PSP, Alexandrium cause the infamous red tides. The most severe red tide outbreak occured in 1972. However, the summer of 2005 yielded another extremely severe outbreak. Although algal blooms are natural, they have increased ...
The incidence and known distribution of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) have both increased dramatically in recent decades. A concurrent rise in bloom frequency and geographic range of PSP toxin-producing Alexandrium dinoflagellates explains the increase in PSP, but the reasons for changes in Alexandrium occurrence are unknown. This thesis explores the phylogeny, taxonomy, and biogeography of Alexandrium in light of this recent expansion. Alexandrium phylogeny was reconstructed through rDNA sequence analysis and compared to traditional morphological taxonomy. Alexandrium split into two groups, termed the α and ß clades. Interspecific relationships did not correlate with the morphological traits traditionally used to identify and group species, although other traits appeared phylogenetic ally conserved. The ability to produce toxins has been acquired and/or lost multiple times during Alexandrium evolution. Because most PSP events are caused by either the tamarensis or minutum complexes, the ...
Nguyen, Tien; Kenton, Nathaniel T.; Adu-Amprawun, Daniel; Okumu, Anthony A.; Zhang, Zhingao; Chen, Yong; Nguyen, Son; Xu, Jianyan; McCarron, Pearse; Kilkoyne, Jane; Rise, Frode; Wilkins, Alistair Lawrence; Owen, Christopher & Forsyth, Craig J. (2017). Final twist in marine toxin structural saga. Chemical & Engineering News, 95(49), December 14, 2017 [Science & Technology, News of The Week]. Chemical & engineering news (Print). ISSN 0009-2347. 95(49), s 9- 9 . doi: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cen-09549-notw7 Vis sammendrag In the mid-1990s, scientists started to notice cases across Europe of people falling ill from a new kind of shellfish food poisoning. The culprit, researchers discovered, was a family of marine toxins called azaspiracids. The structures of these amorphous toxins have been difficult for chemists to pin down, though some have come very close. A pair of papers from the laboratory of Craig J. Forsyth at Ohio State University now corrects the stereochemistry of a key ...
Azaspiracids, a new class of shellfish toxins, have been implicated in several recent incidents of human intoxications following the consumption of mussels (Mytilus edulis). A study was undertaken to examine the distribution of azaspiracid poisoning (AZP) toxins in scallops (Pecten maximus) and individual shellfish were dissected into five tissue fractions for the determination of toxin composition. Separation of the predominant azaspiracids, AZA1-3, was achieved using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with detection by positive electrospray multiple tandem mass spectrometry. The AZP toxin composition was determined in the adductor muscle (meat), gonad (roe), hepatopancreas (digestive glands), mantle and gill of scallops. Substantial differences in the AZP toxin levels between tissue compartments were observed and toxins were concentrated predominantly, about 85%, in the hepatopancreas. There was also a significant variation in the total toxin levels between individual scallops from the same ...
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Last week I discussed the toxic algae that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, and this week, my post is about other species of toxic algae, the symptoms they cause and their impacts on humans and animals.. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) is caused by domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. Fish and shellfish, including bivalves and crab, can accumulate domoic acid with no ill effects, but when humans, other mammals, and birds consume the toxic fish and shellfish, they suffer the effects of ASP. As with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), cooking or freezing the toxic organisms does not lessen the toxicity. This past summer, scientists estimated that the largest-ever bloom of Pseudo-Nitzchia occurred, stretching from California to Southeast Alaska and prompting Oregon and Washington to issue emergency closures for their commercial shellfish fisheries. The bloom was not obvious from sea level, but satellite images showed that a large swath of the ocean had ...
Jaeckisch, N. , Singh, R. , Curtis, B. , Cembella, A. and John, U. (2008): Genomic characterization of the spirolide-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii with special emphasis on PKS genes , Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae, Ed. Moestrup, O. et al., ISSHA and IOC-UNESCO, Copenhagen, Denmark ...
