Ringold, G M., "Glucocorticoid regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus gene expression." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3076 ...
Three murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV)-producing epithelial cell lines derived from murine mammary tumors were examined in order to identify the MuMTV-specific cell surface antigens and their distribution on the cell surface, to study the kinetics
T cells that recognize self antigen are clonally deleted in the thymus--a maturation process that occurs in the context of histocompatibility molecules and the T-cell receptor. The minor lymphocyte stimulation antigens (Mls) effect these deletions through interactions with the V beta portion of the T-cell receptor, thus mimicking bacterial superantigens. Intrigued by the fact that each known Mls gene maps to the same chromosomal region as an endogenous mouse mammary tumour virus (Mtv), we reevaluated the linkage relationships between the two gene families. Here we report perfect concordance in inbred and recombinant inbred mice between the presence of four Mtv proviruses with the expression of Mls gene products. These data suggest a general model in which mammary tumour virus gene products themselves are the ligands that shape a considerable portion of the immunological repertoire of common laboratory mice
By means of the indirect membrane immunofluorescence test, the distribution and antibody-induced redistribution (patching and capping) of a mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and a normal (Thy 1.2) cell-surface antigen were compared on mouse thymocytes and leukemia cells (GRSL2). At 0 degrees C Thy 1.2 fluorescence was ringlike and more intense on GRSL2 cells than on thymocytes, whereas MLr fluorescence on GRLS2 cells at this temperature was patchlike and brighter than Thy 1.2 fluorescence. At 20 or 37 degrees C, capping of Thy 1.2 on both cell types was readily achieved but MLr capping occurred only in a few GRSL2 cells and was less pronounced. However, after addition of the secondary antibodies, MLr capping was markedly increased by gradual cooling of cells to about 17 degrees C. Conversely, after addition of antibodies at 0 degrees C, gradual warming of cells under the fluorescence microscope resulted in extensive capping both of MLr and Thy 1.2 at approximately 13-14 degrees C. Rapid cooling ...
We are attempting to identify cellular oncogenes activated in mammary tumours by using the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) as an insertional mutagen. MMTV, a retrovirus lacking a host cell-derived viral oncogene, induces adenocarcinomas of the mammary gland after a long latency period. The tumours are clonal outgrowths of cells carrying one or more integrated MMTV proviral copies. We have cloned an integrated MMTV provirus with its adjacent chromosomal DNA and we have established that the insertion site was part of a domain of the mouse genome in which MMTV proviruses are inserted in many different tumours. A gene within this domain, called int-1 is transcriptionally activated as a consequence of proviral integration. We have proposed that int-1 is a cellular oncogene for mammary tumours. Proviral activation of int-1 occurs in cis, over distances of up to 10 kilobases and is presumably caused by the transcriptional enhancer present on the MMTV long terminal repeat. The putative int-1 mammary ...
Endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is distributed among multiple mouse chromosomes. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. 1979 ...
Rho GTPases are overexpressed and hyperactivated in human breast cancers. Deficiency of p190B RhoGAP, a major inhibitor of the Rho GTPases, inhibits mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV)-Neu/ErbB2 mammary tumor formation and progression in part through effects within the stromal environment, suggesting that p190B function is pro-tumorigenic. To further investigate the potential pro-tumorigenic actions of p190B, we examined the effects of exogenous p190B expression within the mammary epithelium on MMTV-Neu tumor formation and progression. Tetracycline (tet)-regulatable p190B transgenic mice were bred to MMTV-Neu mice, and the effects of exogenous p190B expression on tumor latency, multiplicity, growth rates, angiogenesis, and metastasis were examined. The effects of exogenous p190B expression on cell-matrix adhesion and invasion were tested using non-transformed primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Rho GTPase activity, oxidative stress as an indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Purified glucocorticoid receptorhormone complex from rat liver cytosol binds specifically to cloned mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeats in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 79:5157-61. Moore DD, Marks AR, Buckley DI, Kapler G, Payvar F, Goodman HM. The first intron of the human growth hormone gene contains a binding site for glucocorticoid receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985; 82:699-702. Bechet D. Control of gene expression by steroid hormones. Reprod Nutr Develop 1986; 26:1025-55. Endocrinology 1981; 108:1533-7. King WJ, DeSombre ER, Jensen EV, Greene GL. Comparison of immunocytochemical and steroid-bind:ing assays for estrogen receptor in human breast tumors. Cancer Res 1985; 45:293-304. Pertschuk LP, Eisenberg KB, Carter AC, Fcldman JG. Immunohistologic localization of estrogen receptors in breast cancer with monoclonal antibodies. Cancer 1985; 55:1513-8. Perrot-Applanat M, Groyer-Picard MT, Lorenzo F, et al. Immunocytochemical study with monoclonal antibodies to progesterone ...
