Most animal manure consists of feces. Common forms of animal manure include farmyard manure (FYM) or farm slurry (liquid manure). FYM also contains plant material (often straw), which has been used as bedding for animals and has absorbed the feces and urine. Agricultural manure in liquid form, known as slurry, is produced by more intensive livestock rearing systems where concrete or slats are used, instead of straw bedding. Manure from different animals has different qualities and requires different application rates when used as fertilizer. For example horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, turkeys, rabbits, and guano from seabirds and bats all have different properties.[1] For instance, sheep manure is high in nitrogen and potash, while pig manure is relatively low in both. Horses mainly eat grass and a few weeds so horse manure can contain grass and weed seeds, as horses do not digest seeds the way that cattle do. Cattle manure is a good source of nitrogen as well as organic carbon.[2]Chicken ...
Land application of swine manure slurry is a common practice to supplement nutrients to soil for crop production. This practice can introduce antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. Field testing is critical in identifying manure management practices effective in minimizing the environmental impacts of manure-borne antibiotic and ARGs. The objective of this study was to determine how the timing of swine manure application relative to rainfall events impacts the fate and transport of antibiotics and ARGs in surface runoff and manure-amended soil. Swine manure slurry was either broadcast or injected on test plots in the field. A set of three 30-min simulated rainfall events, 24 h apart, were initiated on manured plots 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, or 3 weeks after the manure application. Results showed that an interval longer than 2 weeks between application and rainfall often significantly reduced the levels of antibiotics and ARGs tested in runoff with the exception of
Alfalfa produces its own N; thus, the added N from the manure is not used efficiently. Alfalfa will use any N from manure with some compensation in the amount of N that it symbiotically fixes from the atmosphere. From an environmental perspective, manure N used by alfalfa in this manner is better than over-applications of manure N to corn or small grain acres. However, manure is often surface applied to alfalfa with little or no incorporation into the soil. This leaves manure vulnerable to being washed off the field during heavy precipitation events, thereby causing potential surface water concerns.. If manure is applied to alfalfa, an obvious concern to most alfalfa growers is the influence the N will have on competing weeds and grasses in the field. Research has shown that a well-fertilized field will benefit all plant species in the field, including weed germination and proliferation. Another indirect effect of applying manure to alfalfa fields is compaction of the soil and root crowns of ...
Manure can provide valuable nutrition to our soils in nitrogen (N), P, potassium (K), sulfur, trace minerals, and organic matter. Analysis of manure varies by animal species, type of production (growing vs lactation), type of bedding used, and manure storage system. Sampling the manure and submitting it to a certified laboratory for testing is necessary to determine the nutrient analysis. By using worksheets available on the University of Minnesota Extension website1 along with a manure analysis of 14% N, 11% P, and 7% K, the NPK value of manure can be determined compared to commercial fertilizer. Manure is usually more expensive to apply than commercial fertilizer and the aforementioned worksheet accounts for this. All too often, the livestock farmer selling manure does not receive a price reflecting manures fertilizer replacement value. Dairy pen-pack manure incorporated within 12 hours after application gives us 55% nitrogen availability the first year. When using the University of Minnesota ...
Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land is a serious environmental issue because of the impact of P on freshwater eutrophication (McDowell, et al., 2001). The movement of P from soil to surface water is impacted by P input to soil and manure management practices that impact P transport processes. Twenty-one natural runoff plots were established to monitor the effect of time and method of composted beef feedlot manure application and feed P input on net losses of bio-available P and sediment in surface runoff. Reducing feed P inputs resulted in a 33% reduction in manure P content. Runoff losses of P were reduced in direct proportion to feed P inputs. Runoff volume and sediment losses were lowest in the year s of compost application and we observed that a longer time interval between compost application date and spring runoff season resulted in increase sediment, runoff and P loss. Bray-PI extractable soil P (0-15cm) increased from 27 ppm prior to compost application up to 400 ppm in direct
Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit | leaf/shoot | root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin
Soil and Tissue Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, and Sulfur as Affected by Dairy Manure Application in a No-Till Corn, Wheat, and Soybean Rotation
Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative Project 05-01-05 Bioactive Compounds in Swine Manure Composted swine manure was examined for the presence of antibacterial and antifungal activities. While commercial composts show some antibacterial activity composted swine manure demonstrated inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Weaker inhibitory activity against Gram-negative bacteria was also detected in composted swine manure. It is likely that these antimicrobial activities are due to compounds produced by bacteria or fungi present in the composted swine manure. An antifungal compound of possible commercial and agricultural significance is present in composted swine manure. Antibacterial agents of the same significance are also present. Introduction Manure is usually regarded by the public as a problem while farmers regard manure as a valuable commodity, as a fertilizer. Manure and composted manure are extremely complex bacterial ecosystems. Hundreds, probably ...
The interactive effect of biochar, cattle manure and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on the dynamics of carbon (C) mineralization and stabilization was investigated in a sandy soil amended with three sole biochar (0, 20 or 40 t ha−1) or manure (0, 13 or 26 t ha−1) and four combined biochar-manure levels (20 or 40 t ha−1 biochar plus 13 or 26 t ha−1 manure) with or without N fertilizer (0 or 90 kg ha−1) and CO2-C evolution measured over 54-d incubation period. Biochar application, solely or combined with manure resulted in lower applied C mineralized (ACM), indicating C sequestration in the soils. Negative attributable effect (AE) of co-application of biochar and manure on C mineralization was observed relative to the sole treatments. Both ACM and AE were negatively correlated with C/N ratio and mineral N content of the soil-mixtures (r ≥ - 0.573; p ≤ 0.01), indicating microbial N limitation. The double first-order exponential model described CO2-C efflux very well and indicated that ≥94% ...