CRM-FDMT1 is a freeze-dried mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) containing a range of lipophilic marine toxins as well as domoic acid. CRM-FDMT1 is distributed in amber glass bottles, each containing 3 g of freeze-dried powder. It is recommended that the powder is reconstituted with water before use. Each bottle of CRM-FDMT1 contains enough material for approximately eight uses.. Certified toxin levels and associated uncertainties have been assigned for domoic acid, azaspiracid-1, -2 and -3, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and -2, yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2, and 13-desmethylspirolide C. Information values are also provided for a range of other toxin analogues in CRM FDMT1. The CRM is designed to test the accuracy of sample preparation procedures and liquid chromatography experiments for the analysis of multiple toxins ...
Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is an illness caused by consumption of the marine biotoxin called domoic acid. This toxin is produced naturally by marine diatoms belonging to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia and the species Nitzschia navis-varingica. When accumulated in high concentrations by shellfish during filter feeding, domoic acid can then be passed on to birds, marine mammals and humans via consumption of the contaminated shellfish. Although human illness due to domoic acid has only been associated with shellfish, the toxin can bioaccumulate in many marine organisms that consume phytoplankton, such as anchovies, and sardines. Intoxication by domoic acid in non-human organisms is frequently referred to as domoic acid poisoning or DAP. In mammals, including humans, domoic acid acts as a neurotoxin, causing permanent short-term memory loss, brain damage, and death in severe cases. In the brain, domoic acid especially damages the hippocampus and amygdaloid nucleus. It damages the neurons by ...
Encouraging news to patients who suffer from cystic fibrosis. Marine biologists studying Florida red tides have discovered that the toxic red tide algae known for poisoning fish also produces good chemicals called anti-toxins. In a published report, the research team led by Daniel Baden at The Center for Marine Science Research indicates the antitoxins cleared the excess mucus out of the lungs of sheep. Its a big deal because its that thick mucus in the lungs that can get out of control in patients. There is a profound increase in the degree of clearance of mucus from the lungs. One could envision again from an inhaler that the cystic fibrosis patients could use a drug very similar to this to actually help in clearing their lungs, says Baden.. Baden says the red tide antitoxin moves salts smoothly through channels in the lungs, thinning the mucus. So, the finding is promising, but Baden says developing the anti-toxin into an actual cystic fibrosis drug for the mass market could take 10 ...
Analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins and metabolites in plankton and shellfish by liquid chromatography-ionspray mass spectrometry
Evans, K. M. , Bates, S. S. , Medlin, L. and Hayes, P. K. (2004): . Microsatellite marker development and genetic variation in the toxic marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Bacillariophyceae). , Journal of Phychology ...
Folks who are more severely affected can have muscle weakness or issues breathing.. Both patients were treated and released.. The state Environmental Health Laboratory analyzed leftover clams. Testing found the PSP toxin.. Youve heard this before. But Castrodale stresses theres no way of knowing what shellfish is safe to eat.. Theres no broad testing program for recreationally harvested shellfish. So you cant tell if there is toxin or paralytic shellfish poising in shellfish by just looking at it, she says.. Commercially sold shellfish are tested and only sold if theyre safe.. Clams, mussels, oysters, geoducks and scallops can contain the poison. Crabmeat is not known to hold the toxin, but crab guts can.. Read more information about paralytic shellfish poisoning. ...
Confirmation of an incident of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in North America by combined liquid chromatography ionspray mass spectrometry
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Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with very high affinity and specificity, and are generally selected by a process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Conventional antibody-based therapeutic and diagnostic approach currently employed against biotoxins pose major limitations such as the requirement of a live animal for the in vivo enrichment of the antibody species, decreased stability, high production cost, and side effects. Aptamer technology is a viable alternative that can be used to combat these problems. Fully sequestered in vitro, aptamers eliminate the need for a living host. Furthermore, one of the key advantages of using aptamers instead of antibodies is that they can be selected against very weakly immunogenic and cytotoxic substances. In this review, we focus on nucleic acid aptamers developed against various biotoxins of plant, microorganism, or animal origin and show how ...