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a CC chemokine that attracts monocytes and T lymphocytes in vitro; however, its in vivo functions are poorly understood. To address this question, we constructed transgenic mice expressing MCP-1 controlled by an insulin promoter. These mice developed a chronic insulitic infiltrate composed of F4/80+ monocytes with minor populations of CD4+, CD8+, and B220+ cells. Despite persistent transgene expression, the insulitis never progressed, and blood glucose levels remained normal. Thus, MCP-1 alone is sufficient to elicit a monocytic infiltrate, but not to activate elicited cells. These results differ from those obtained with another transgenic model using the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat, in which mice expressed substantial MCP-1 in several organs but had no infiltrates. However, mice expressing both transgenes had minimal insulitis, indicating that high systemic levels of MCP-1 prevented monocytes from responding to local MCP-1. Thus, ...
We used a dominant inhibitory mutation of c-Ha-ras which changes Ser-17 to Asn-17 in the gene product p21 [p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras] to investigate ras function in mitogenic signal transduction. An NIH 3T3 cell line [NIH(M17)] was isolated that displayed inducible expression of the mutant Ha-ras gene (Ha-ras Asn-17) via the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat and was growth inhibited by dexamethasone. The effect of dexamethasone induction on response of quiescent NIH(M17) cells to mitogens was then analyzed. Stimulation of DNA synthesis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was completely blocked by p21(Asn-17) expression, and stimulation by serum, fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor was partially inhibited. However, the induction of fos, jun, and myc by EGF and TPA was not significantly inhibited in this cell line. An effect of p21(Asn-17) on fos induction was, however, demonstrated in transient expression assays in which ...
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Chris (and any one else who might have some information), I guess I should have been more clear in my request for mouse mammary tumor Abs. Yes, I assume that human cytokeratin Abs will cross-react with the mouse tissue. They have done so on all other species that Ive used them on here in the Vet Diag Lab. What I need is an antibody specific for mammary tumor, so that we can differentiate these tumors from salivary gland tumors, etc. I need to be able to say that it is more than just an epithelial tumor, or even more than a glandular or ductual epithelial tumor. Is there such a beast that will work in mouse tissue? And thanks for the recommendation of using the ARK kit from DAKO. I do have one on hand. Jan ----- Original Message ----- From: C.M. vander Loos ,[email protected], To: ,[email protected], Cc: Jan Shivers ,[email protected], Sent: Thursday, December 14, 2000 2:58 AM Subject: Re: mouse mammary tumor Ab , ,Does anyone know where I could find an antibody ...
Breast cancers discovered during pregnancy or lactation (gestational) are known to be very aggressive and of poor prognosis. We have found a Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) like virus in human breast cancer, but not in adjacent normal tissue, indicating it exogenous origin. This virus, Human Mammary Tumor Virus (HMTV) recognized by its unique env sequence is present in 62% of gestational breast cancer, compared with 38% of sporadic breast cancers (Wang et al, 2003. Medical Oncology 20:233-236). The aggressive phenotype of gestational breast cancer was suggested to be due to the effect of hormones that stimulate cellular growth. HMTV- LTR contained sequences which are responsive to several hormones (glucocorticoid, estrogen, prolactin, and progesterone) and a transcription factor (TEF-1 family) (Wang et al, 2003. Medical Oncology 20:233-236).. To find if HMTV is present in other tissues that respond to hormones, we have investigated the presence of HMTV sequences in two of these tissues. ...