In order to develop approaches for reducing the carbon footprint of the swine and dairy industries, it is important first to identify the methanogenic communities that drive methane emissions from stored manure. In this study, the metabolically active methanogens in substrate-starved manure samples taken from two dairy and one swine manure storage tanks were identified using [13C]-acetate and DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP). Molecular analysis of recovered genomic [13C]-DNA revealed that two distinct clusters of unclassified methanogen populations affiliated with the Methanoculleus genus, and the populations affiliated with Methanoculleus chikugoensis assimilated acetate-derived carbon (acetate-C) in swine and dairy starved manure samples, respectively. Furthermore, carbon flow calculations indicated that these populations were the primary contributors to methane emissions during these anoxic SIP incubations. Comparative analysis of mcrA gene abundance (coding for a key enzyme of ...
Duration: 1995 - 1997 Composting of dairy manure has not been a common practice, but there has been increasing interest in composting recently as a storage and handling method that requires less capital investment, reduces odor problems, etc. Little or no research has been conducted, at least in the U.S., to evaluate nutrient availability, ammonia emissions, or surface runoff losses from composted dairy manure when applied to perennial forages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of nutrients, especially N, from composted dairy manure for grass hay production. This study was part of the liquid manure study described in Liquid Manure on Grass Hay to Improve Nutrient Use Efficiency, Yields and Quality. Compost was applied at three rates (10, 20 and 40 tons/acre) for two subsequent years. A fourth treatment was compost applied at the 40 ton rate only in the first year. Preliminary results indicate that yield response to compost was quite low (not much higher than the no ...
Injection of liquid manure provides a number of benefits to the environment and cropping systems. Manure placement under the soil surface conserves nitrogen by decreasing ammonia loss. Injection can be conducted in a manner consistent with no-till farming practices resulting in greater conservation of both soil and manure nutrients. Thus the value of manure to the crop is increased.. Traditional soil nitrate testing protocol recommendations were developed on lands that received evenly distributed broadcast manure applications. However, the banding of manure during injection presents a challenge for soil testing. Random placement of soil probes in banded fields could result in artificially high or low nitrate analysis depending on the sampling distance from manure bands.. Many states recommend such nitrate testing when the corn is about 12 inches tall. In the weeks following the soil test the crop will grow quickly with high N demand. Soil testing at this time allows the producer to determine if ...
NEWS HIGHLIGHT Minimal composting of cattle manure reduces antibiotic levels Composting beef cattle manure, even with minimal management, can
Authors Organization: (1) Institute of Joint Bioenergy, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009;Jiangsu;China; (2) Cascade Clean Energy Inc. 10610 Morengo Drive, Cupertino, CA 95014 With the growth of animal farms around the world, animal manure is becoming a pollution resource especially to nearby populations. Chicken manure is the richest animal manure in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N-P-K). The higher volatile nitrogen content is worse than to the atmosphere than other manures, and many pathogenic bacteria is harmful to peoples health. Anaerobic digestion of animal manure is a popular disposal method. However, because of higher nitrogen content and relatively lower carbon source, chicken manure is difficult in accomplishing a successful and rapid anaerobic digestion process with earlier acidification to affect the biogas production. Straw and many other crop biomass is one of crop wastes which composed of abundant organic carbon source. In this paper, we investigated the anaerobic
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Objective: To examine the growth of aerobic bacteria in swine manure when used as manure additives for odor control.. Methods: Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxygen provider added to the test manure at fixed time intervals to enhance the dissolved oxygen level in manure, simulating intermittent aeration.. Results: Adding hydrogen peroxide failed to establish an aerobic environment in the top liquid. The added aerobes could not outgrow the indigenous anaerobes even when the dissolved oxygen levels in the manure were raised for short intervals on a regular basis.. Implications: The frequency of running intermittent aeration in order to maintain an active aerobic flora requires further study. Without enough aeration, the effectiveness of microbial-based manure additives for odor control purposes in actual manure storage systems is questionable.. Keywords: manure, odor, microbes. ...
Well-planned manure applications are acceptable on most fields that are seeded, will be seeded within two weeks, or have well-established grasses. Do not apply manure prior to significant rain events to avoid nutrient runoff and leaching. Please check your local weather forecast and see the next page for more information. Avoid manure applications on wet areas or saturated soils. Some fields will dry more quickly than others. Please continue to check you have enough manure storage to hold the average expected precipitation plus any excessive precipitation. Please read the entire advisory for details and important information to assist in the decision-making process for manure application(s) and storage ...
Article Nutrients and heavy metals distribution in thermally treated pig manure. Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy met...
Effects of Probiotic Additions to Feed and Manure on Temperature, Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Hanwoo Manure during Summer - A Field Study - Probiotics;Temperature;Humidity;Carbon dioxide emission;Feed;Hanwoo manure;
Interpretive Summary: Fatty acids and sterols from swine manure are both a potential energy source and a potential source of pollutants. The amounts of these compounds were measured in fresh manure and manure storage lagoon sludge from swine production facilities in North Carolina. The fatty acids are liberated from fat in the swine diet whereas the sterols arise from bacterial modification of cholesterol and similar compounds in the diet. In general, fresh manure had greater amounts of fatty acids than did lagoon sludge, while the levels of sterols in fresh manure and lagoon sludge were similar. This indicates that sterols have greater persistence in the environment. In the case of fresh manure, fatty acids could be a resource for the manufacture of fuel if efficient means for their processing can be devised. Technical Abstract: Free fatty acids and sterols were assessed in fresh manure and anaerobic lagoon sludge from swine production facilities in North Carolina. Eight free fatty acids and ...