Reef or Madness from ilum - Julie Hollenbeck on Vimeo.. A 16 minute film about Ciguatera Fish Poisoning created By Julie Hollenbeck, Mark Newbill and Ray Trujillo, Jr.. Ciguatera, the most reported seafood toxin illness in the world that a majority of the planet has never heard of, infects hundreds of thousands of people a year, some of whose very will to live is tested by the devastating and debilitating chronic neurological affects of the fish-borne toxin.. Reef or Madness a short documentary film by University of Miami Marine Affairs and Policy students Julie Hollenbeck and Mark Newbill, that recounts the struggle of chronic Ciguatera sufferers who seek to regain some semblance of their healthy and productive lives following Ciguatera infection and the incapacitating symptoms that can last for years. While Ciguatera is a recognized medical illness, many marine toxin specialists have yet to agree on how long people may suffer with the symptoms of the fish poison, leaving long-term chronic ...
Pain is a major medical and socio-economic issue affecting one in five Australians. Our research aims to understand the molecular mechanisms behind pain. The current focus of the lab is to use toxins from plants and venomous animals to understand the molecular pharmacology of pain. These toxins are highly selective for ion channels and receptors found in the sensory neurons that detect pain and can potentially be developed into novel analgesics. Our research also investigates the mechanisms contributing to chemotherapy-induced pain, cancer-associated pain, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and the painful marine toxin disease known as ciguatera. To investigate the neuropharmacology of pain we use a range of techniques including: in vivo pain pathway characterisation, high-content imaging of cultured sensory neurons, high-throughput screening using calcium and membrane potential assays, and traditional pharmacological assays. While all pain has similar symptoms, it is becoming clear that the ...
Marine Velvet is one of the two most important biological diseases of coral reef and marine aquariums. Its host incidence and importance is of critical concern to the marine aquarium industry. The causative organism, Amyloodinium ocellatum (formerly Oodinium ocellatum) is found in all oceans, and is very common on wild and newly-collected fishes, including sharks and rays. Death from infection may occur within a day of symptoms (e.g. fast breathing), detection. Amyloodiniumiasis has been identified as a source of mass mortalities, epizootics in home aquariums, commercial settings, and public aquariums since its original description by Brown in 1931, most cases being hard to diagnose initially, and rapidly becoming deadly. In a related genus, Oodinium pillularis and O. limnecitum are the causative agents of freshwater rust or velvet disease (Jacobs 1946). Taxonomy/Nutrition:. Amyloodinium is a Dinophycean (Dinoflagellate), of the same order as Gymnodinium breve (red tide organism), family ...
Created by Monica Bruckner, Montana State University What is Red Tide? Red tide is a phenomenon caused by algal blooms during which algae become so numerous that they discolor coastal waters (hence the name ...
Microscope Slide (whole mount) of Fucus Monoecious Conceptacle. A mixture of cleavage stages and blastula are demonstrated in the slide of early development. Late development shows examples from gastrula and pilidial larvae.
For many of us living on the southern (Gulf) coast of the USA, it has become common to see numerous dead fishes floating in the bays and scattered across our beaches. Why is this happening? You may have heard on the news that there is a large harmful algal bloom (HAB) that began off the western…
Looking for biotoxin? Find out information about biotoxin. poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released... Explanation of biotoxin
Cyanotoxins are equally toxic whether they are within the algal cell (intracellular) or have been released into the water column (extracellular). However, cyanotoxins contained within the algal cell are more easily removed by water treatment plants using conventional treatment processes of coagulation and sedimentation, and this is the reason a lot of attention is paid to whether the cyanotoxin is intracellular or extracellular.. Preliminary data from impartial 3rd party labs indicate that EarthTec is effective at halting growth of cyanobacteria and production of cyanotoxins without a significant increase in the extracellular fraction of toxins. This is important because water managers can treat with EarthTec to slow or halt growth without compromising their in-plant capabilities to remove the remaining toxins.. ...
Please click on the links below to see participant results for previous Against the Tide events:. 2019 results. 2018 results. 2017 results. 2016 results. 2015 results. ...
Ifremer monitoring network for phytoplankton and phycotoxins (REPHY) is in charge of shellfish safety control and carries out shellfish toxicity test on mice as soon as Dinophysis cells (okadaic acid OA producer) are observed in sea water. However, this test can neither identify or quantify the diarrhetic toxins OA and its analogues (DTX-1, DTX-3). Only a chemical analysis is able to detect them. At first, the shellfish extraction procedure used for mouse-tests was optimised in order to adjust it for OA/DTX-1 chemical analysis. Due to the Iack of standard, DTX-3 quantification is clone indirectly after a hydrolysis stage releasing OA. Chemical analysis of shellfish samples collected in 2001 from three locations of Long-line Mussel Farming of southern ...