Notch1 has been shown to promote commitment of mouse mammary stem cells along the luminal lineage [25, 58]. Consistent with these and other studies [26, 31-33], we show that constitutive expression of intracellular NOTCH1 in the developing mouse mammary gland stimulates luminal fate, ultimately resulting in transformation of the mammary gland. The mammary tumors predominantly express the luminal lineage marker keratin 8/18. Interestingly, in our model expression of human intracellular NOTCH1 in the developing mouse mammary gland did not result in induction of diverse tumor types that regressed upon weaning. Nor did the transgenic females exhibit any difficulty nursing their young. This is in contrast to transgenic models that constitutively express mouse ICN1 driven by the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) LTR. These mice are unable to nurse their young and they develop lactation-dependent papillary tumors that regress upon involution [31, 32]. The reasons for the phenotypic differences could ...
Amplification of the Neu/c-erbB-2 receptor tyrosine kinase has been implicated as an important event in the genesis of human breast cancer. Indeed, transgenic mice bearing either an activated form of neu or the wild-type proto-oncogene under the transcriptional control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-enhancer frequently develop mammary carcinomas (L. Bouchard, L. Lamarre, P. J. Tremblay, and P. Jolicoeur, Cell 57:931-936, 1989; C. T. Guy, M. A. Webster, M. Schaller, T. J. Parson, R. D. Cardiff, and W. J. Muller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:10578-10582, 1992; W. J. Muller, E. Sinn, R. Wallace, P. K. Pattengale, and P. Leder, Cell 54:105-115, 1988). Induction of mammary tumors in transgenic mice expressing the wild-type Neu receptor is associated with activation of the receptors intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity (Guy et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:10578-10582, 1992). Here, we demonstrate that activation of Neu in these transgenic mice occurs through somatic mutations located ...
RISK OF PRESENTING OVARIAN ALTERATIONS IN BITCHES WITH MAMMARY TUMORS. Riganti JG. Mammary tumors are one of the most common neoplasms presented in the bitch; in a large number of cases, hormonal receptors were demonstrated in neoplastic cells and, that the growth is hormone-dependent. Most of these hormones are produced in the ovary. This work was to evaluate the risk that a bitch with a mammary tumor also presents alterations in its ovaries. The morphologic condition of the ovaries from 200 bitches older than 7 years were studied. Of the 200, 50 had mammary tumors. The measure of risk and its significance level were analyzed. Of the bitches with mammary tumors, 20 (40%) presented ovarian alterations, mainly ovarian cystic and cyst adenoma. Only one ovarian alteration was noted in those animals that did not show mammary neoplasia. The risk = 16 (p ,0,01) and indicates that in a high percentage of bitches the ovarian alterations might be due to mammary tumors. Given that, those dogs that have ...
1039 Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been shown to be an effective anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic protein in vitro and in many xenograft mouse models. These models are limited in the information they provide because they dont recapitulate the natural progression of the tumor at the correct body site. We were interested to know how TSP-1 affects breast cancer progression in vivo. The approach we decided to take was to develop a transgenic mouse model for breast cancer in order to enable us to study tumor progression at different stages (ie. initiation to metastasis). We crossed TSP-1 +/+ and TSP-1 -/- female mice with male polyomavirus middle T Antigen (PyT)/mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) transgenic mice to generate progeny that are PyT +/-, TSP-1 +/+ and PyT +/-, TSP-1-/-. At 60 days of age when tumors are becoming palpable, we found that tumors in the PyT +/-, TSP-1 -/- mice are 35% larger than tumors found in the PyT +/-, TSP-1+/+. In our preliminary analysis on blood vessel density, ...