Effect of Spent Bleaching Earth and Pig Manure on The Yield and Nitrogen Utilization of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Inland Valley Swamp of Owo, South Western Nigeria
Agnew, J. 2010. Odor and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Manure Spreading. PhD Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.. Agnew, J., Lague, C., Schoenau, J., Feddes, J. and H. Guo. 2010. Effect of manure type, application rate and application method on odors from manure spreading. Canadian Biosystems Engineering 52: 619-625.. Grevers, M., Schoenau J.J., Japp, M., Assefa, B., Baan, C. and S.S. Malhi. 2010. Effects of Soil and Crop Management, and Application of Swine and Cattle Manure on Physical Properties of Soil in the Northern Great Plains of North America. In S.S. Malhi, Y. Gan, J.J. Schoenau, R. Lemke and M. Liebig (eds). Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America, 129-142. Kerala: Research Signpost.. Hao, X., Benke, M., Gibb, D., Stronks, A., Travis, G., and T.A. McAllister. 2009. Effects of dried distillers grains with soluble (wheat-based) in feedlot cattle diets on feces and manure composition. Journal of Environmental ...
Modernization of the livestock industry has given rise to highly efficient production systems under one roof in place of the traditional pastured herd. These operations have also created new management challenges in the collection, storage and handling of large quantities of manure.. Manure contains nitrogen, phosphorus, inorganic salts, organic solids and microorganisms. All of these are potential contaminants of both surface and ground water. The runoff from poorly designed feedlots and manure storage facilities can be a direct source of surface water contaminants. Livestock allowed to stand in streams or ponds deposit manure directly into surface waters. Storage facilities (e.g., earthen or concrete pits, lagoons, etc.) that leak can be direct sources of large quantities of manure contaminants to ground water. Excessive or improperly timed manure applications on permeable soils can result in elevated nitrate levels in shallow ground water. Manure applications are also a source of phosphorus ...
Hydrothermal processing of swine manure is a novel technology that has shown very promising results in treating waste and producing oil. Oil yields of up to 70% were achieved in batch experiments. Since a continuous-mode process is more applicable for scale-up operations, a continuous hydrothermal process (CHTP) reactor system was developed. The effects of temperature, pressure, hydraulic residence time, and use of process gas, were evaluated to determine the optimal process condition. Products (i.e., oil, aqueous and gas) composition were determined to better understand the mechanics of the reaction process and to provide information for further developments. The CHTP, composed of a high-pressure slurry feeder, a process gas feeder, a continuous-stirred tank reactor, a products separation vessel, and process controllers, had a capacity of processing up to 48 kg of manure slurry per day. Results showed an interaction between operating temperature and pressure. The highest oil yield of 70% of ...
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It is acceptable to apply manure on established grasses, fields being seeded within two weeks of application, and berry fields if: T-Sum value in your area is greater than 200*; Soil temperature is greater than 5oC; Crop is actively growing (for established crops only); and Expected precipitation and manure applications will not create nutrient runoff to surface water or leaching below the root zone. Please continue to check you have enough manure storage to hold the average expected precipitation plus any excessive precipitation. Field stored solid agricultural wastes (except agricultural vegetation waste) MUST be COVERED from October 1 to April 1, inclusive. Check the Farmwest T-Sum to find the current T-sum value for your location. Please read the entire advisory for details and important information to assist in the decision-making process for manure application and storage ...
A thermochemical conversion (TCC) reactor was developed to process swine manure for waste reduction and energy production. The operating temperature and retention time are the two key parameters affecting the process. Carbon monoxide (CO) was employed as the reductive reagent. The investigated ranges of the operating temperature and retention time were 275C ~ 350C (corresponding operating pressures were 7 ~ 18 MPa) and 5 ~ 120 min, respectively. The pH value of the fresh swine manure (pH= 6.1), CO to VS ratio (CO:VS = 0.07 by weight or CO initial pressure p ini = 690 kPa), and total solids content (TS = 20%) were kept constant for all the experiments in this study. No extra catalyst was added in the experiments because of the presence of plentiful minerals and carbonates. The operating temperature was the most important factor affecting the TCC process. No substantial oil product yield was achieved unless the temperature reached 285C or above. Temperature higher than 335C led to solid char ...
Apply manure less-than-annually at a nitrogen-based rate: Another method to prevent phosphorus buildup is to apply at a rate that meets the nitrogen needs of the crop, and then refrain from manure applications in following years until the excess phosphorus has been depleted by crop uptake. This method works best with rotations that include crops with adequate phosphorus uptake. Otherwise, it might take many years before manure could be applied again. For example, in some pasture systems, turkey manure applied using this method would receive 15 years worth of phosphorus. And some regions have regulations stating that no more than 5-years-worth of phosphorus can be applied at a time from manure ...
Due to the abundant supply and suitable physicochemical characteristics of livestock manure, it may be a useful biomass to produce biofuels, such as
Knoedler Livestock/Manure/Feeders Listings for Livestock / Manure / Feeders include Scales, Dairy and Dairy Equipment, and Livestock.
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Manure is fresh crap from an animal who is an herbivore. Compost is manure that has aged and will no longer harm the plants you put it on. Fresh Manure will "burn" your plants but once it has sat for a few years all that is left is the nutrition that plants need to grow. Manure is natural fertilizer, as is compost. There are also chemical and inorganic fertilizers. All manures can, with care, be used as fertilizers. Many fertilizers, though, are industrially-produced chemical compounds that have no resemblance whatsoever to manure.
Obtenez ceci dans une bibliothèque! Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook.. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.); United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information.; Lusk, P.; USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) (US)] -- Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from ...