Leptospirosis in California sea lions(Zalophus californianus): Do data from stranded animals accurately reflect trends in the wild population? Prager,Katherine1,2,3; Alt, David4; Buhnerkempe,Michael1,2; DeLong, Robert5; Fontaine,Christine3; Galloway,Renne6; Greig, Denise3; Guarasci,Sophie3; Gulland,Frances3; Harris, Jeff5; Johnson, Shawn3; Melin, Sharon5; Norris, Tenaya3; Orr, Anthony5; Rust, Lauren3; Wu, Qinzhong7; Zuerner,Richard4; Lloyd-Smith,James1,2. 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles 2Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health 3The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California 94965, USA 4 Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa50010, USA 5 National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center/NOAA, Seattle, Washington98115, USA 6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA 7 Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Ocean Services, ...
contributing to Lake Eries harmful algal blooms. Thats the premise of a new five-year, $5 million study that ... a significant driver of the harmful algal blooms plaguing Lake Erie. The blooms are sometimes toxic, are often ... phosphorus is released from the soil and ends up in Lake Erie, where it contributes to harmful algal blooms .... ...
The Eugene Water & Electric Board is interested in tracking algal blooms in the watershed to assess the presence of potentially harmful cyanobacteria species that may produce toxins.
Inside Sanibel Island: Red Tide/ Red Drift Algae - Before you visit Sanibel Island, visit TripAdvisor for the latest info and advice, written for travellers by travellers.
Note: This iGEM Report was submitted to the PLOS iGEM Realtime Peer Review Jamboree, and has not undergone formal peer review by any of the PLOS journals. We
Toxic algae are a growing concern in the marine environment. One unique marine diatom, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle, produces the neurotoxin domoic acid, which is the cause of amnesic shellfish poisoning. The molecular characterization of this organism has been limited to date. Therefore, the focus of this thesis was to identify and initiate characterization of actively expressed genes that control cell growth and physiology in P. multiseries, with the specific goal of identifying genes that may play a significant role in toxin production. The first step in gene discovery was to establish a complementary DNA (cDNA) library and a database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for P. multiseries. 2552 cDNAs were sequenced, generating a set of 1955 unique contigs, of which 21% demonstrated significant similarity with known protein coding sequences. Among the genes identified by sequence similarity were several involved in photosynthetic pathways, including fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c ...
Harmful algal blooms in the Red Sea could be detected from satellite images using a method developed at KAUST. This remote sensing technique may eventually lead to a real-time monitoring system to help maintain the vital ...
Biology Assignment Help, kingdom animalia, in what order did the shellfish belong? in what genus did the shellfish belong? in what species did the shellfish belong?
Types of Shellfish Poisoning: How Bad Could It Really Be? - There are several types of shellfish poisoning, each with its own symptoms. Read up on the four types of shellfish poisoning.
The dinoflagellate K. brevis is a mixotrophic marine alga that is of ecological importance in coastal waters especially along the Gulf of Mexico. They are one of a few species of algae responsible for the production of
They were a ruddy people with wild frosty blue eyes, and brown dry hair. Only about ten percent of them have brown eyes. This English race thrived in North Ireland and Scotland and founded a superior education system. However, this defeated the Crown s purpose. The people were becoming a threat to London s politically potent merchants, so heavy taxes were levied on them. Then, to add to their general hardship, the potato famine struck in the 1840 s. Nearly a million people died from starvation. The people became even more difficult for those who had to deal with and rule them. They evolved into a stubborn, cantankerous people ...
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
http://img1.imagehousing.com/3/f6ef5212e50d83a7eafcca9c7fc43b20.jpg Product Details Hardcover: 296 pages Publisher: Cambridge University Press Published date: April 28, 1989 (Digital Ebook: 2008)
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A dead zone is an area of water with oxygen levels too low to support most marine life. Its an area where the marine food chain has stopped working.
Shellfish allergies can be serious - and shellfish can appear in some surprising foods and products. Read about shellfish allergy and what to do when a reaction is severe.