Tumor viruses Tumor viruses are those viruses that are able to infect cells and cause changes within the cells operating machinery such that the cells ability to regulate its growth and division is destroyed and the cells become cancerous. Human papillomavirus, hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus , human T-cell leukemia virus , SV-40, and Rous sarcoma virus are all tumor viruses. Source for information on Tumor Viruses: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary.
All modern science is built on earlier science. Accordingly, the discovery that launched the intense study of Wnt genes 30 years ago depended on at least two earlier and closely related lines of enquiry: mouse models of cancer and oncogenic retroviruses.. It had been known since the 1930s that certain strains of laboratory mice are highly susceptible to breast cancer, and that the disease is usually transmitted from mothers to offspring mice through the milk (Bittner, 1936; Korteweg, 1936). Later, the tumour‐inducing activity was purified from the milk (Lyons and Moore, 1962), and the milk‐transmitted factor was shown to be a morphologically atypical retrovirus, called the Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus or MMTV.. Although the study of oncogenic retroviruses can be tracked to the first decade of the 20th century, the basis of their cancer‐causing properties came into focus only in the centurys second half. The first great advances came from tissue culture assays for viral growth and cell ...
1DSQ: The NMR structure of the nucleocapsid protein from the mouse mammary tumor virus reveals unusual folding of the C-terminal zinc knuckle.
In the recent years thousands of non-coding RNAs have already been identified, because of highthroughput sequencing systems also. biogenesis and on the many molecular mechanisms where they are participating is going extremely fast, however, you may still find PKC-IN-1 few research that address their participation in embryogenesis and eukaryotic advancement. This review gets the intent to spell it out the newest progress in the analysis from the biogenesis and molecular actions of circRNAs offering insightful information in neuro-scientific embryogenesis and cell differentiation. Furthermore, we describe the most recent study on circRNAs as book guaranteeing biomarkers in varied types of tumors. (Conrad et al., 2008) and theyre able to become reprogrammed to transdifferentiate to cell lineages of additional tissues and because of this SSCs possess relevant applications in dealing with man infertility (Chen et al., 2017). Distinct circRNA manifestation profiles in various types of male germ cells ...
... occur in both dogs and cats, and are the most common tumor of female dogs. Risk for mammary tumors is very low for pets that are spayed before their first heat cycle (0.5% occurrence), but increase to 8% occurrence in pets spayed after their first heat cycle, and to 26% after two or more heat cycles.
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Mouse mammary tumor virus is known to infect newborn mice via mothers milk. A proposed key step for viral spread to the mammary gland is by the infection of lymphocytes. We show here that although in suckling mice retroviral proteins are found in all epithelial cells of the gut, viral DNA is exclusively detectable in the Peyers patches. As early as 5 d after birth the infection leads to a superantigen response in the Peyers patches but not in other lymphoid organs draining the intestine. Viral DNA can be detected before the superantigen response and becomes first evident in the Peyers patches followed by mesenteric lymph nodes and finally all lymphoid organs. ...
One of the first cell surface receptors identified that was able to stimulate scattering of epithelial cells was the Met receptor tyrosine kinase. Activation of Met by its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, enhances the migration of multiple cell lines in vitro, and scattering of cultured multicystic dysplastic kidney cells is a classical EMT assay. Morag Park (McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) reported that transgenic mice expressing wild-type or active variants of Met under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter develop nodal and ductal hyperplasia and spontaneous mammary tumors, albeit with a long latency period (∼1.5 yr). Park suggested that Met cooperates with the Her2/neu oncogene in activating EMT, and that the Crk family of SH2 and SH3 adaptor proteins are critical in Met-mediated EMT. Crk proteins are highly expressed in human breast tumors, and Park reported that small interfering RNA (siRNA) ablation of Crk inhibits Met-dependent cell migration and ...