Fortification of manure with antimicrobials is one approach to studying their dissipation. However, fortified antimicrobials may not accurately model dissipation that occurs after antimicrobials have been administered to livestock in feed and excreted in manure. This study examined the dissipation of antimicrobials excreted in manure versus those added directly to manure (fortified). Steers were fed a diet containing (kg−1 feed) (i) 44 mg chlortetracycline, (ii) 44 mg each of chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine, (iii) 11 mg tylosin, and (iv) no antimicrobials (control). Fortified antimicrobial treatments were prepared by adding antimicrobials to control manure. Manure was composted for 30 d, sampled every 2 to 3 d, and analyzed for antimicrobials and compost properties. Antimicrobial dissipation followed first-order kinetics. The dissipation rate constant was significantly greater (based on 95% confidence limit) for excreted (0.29-0.54 d−1) than for fortified chlortetracycline (0.11-0.13 ...
Composting and utilizing compost are advantageous tools in nutrient management plans that, when managed properly, reduce the potential to pollute and benefit crops.
Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the Worlds total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québecs egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of
Download Complete Material: ABSTRACT The field experiment was conducted at Kaduna Polytechnic Tudun Wada, Kaduna state in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) to evaluate the influence of poultry manure on the growth of maize. The experiment was carried out in sacks with three replicates. Four rate of poultry manure appl...
The breakdown of manure in pits produces gases like carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and methane. Pit pumping and agitation can release these gases and increase their airborne concentration, which can pose a safety threat to those inside the barn or in close proximity due to their toxic, oxygen-deficient and/or explosive nature. These gases can be odorless, colorless and may cause serious health effects even during short periods of exposure. For example, concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, at 600 ppm, can kill an individual after only one or two breaths. Because of this rapid lethalness, there have been several cases in the past where multiple farmers died in an attempt to rescue a succumbed individual from a manure pit. High concentrations can also occur at different times of the agitation or pumping process. Aggressive agitation at the beginning, at the end, or when an agitation jet is positioned above the surface of the manure, can break the crust formed on the top of the stored manure ...
Cattle Manure is natures own fertilizer for healthy growth of outdoor plants Naturally composted and dried to make fertilizer odourless, even after wetting
Citation: Parker, D.B., Cai, L., Olsen, M. 2011. Reduction of odorous VOC in phenolic solutions and swine manure slurry using soybean peroxidase and peroxides [abstract]. In: Proceedings 242nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, Denver, CO; Aug. 28-Sept. 1, 2011. Abstract no. 248. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: A research project was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low-activity soybean peroxidase (SBP; 0.75 U/mg) and H2O2 for reducing emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) from standard solutions (phenol and 4-methylphenol; 1 mM each) and swine manure slurry. VOC emissions were measured in a small wind tunnel. Air samples were collected in stainless steel sorbent tubes and analyzed by GC/MS. SBP (2000 mg/L) reduced 4-methylphenol and phenol emissions in standard solutions by 99 and 50%, respectively. The optimum H2O2 addition was 1.32 mM per mM phenolic substrate. Percent reduction of 4-methylphenol emission was about 65% in swine slurry with SBP addition ...
Underneath the slatted floor of the VeDoWS stable system a shallow cellar is constructed which enables the primary separation of urine and solid manure. The cellar consists of two inclining parts with in its middle an opening of 18 to 22 mm. Using a scraper, the solid manure is removed from the manure gutter daily. This primary separation of manure in the cellar is the basis of lower ammonia emissions.
Pig manure is an excellent fertilizer and rich source of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds such organic nitrogen (O-N) (95% of total nitrogen) that is plant-unavailable-nitrogen (PUN) and mineralized nitrogen (about 1% of total nitrogen) such as ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3) that are plant-available-nitrogen (PAN). In addition, manure also contains two forms of estrogens: (i) poorly estrogenic thus essentially nontoxic conjugated estrogens (cEs) such as estrone (cE1), estradiol (cE2) and estriol (cE3); and (ii) highly estrogenic and toxic free estrogens (fEs) such as fE2, fE1 and fE3. This study showed that aerobic processing reduced concentrations of total carbon (TC), O-N, PAN and NH4+/NH3 ratio, transiently hydrolyzed cEs (cE2 > cE1 > cE3) into corresponding fEs, transiently increased estrogenic activity and potential toxicity, and rapidly degraded fEs (fE2, fE1 > fE3), thus reducing the estrogenic activity in manure. Unlike aerobic processing, anaerobic processing stabilized and
Excess nutrients in livestock feed all end up in manure because animals cannot utilize them. What you feed your livestock makes a big difference in the composition of the manure output. Feed management practices that not only meet animal requirements but minimize the amount of excess nutrients in manure help reduce risk of water contamination problems. Knowing the requirements
Bion Environmental Technologies, Inc. (OTC QB: BNET), a provider of advanced livestock waste treatment technology, announced that a Colorado State University (CSU) study has determined that ammonia emissions from livestock waste and nitrogen fertilizers have surpassed nitrates (NOx) from fossil fuel emissions
This is a voluntary self-reporting survey for manure management. Ten percent of the respondents, purchase here chosen at random, will have their data verified. Please click this link to begin: https://src.survey.psu.edu/farmbmp/ ...
Researchers in China studied the co-application of manures and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in high-input greenhouses. They said the environmental risks may outweigh the benefits.
Manure additions to cropland can reduce total P losses in runoff on well-drained soils due to increased infiltration and reduced soil erosion. Surface residue management in subsequent years may influence the long-term risk of P losses as the manure-supplied organic matter decomposes. The effects of manure history and long-term (8-yr) tillage [chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT)] on P levels in runoff in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) were investigated on well-drained silt loam soils of southern and southwestern Wisconsin. Soil P levels (0-15 cm) increased with the frequency of manure applications and P stratification was greater near the surface (0-5 cm) in NT than CP. In CP, soil test P level was linearly related to dissolved P (24-105 g ha?1) and bioavailable P (64-272 g ha?1) loads in runoff, but not total P (653-1893 g ha?1). In NT, P loads were reduced by an average of 57% for dissolved P, 70% for bioavailable P, and 91% for total P compared with CP. This reduction was due to lower sediment ...