Looking for online definition of RNA tumor virus in the Medical Dictionary? RNA tumor virus explanation free. What is RNA tumor virus? Meaning of RNA tumor virus medical term. What does RNA tumor virus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - En busca de secuencias retrovirales relacionadas con el cancer de mama humano. AU - Pogo, Beatriz G T. AU - Holland, James F.. AU - Wang, Yue. AU - Melana, Stella M.. AU - Pelisson, Isabelle. AU - Liu, Bingren. AU - Go, Vera S. AU - Bleiweiss, Ira. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - The participation of viruses in mammary carcinogenesis has been largely studied in animals. A model similar to the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) was previously proposed. Several lines of research supported the participation of MMTV in human breast cancer, but these evidences were contradicted when further research was performed. One major issue was the presence of human endogenous retroviral sequences that confounded results reporting MMTV-like sequences in human breast cancer. To overcome this problem we selected a 660 bp sequence of the MMTV env gene with low homology to endogenous sequences and search for a sequence to it using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequence was found in 38% of the ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 (EBNA-2) increases mRNA levels of specific viral and cellular genes through direct or indirect effects on upstream regulatory elements. The EBNA-2 domains essential for these effects have been partially defined and correlate with domains important for B-cell growth transformation. To determine whether EBNA-2 has a direct transcriptional activating domain, gene fusions between the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 and EBNA-2 were tested in CHO and B-lymphoma cells for the ability to activate transcription from target plasmids containing GAL4 recognition sites upstream of an adenovirus or murine mammary tumor virus promoter. In B-lymphoma cells, a 37-amino-acid EBNA-2 domain previously identified to be essential for transformation was nearly as strong a transcriptional activator as the activating domain of herpes simplex virus trans-inducing factor VP16. A quadradecapeptide had about 25% of the activating activity of the longer peptide. This first evidence that EBNA-2 ...
Mutation and loss of function in p53 are common features among human breast cancers. Here we use BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice as a model to examine the sequence of events leading to mammary tumors. Mammary gland proliferation rates were similar in both BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice and wild-type controls. In addition, sporadic mammary hyperplasias were rare in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice and not detectably different from those of wild-type controls. Among the 28 mammary tumors collected from BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice, loss of heterozygosity for Trp53 was detected in more than 90% of invasive mammary tumors. Transplantation of Trp53+/- ductal hyperplasias also indicated an association between loss of the wild-type allele of Trp53 and progression to invasive carcinomas. Therefore, loss of p53 function seems to be a rate-limiting step in progression. Moreover, expression of biomarkers such as estrogen receptor alpha, progesterone receptor, Her2/Neu, and activated Notch1 varied among mammary tumors, suggesting that multiple ...
Tumorigenesis is often described as a result of accumulated mutations that lead to growth advantage and clonal expansion of mutated cells. There is evidence in the literature that cancer cells are influenced by the microenvironment. Our previous studies demonstrated that the mouse mammary gland is capable of redirecting mouse cells of non-mammary origins as well as Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-neu transformed cells toward normal mammary epithelial cell fate during gland regeneration. Interestingly, the malignant phenotype of MMTV-neu transformed cells was suppressed during serial transplantation experiments. Here, we discuss our studies that demonstrated the potential of the regenerating mouse mammary gland to redirect cancer cells of different species into a functional tumor-free mammary epithelial cell progeny. Immunochemistry for human specific CD133, mitochondria, cytokeratins as well as milk proteins and FISH for human specific probe identified human epithelial cell progeny in ducts, lobules,
Virions of Moloney murine leukemia virus can synthesize two classes of DNA molecules complementary to their 70S RNA. One class consists of molecules about 200 nucleotides long, which are of limited sequence complexity; these molecules are formed preferentially if the dNTP concentration during the reaction is low. The second class consists of very heterogeneous DNA molecules with weight-average size of about 1,000 nucleotides containing at least 70% of the viral RNA sequences in approximately equal concentration. The longest of these molecules can be 5,000 nucleotides long. This second class of DNA is formed in large amounts only in reactions containing dNTP concentrations of 0.2 mM or higher. In such reactions after 24 h of incubation, at least 35% of the input RNA is represented in DNA copies. The ability to make long, representative DNA transcripts of tumor virus RNA provides a source of excellent probes for molecular hybridization. ...