Corn grain yields were 11 bu/ac greater when swine manure was applied on November 5th compared with October 5th, when averaged across Instinct rate (Table 1). This is not surprising considering the warmer than normal fall temperatures we observed in 2010. Adding Instinct to fall applied swine manure increased corn grain yields 10-12 bu/ac compared to without Instinct, when averaged across manure application timings. No significant interactions between application timing and Instinct rate were found. Corn grain yields were not statistically different among the November manure application with Instinct treatments and the November anhydrous ammonia with N-Serve treatment. The addition of Instinct to swine manure also reduced grain moisture about 1.3 percentage points at harvest. Based on these limited data, the addition of the nitrification inhibitor Instinct™ to fall-applied swine manure had both agronomic and environmental benefits. Delaying manure applications until soil temperatures have ...
Using a polyphasic approach, a taxonomic study was performed on seven strains of an unknown Gram-reaction-positive, non-spore-forming, obligately anaerobic coccus-shaped bacterium, isolated from a swine-manure storage pit. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that all seven isolates were highly related to each other and formed a hitherto unknown lineage within the clostridial rRNA XI cluster of organisms. Pairwise analysis demonstrated that the novel organism was most closely related to Peptostreptococcus anaerobius CCUG 7835T and Peptostreptococcus stomatis CCUG 51858T with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 95.5 and 93.0 %, respectively. The peptidoglycan type of the cell wall was determined to be A4α l-Lys-d-Asp and glucose, xylose and traces of mannose were detected as the cell-wall sugars. Based on biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence the unknown bacterium represents a new species of the genus Peptostreptococcus, for which the name Peptostreptococcus russellii sp.
Objective: A field experiment was conducted in order to study the effect of phosphorus and manure application on agronomic performance and seed yield of groundnut. Methods: Factorial combination of two groundnut varieties (Werer 962 and Oldhale), Three rates of phosphorus (0, 90 and 180 kg P2O5 ha-1) and three rates of manure (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1) were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replication. Results: The combined application of 180 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 10 ton manure ha-1 resulted in the highest number of pods per plant and seed yield. The increase in number of pods per plant and seed yield at the highest combined application rates of the two fertilizers were 40 and 60%, compared to the control of the two fertilizers. Generally, the present study has shown that the integrated use of manure (10 ton ha-1) and inorganic phosphorus (180 kg P2O5 ha-1) fertilizer resulted in highest seed yield of groundnut compared to the application of either fertilizer alone.
Field experiment was conducted at Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ejiba in 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons to investigate the effect of Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata L.) residues, phosphorus fertilizer and manure application time on soil properties, growth and root yield of sweet potato in acidic soil. Treatments constituted of 4 x 4 factorial arrangements in a Completely Randomized Block Design. Four levels of amendments which were 5t/ha Chromoleana odorata residues, 60 kg/ha phosphorus, 2.5t/ha Chromoleana odorata residues plus 30 kg/ha phosphorus, No Chromoleana odorata residue and no single superphosphate fertilizer (control) and four levels of time of application of the residues which were three (3) weeks before planting (3WBP), manure application at planting (ATP), manure application at three (3) weeks after planting (3WAP) and manure application at six (6) weeks after planting (6WAP). Data on soil pH, growth and yield parameters were collected and subjected to analysis of ...
Results:. The amount of manure generated within the community is sufficient for the production of organic fertilizers through the processing of small-scale manure, among small-farmers there is favorable appraisal of manures effects and interest in processed organic fertilizers. With the MCA and AC, three groups of FDU small-scale-farmers in the community were identified base on their aprraisal and interest. ...
Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances ecosystem health, including biological cycles and soil biological activity. Application of different organic manures in combination with inorganic fertilizers to wheat crop might give a substitute under pot condition. A pot experiment is conducted during 2012-13with the objective to find out best combination and type of organic and inorganic fertilizer for wheat (Triticum aestivum) production. The experiment was laid out with three replication. The treatments were: control (T1, NPK), 100+60+40 NPK Kg/ha+5ton/ha Farmyard manure (T2), 100+60+40 NPK Kg/ha+5 ton/ha Vermicompost (T3), 100+60+40 NPK Kg/ha+5ton/ha Paddy husk (T4), 100+60+40 NPK Kg/ha+2.5 ton/ha Farmyard manure+2.5 ton/ha Vermicompost (T5). After 60days spike length (cm), root length (cm) and number of spikelets recorded. The soil enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were measured. Enzyme activity in soil is
Chlorella sorokiniana CS-01, UTEX 1230 and UTEX 2714 were maintained in 10% anaerobic digester effluent (ADE) from cattle manure digestion and compared with algal cultivation in Bolds Basal Medium (BBM). Biomass of CS-01 and UTEX 1230 in ADE produced similar or greater than 280mg/L after 21days in BBM, however, UTEX 2714 growth in ADE was suppressed by more than 50% demonstrating a significant species bias to synthetic compared to organic waste-based media. The highest accumulation of protein and starch was exhibited in UTEX 1230 in ADE yielding 34% and 23% ash free dry weight (AFDW), respectively, though fatty acid methyl ester total lipid measured less than 12% AFDW. Results suggest that biomass from UTEX 1230 in ADE may serve as a candidate alga and growth system combination sustainable for animal feed production considering high yields of protein, starch and low lipid accumulation ...