Superantigens are usually regarded as potent inducers of an overwhelming (unmodulated) immune response that manifests as a rare event, such as toxic shock syndrome or food poisoning. This chapter presents evidence that immune response to superantigens may well trigger or exacerbate autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptomology can often be observed to occur in a relapsing-remitting manner. Superantigen effects are suggested by studies of peripheral and synovial Vβ14+ T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis versus those from controls and of B-cell production of rheumatoid factor upon stimulation with SED. Skin lesion eruptions in guttate psoriasis have been linked with throat infections and increased antibody titers to streptococcal antigens. Initial studies of the infectivity of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) indicated that an intact immune system was required for infection. Antibodies to IL-10 block the protective effects of IL-10 against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE).
A variety of human solid tumors, including breast cancer, are considered to embrace a hierarchical organization in which only rare tumor-initiating cancer stem cells are truly responsible for tumor formation. Cultivation of tumorspheres in non-adherent conditions is widely employed for enriching these putative cancer stem cells in vitro. However, the absence of a defined culture medium has handicapped further characterization and isolation of this cell population. In this study, we used mouse mammary tumor virus MMTV-HER2/neu transgenic mice that mimic the HER2/Neu-positive subtype of human breast cancer as a model system, and cultured primary tumor cells and tumorspheres from these mice under non-adherent conditions. In addition to essential growth factors, we found that B27 supplement played an important role in promoting tumorsphere formation and maintaining cultures through passaging. A tumorsphere-formation assay and measurements of average tumorsphere size provided insight into the characteristics
Skrót Wnt powstał z połączenia nazw Wg (wingless) i Int[2]. Gen wingless został opisany u Drosophila melanogaster jako gen regulujący biegunowość segmentów ciała owada, regulującego proces segmentacji w embriogenezie[3], a także proces powstawania odnóży w trakcie przepoczwarzenia[4]. Geny INT zostały zidentyfikowane u kręgowców jako geny sąsiadujące z miejscami integracji genów mysiego wirusa raka sutka (mouse mammary tumor virus, MMTV)[5]. Int-1 i wingless zostały uznane za homologi na podstawie analizy sekwencji aminokwasowej kodowanych białek. Mutacje wingless u muszek powodowały powstanie bezskrzydłych mutantów, natomiast guzy wywołane przez MMTV zawierały liczne sekwencje genetyczne wirusa, powodujące nadekspresję genów rodziny Wnt. Kolejne badania wykazały, że Wnt należą do dużej grupy morfogenów wydzielanych, zawierającej ligandy o głębokim znaczeniu w powstawaniu planu ciała u wszystkich badanych organizmów wielokomórkowych.. ...
None of the methods is truly quantitative, even without the presence of scatter, but are potentially useful and improve quantitation. Fungitoxic studies on bark extract of Lawsonia inermis against ringworm fungi. Since its first introduction, MDR has tadalafil generic enjoyed great popularity in applications and has been extended and modified multiple times. In principle, the staggered band alignment of TMD heterostructures should result in the formation of interlayer excitons with long lifetimes and robust valley polarization. Quantitative flow cytometry reveals a hierarchy of glucocorticoid effect on cell surface tadalafil dosage mouse mammary tumor virus gp52. 3.1.1.7) activity in erythrocytes from healthy subjects and patients with terminal renal insufficiency treated by repeated hemodialyses. In turn, knockdown of miR-146 itself had no major effects on the expression of known targets of MyD88-Traf6 signalling. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical ...
Nicolas Fasel is full professor at the Faculty of Biology and Medicine of the University of Lausanne. After studying biology at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and obtaining a doctoral degree at the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research working on mouse mammary tumor virus, he took up a post-doctoral position at the University of California Los Angeles working on immunoglobulin gene regulation. On his return to Switzerland, he studied post-translational modifications of cell surface antigens. As an independant researcher of the Dr. Max Cloëtta Research Foundation, he had the opportunity to establish his own group investigating the molecular and cellular biology of protozoan parasites. Since September 2006, he is director of the Department of Biochemistry.. ...
If the mammary tumor is malignant, the surgical site and regional lymph nodes should be checked for local tumor recurrence and metastasis, respectively, every 3 months for the first 12 months after surgery and then every 6 months thereafter. Abdominal ultrasound and chest radiographs are also recommended every 3-6 months to assess for evidence of metastatic disease.. In dogs, there are a number of factors that influence the prognosis following surgery. These prognostic factors include tumor size, clinical stage (how far the cancer has spread in the body), tumor type and grade, and various other pathologic changes seen in the tumor tissue. Benign tumors are cured by surgery, although the development of new mammary tumors (both benign and malignant) is possible. There is a poorer prognosis with malignant mammary tumors and it also depends on what type of cancer. In dogs, the size of malignant mammary tumors is an important consideration when determining prognosis, both for local tumor recurrence ...
LY294002 price The sole reproducible distinction among wild variety and NG2 null specimens was the lowered num ber of lesions obvious at early time points in the absence of NG2, reinforcing the conclusions acquired from your total mount staining. Progression of transplanted mammary tumors Donor MMTV PyMT tumor fragments were transplanted into mammary extra fat pad web sites in 4 month old female wild sort and NG2 null mice that didnt carry the MMTV PyMT transgene. In wild style mice, 50% of transplantation web-sites had detectable tumors at 40 days post implantation. In NG2 null mice, the time for 50% incidence was extended to 80 days. Comparable outcomes had been obtained in a 2nd experiment using two month previous recipient females. These changes in tumor latency concerning wild kind and NG2 null mice therefore mimic the differences in latency seen with spontaneous mammary tumor advancement. Progression of mammary tumors from cell lines The Py230 and Py8119 cell lines were the two derived ...
A recent special edition of the Elsevier journal Virology, reviews the past, present, and future of the exciting field of small DNA tumor viruses.
The axillary region is a common site for mammary glandular epithelium in rodents with potential for neoplastic transformation in the axillary, lateral thoracoabdominal, and flank regions as well as the ventral abdomen. The lesion is sub-classified as a moderate grade malignancy on the basis of cellular undifferentiation, disorganization, necrosis, and invasive growth, although the majority of the latter appears to occur with the intra-lesional supporting fibrous trauma rather than the perilesional subcutis. However, there are a few small satellite nodules around the periphery of the main mass (local perilesional metastases). The thickness of the surgical margin is variable from moderate to minimal with neoplastic glandular epithelium focally extending extremely close to and focally reaching the biopsy margins. Clinical behavior is sometimes more aggressive than might be expected based upon microscopic features such as these. Clinical options might include prophylactic deeper excision or at least ...
L. Hebbard, G. Cecena, J. Golas, J. Sawada, L. G. Ellies, A. Charbono, R. Williams, R. E. Jimenez, M. Wankell, K. T. Arndt, S. Q. Dejoy, R. A. Rollins, V. Diesl, M. Follettie, L. Chen, E. Rosfjord, Robert Cardiff, M. Komatsu, F. Boschelli, R. G. Oshima ...
... the new chromosomal fragment do- nated to a merozygote (q.v.). exogenous DNA DNA that originates outside an organism (e.g., from another cell or virus). exogenous virus a virus ...