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This paper evaluated the effects of a pig manure compost (PMC) and a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 on the fate of 14C-Pyrene (Pyr) in a soil-plant system (Agropyron elongatum). Soils spiked with 14C-4, 5, 9, 10-Pyr were amended with 7.5% (w/w) PMC together with or without 100 mg kg−1 of Tween 80. Unplanted soil without amendments was set as the control. Gas phases of the systems were monitored for 14CO2 over a 60 days period. The impact of PMC and Tween 80 on the apparent loss of the PAH and the distribution of 14C-activity in the systems was studied. 14C-activity associated with different soil fractions was further examined by using methyl-isobutyl-ketone (MIBK) fractionation method. The results showed that the addition of PMC could increase the dissipation of Pyr in vegetated soil from 12.1% to 58.7%, while the co-addition of Tween 80 and PMC could further enhance the dissipation to 90.3%. Pyr dissipation in soil was correlated with the mineralization of 14C-Pyr, indicating that Pyr ...
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Get this from a library! Livestock waste management and pollution abatement; proceedings.. [American Society of Agricultural Engineers.;]
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Renewable energy sources can simply be right under our nose. Cow manure is one of the highest producers of methane gas available around the world. So, go green, use cow power.
However, phosphorus has also received significant attention because of the potential for accelerated eutrophication in water bodies receiving excess P. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for crops. A critical component of crop production is managing phosphorus for optimum economic benefit. However, if phosphorus is allowed to move off the land and get into water, it can be a pollution problem. Unlike nitrogen, excess phosphorus is not toxic but can result in eutrophication of water bodies. Eutrophication is the increased growth of undesirable algae and other aquatic plants, which limits the use of the water for drinking, fisheries, recreation, and industrial use. Historically, a major source of phosphorus in water was wastewater treatment plants. But as the amount of phosphorus getting into water from this source has been reduced, agricultural sources of phosphorus have gotten more attention. Manure in particular has been identified as a source of phosphorus to the environment. Agriculture has ...
CAVALCANTE, Lourival Ferreira et al. Nutritional status of the sugar apple under organic fertilizing of the soil. Rev. Ciênc. Agron. [online]. 2012, vol.43, n.3, pp.579-588. ISSN 1806-6690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1806-66902012000300022.. From August 2009 to July 2010, an experiment was conducted in a sugar-apple orchard (Annona squamosa L.) in the town of Remigius PB, in order to evaluate the levels of macro and micronutrients and the leaf tissue of the plants in a soil treated with cattle manure and poultry litter. The treatments were distributed into randomized blocks, with plots split with time, three replications and two plants per plot, in a 2 × 5 × 2 factorial arrangement, corresponding to two sources of organic matter of animal origin (cattle manure and poultry litter), five doses of organic material by volume (0.0, 3.5, 5.3, 7.1 and 8.9%), and two periods of plant evaluation, 36 and 48 months after transplanting. The doses of organic material were set based on the organic-matter ...
Jul. 18, 2013 - The 2013 wheat harvest season will soon be upon us, and soon thereafter, the late summer application of manure on the harvested fields will
CES [1980]. Beware of on-farm manure storage hazards, S-82. West Lafayette, IN: Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University.. Donham, KJ [1983]. Livestock confinement. In: Parmeggiani L, ed. Encyclopedia of Occupational Safety and Health. 3rd ed., Vol. 2. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labor Organization, pp. 1239-1241.. 54 Fed. Reg. 24080 [1989]. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration: 29 CFR 1910. Permit required confined spaces; notice of proposed rulemaking.. Manwaring JC and Conroy C [in press]. Occupational confined space-related fatalities: surveillance and prevention. Journal of Safety Research.. NIOSH [1979]. Criteria for a recommended standard: working in confined spaces. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 80-106.. NIOSH [1985a]. NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. ...
The biggest headache of hog farm is the problem of fecal treatment. Organic fertilizer fermentation equipment manufacturers share the fermentation technology of pig manure to carry out biofertilizer project.
Concept of Organic farming. Organic farming is a method of farming system which primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes. Example of organic wastes are crop, cow dungs etc.. Other biological materials along with beneficial microbes (bio-fertilizers) to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco friendly pollution free environment.. As per the definition of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) study team on organic farming organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc) and to the maximum extent feasible rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection.. FAO suggested that Organic agriculture is a unique production ...
Emission of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N₂O), from open beef cattle feedlots is becoming an environmental concern; however, research measuring emission rates of N₂O from open beef cattle feedlots has been limited. This study was conducted to quantify N₂O emission fluxes as affected by pen surface conditions, in a commercial beef cattle feedlot in the state of Kansas, USA, from July 2010 through September 2011. The measurement period represented typical feedlot conditions, with air temperatures ranging from −24 to 39°C. Static flux chambers were used to collect gas samples from pen surfaces at 0, 15, and 30 minutes. Gas samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph and from the measured concentrations, N₂O fluxes were calculated. Median emission flux from the moist/muddy surface condition was 2.03 mg m⁻² hour⁻¹, which was about 20 times larger than the N₂O fluxes from the other pen surface conditions. In addition, N₂O peaks from the moist/muddy pen surface ...
Organic potato farming accounts for only 0.3% of the total potato growing area in Québec (CARTV 2012). Recent consultations with a number of producers and extension agents revealed the lack of an established, effective nitrogen fertilization program that ensures a balanced phosphorus budget. Since potatoes have high nitrogen requirements, using manure to meet this need leads to phosphorus saturation of the soil and its use is necessarily limited on phosphorus-rich soils. The problem is particularly severe with potatoes because fresh manure cannot be used because of the risk of potato scab while composting reduces effective nitrogen content and concentrates the phosphorus. Pelleted chicken manure offers an alternative because it is high in effective nitrogen, but it is costly and also high in phosphorus. So there is a great need to test green manure as a main source of nitrogen. An added benefit is that green manure helps maintain soil quality and control weeds. Testing and validating a nitrogen ...
Garden manure is a great organic fertilizer, but which is the best for your garden? HouseLogic explains the benefits of garden manure types.
Source: Bloody Brilliant!. Its spring, time to dig in the composts and pile on the mulches, so the blogging world is full of advice and debates about manure. Stuart of Gardening Tips and Ideas has just weighed in on the side of sheep manure, while Elizabeth and Michelle of Garden Rant defend manure against all comers. Me, I can hardly bear to think about the stuff. The minute I hear the word manure I start to twitch and moan; observers report having heard mutterings of No, no, and Tell me it isnt true. I wanted to post on this topic (the manure, not the moans) weeks ago, but after the incident with the broken blood-pressure cuff, my doctors warned me not to write about it for at least a month.. Its all about the stuff they add to animal feed. I stumbled over it when researching the compost article (how else?) and havent entirely recovered. Heres what happened. We all know (I assume) about the antibiotics and hormones in manure, but I got more and more curious about repeated mention of ...
Source: Bloody Brilliant!. Its spring, time to dig in the composts and pile on the mulches, so the blogging world is full of advice and debates about manure. Stuart of Gardening Tips and Ideas has just weighed in on the side of sheep manure, while Elizabeth and Michelle of Garden Rant defend manure against all comers. Me, I can hardly bear to think about the stuff. The minute I hear the word manure I start to twitch and moan; observers report having heard mutterings of No, no, and Tell me it isnt true. I wanted to post on this topic (the manure, not the moans) weeks ago, but after the incident with the broken blood-pressure cuff, my doctors warned me not to write about it for at least a month.. Its all about the stuff they add to animal feed. I stumbled over it when researching the compost article (how else?) and havent entirely recovered. Heres what happened. We all know (I assume) about the antibiotics and hormones in manure, but I got more and more curious about repeated mention of ...
Optimally, the particle sizes of corn straw powder and corncob powder in S2 were 10-20 meshes.. Optimally, the weight ratio of group C corn straw powder to group D corn straw powder was 0.5-0.8:1.. Optimally, the temperature of the first stage fermentation in S4 is 36-40 C and the time is 2-4 days.. Optimally, the temperature of the second stage fermentation in S4 is 32-36 C and the time is 8-12 days.. Preferably, the drying temperature in S5 is 50-70 C, and the moisture content is less than 2%.. Optimally, the particle size of granular organic fertilizer in S5 is 3-5 mm.. The granular organic fertilizer provided by the invention is fermented by pig manure, chicken manure, cow manure, bagasse, wheat straw and corncob, and is made into granular form by adding pond mud and beeswax, which has strong fertility and durable fertility, and can effectively improve soil, alleviate soil hardening and improve soil structure; after being used as base fertilizer before sowing, it can be applied to Zhuang ...
Horse poop. It might sound like the punchline to a giggling-kid joke.. In Connecticut its no joke.. With 45,000 to 60,000 horses-the most of any New England state-producing 50 pounds of manure each a day, thats about eight tons a year per horse. And with Long Island Sound pretty much the catchall for anything that gets into the ground, its definitely no joke.. A lot of people dont really think about what to do until it becomes a problem, said Jenifer Nadeau, an associate professor at the University of Connecticut and an equine extension specialist. So they just pile it up.. Thats exactly the kind of practice that makes folks who worry about water quality cringe. If not handled properly, those piles can easily wash their damaging nitrogen and other contaminants into the ground or nearest water body. And eventually they will wind up in the Sound.. Which was why an outreach and remediation effort aimed at doing something about horse manure disposal in Connecticut was among 39 recipients of ...
WINDSOR, Vt. (AP) - A pile of goat manure spontaneously caught fire, spreading stench and wrinkling noses through a Vermont town but causing no damage, officials said.The odor evoked a damp kind of burning leaves or brush fire, Windsor Town Manager Tom Marsh said.A worker on her way to milk goats discovered the fire in the 120-cubic-yard manure pile around 3 a.m. Wednesday, said George Redick, owner of the 800-goat Oak Knoll Dairy. He and others put out the flames with water from a hose
WINDSOR, Vt. A pile of goat manure spontaneously caught fire, spreading stench and wrinkling noses through a Vermont town but causing no damage, officials said. The odor evoked a damp kind of burning leaves or brush fire, Windsor Town Manager Tom Marsh said. A worker on her way to milk goats discovered the fire in the 120-cubic-yard manure pile around 3 a.m. Wednesday, said George Redick, owner of the 800-goat Oak Knoll Dairy. He and others put out the flames with
This will be a grow log of a tray of grain spawned (microwave pasteurised) manure. Here is a box of some of the manure. It has been sitting out in dude?s backyard for the past few weeks. It was
Our NEW Over Winter Mix is our specially formulated Green Manure Mix for sowing in August through to the end of September to dig in the following Spring. It contains 2 Green Manure varieties Westerwolds Ryegrass and Vetches (Winter Tares) they have different benefits and properties so this combination makes an excellen
Evaluating agouti manure (AM) as a source of macronutrients for plant production is a precursor to ensuring appropriate land application. Agouti manure was compared to cattle manure (CM) and mineral fertiliser (MF) applied ...
An observational study was undertaken to measure odour and dust (PM10 and PM2.5) emission rates and identify non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and odorants in the exhaust air from two tunnel-ventilated layer-chicken sheds that were configured with multi-tiered cages and manure belts. The study sites were located in south-eastern Queensland and the West Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. Samples were collected in summer and winter on sequential days across the manure-belt cleaning cycle. Odour emissions ranged from 58 to 512 ou/s per 1000 birds (0.03-0.27 ou/s.kg) and dust emission rates ranged 0.014-0.184 mg/s per 1000 birds for PM10 and 0.001-0.190 mg/s per 1000 birds for PM2.5. Twenty NMVOCs were identified, including three that were also identified as odorants using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry analysis. Odour emission rates were observed to vary with the amount of manure accumulation on the manure belts, being lowest 2-4 days after ...
US - An innovation that could have a huge impact on water quality problems in the United States, a system capable of removing almost all phosphorus from stored livestock manure, was developed by a team of researchers from Penn State and the US Department of Agricultures Agricultural Research Service(USDA-ARS).
In the present work, a complete study of the sewage sludge (SS) biodrying technology was conducted at benchscale, aiming at assessing its performance and providing a valuable insight into the different gaseous emission patterns found for greenhouse gases (GHG) and odorant pollutants. As process key parameters, temperature, specific airflow, dynamic respiration index, final moisture content and Lower Calorific Value (LCV) were evaluated. At the end of the biodrying, a product with a 35.9% moisture content and a LCV of 7.1 MJ·kg−1product was obtained. GHGs emission factor was 28.22 kgCO2eq per Mg of initial mass of dry matter in the SS (DM0-SS). During the biodrying process, maximum odour concentration measured was 3043 ou·m−3 and the estimated odour emission factor of the biological treatment was 3.10E+07 ou per Mg DM0-SS. Finally, VOCs were completely identified and quantified. The most abundant VOCs found in the biodrying gaseous emissions were terpenes, sulphur-compounds and ketones ...
Brian Cotton, Manitoba Agriculture and Food, Brandon. The VIDO Swine Technical Group at Saskatoon looked at the amount of water that was either wasted through the use of inefficient water systems and the amount of wash water used in various swine facilities.. The size of the facility used throughout the calculations was 108 farrowing crates that is turned 13 times per year; 14,000 nursery piglets and a 5000-head feeder barn turned 2.8 times per year for 14,000 pigs.. Water wastage had been documented to exceed 40% of the water provided by a nipple drinker. This would mean that a 5000-head finisher barn would need an additional 5.5 million litres of annual storage capacity just for the wasted water. At 0.6 cents/gallon for manure application this wasted drinking water would add about $0.61 per pig sold.. Wash water in the farrowing crates averaged about 152 litres of water per crate. With 108 crates washed once per cycle, there would be 1404 crate washings per year, for a total of about 18.7 ...
Water pollution comes from businesses, farms, homes, industries, and other sources. It includes sewage, industrial chemicals, agricultural chemicals, and livestock wastes. Water pollution occurs when people put so much waste into a water system that its natural cleansing processes cannot function properly. Some waste, such as oil, industrial acids, or farm pesticides, poisons aquatic plants and animals. Other waste, such as phosphate detergents, chemical fertilizers, and animal manure, pollutes by supplying excess nutrients for aquatic life. This pollution process is called eutrophication. It begins when large amounts of nutrients flow into a water system. These nutrients stimulate excessive growth of algae. As more algae grow, more also die. Bacteria in the water use up large amounts of oxygen consuming the excess dead algae. The oxygen level of the water then drops, causing many aquatic plants and animals to die ...
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is a bio-approach to remove organic matter and nitrogen from wastewater with concomitant production of renewable electricity. Nowadays, there exists clear interest in moving MFCs towards application. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of MFC technology for tre Open access articles recently published in Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology
Manitoba Hydro has introduced the Bioenergy Optimisation Program to encourage the use of sustainable biomass as a fuel for the production of combined heat and power at customer sites.
Sending cow manure and coffee grinds to a new biogas plant is helping to protect the environment and maintain the purity of Switzerlands famous mineral water Henniez.
Organic fertilizers, e.g., compost, green manure, farmyard manure, and farmyard slurry are not only important in improving the physical properties of soils but also provide mineral nutrients to plants. However, those nutrients in organic form must be mineralized before they are available to plants. Some organic fertilizers, especially farmyard manure and slurry, contain fairly large amounts of organic phosphorus (P), which must be mineralized before it can be utilized by plants. For the efficient use of farmyard manure and slurry, however, it is very useful to know their content of readily available P in order to estimate the amount of fertilizer that should be applied to crops. L- and E-value determination are suitable techniques for evaluating available P if the mineralization and immobilization of P in the soil are low during the experimental period. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of cow slurry on P uptake and to estimate the readily available P in the slurry by using 32p.
Hey Mark thanks for a brilliant reply! I have got into a big argument on the uk.rec.gardening newsgroup about the differences beteen pollution levels in water courses between chemical fertilizers and natural manures. There is some stuff about runoff and I think the levels of pollution of the UK water supply speaks for itself. I agree about composting animal manure and _know_ that there is no comparison between organic vs chemical fertilizer but I am no scientist and needed some support. I have an organic veg garden and am fascinated by compost! Colin Shaw ...
Roxarsone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, is an organoarsenic compound that is used extensively in the feed of broiler poultryto control coccidial intestinal parasites, improve feed efficiency, and promote rapid growth. Nearly all the roxarsone in the feed is excreted unchanged in the manure. Poultry litter composed of the manure and bedding material has a high nutrient content and is used routinely as a fertilizer on cropland and pasture. Investigations were conducted to determine the fate of poultrylitter roxarsone in the environment. Experiments indicated that roxarsone was stable in fresh dried litter; the primary arsenic species extracted with water from dried litter was roxarsone. However, when water was added to litter at about 50 wt % and the mixture was allowed to compost at 40oC, the speciation of arsenic shifted from roxarsone to primarily arsenate in about 30 days. Increasing the amount of water increased the rate of degradation. Experiments also suggested that...