Manly, Kenneth F. and Smoler, Donna F. and Bromfeld, Esther et al. (1971) Forms of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Produced by Virions of the Ribonucleic Acid Tumor Viruses. Journal of Virology, 7 (1). pp. 106-111. ISSN 0022-538X. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:MANjvir71 ...
Gaz Beadle Reveals The LOLZ Lengths Emma McVey Goes To For The Perfect Selfie & One Direction Are All Up For The Same Award , MTV ...
MTV announced their nominees for the 2007 VMAs yesterday and the list isnt particularly surprising. There are a few indie darlings in here--like White Stripes, Amy Winehouse, and Justice--but mostly its just the same old, same old. There are those who might say that MTV is on the decline and is slowly being taken over by crap. To those people, I say, "No, Im pretty sure it was always crap ...
Wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family (WNT)/β-catenin (CTNNB1) pathway components are expressed in ovarian granulosa cells, direct female gonad development, and are regulated by the pituitary gonadotropins. However, the in vivo functions of CTNNB1 during preovulatory follicular development, ovulation, and luteinization remain unclear. Using a mouse model Ctnnb1(Ex3)fl/fl;Cyp19-Cre (Ctnnb1(Ex3)gc-/-), expressing dominant stable CTNNB1 in granulosa cells of small antral and preovulatory follicles, we show that CTNNB1 facilitates FSH-induced follicular growth and decreases the follicle atresia (granulosa cell apoptosis). At the molecular level, WNT signaling and FSH synergistically promote the expression of genes required for cell proliferation and estrogen biosynthesis, but decrease FOXO1, which negatively regulates proliferation and steroidogenesis. Conversely, dominant stable CTNNB1 represses LH-induced oocyte maturation, ovulation, luteinization, and progesterone ...
Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation ofWnt5a(but notWnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genesin vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signalingviathe ...
Conflicting results regarding the association of MMTV with human breast cancer have been reported. Published sequence data have indicated unique MMTV strains in some human samples. However, concerns regarding contamination as a cause of false positive results have persisted. We performed PCR assays for MMTV on human breast cancer cell lines and fresh frozen and formalin fixed normal and malignant human breast epithelial samples. Assays were also performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from volunteer blood donors and subjects at risk for human retroviral infections. In addition, assays were performed on DNA samples from wild and laboratory mice. Sequencing of MMTV positive samples from both humans and mice were performed and phylogenetically compared. Using PCR under rigorous conditions to prevent and detect
TY - JOUR. T1 - HER2 isoforms co-expression differently tunes mammary tumor phenotypes affecting onset, vasculature and therapeutic response. AU - Palladini, Ariannna. AU - Nicoletti, Giordano. AU - Lamolinara, Alessia. AU - DallOra, Massimiliano. AU - Balboni, tania. AU - Ianzano, Marianna L.. AU - Laranga, Roberta. AU - Landuzzi, Lorena. AU - Giusti, Veronica. AU - Ceccarelli, Claudio. AU - Santini, Donatella. AU - Taffurelli, Mario. AU - Di Oto, Enrico. AU - Asioli, Sofia. AU - Amici, Augusto. AU - Pupa, Serenella. AU - De Giovanni, Carla. AU - Tagliabue, Elda. AU - Iezzi, Manuela. AU - Nanni, Patrizia. AU - Lollini, Pier Luigi. PY - 2017/4/13. Y1 - 2017/4/13. N2 - Full-length HER2 oncoprotein and splice variant Delta16 are co-expressed in human breast cancer. We studied their interaction in hybrid transgenic mice bearing human full-length HER2 and Delta16 (F1 HER2/Delta16) in comparison to parental HER2 and Delta16 transgenic mice. Mammary carcinomas onset was faster in F1 HER2/Delta16 and ...
SAN DIEGO and WOODCLIFF LAKE, N.J., Aug. 9, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Arena and Eisai Announce Results of Re-Adjudication of Rat Mammary Tumors from Lorcaserin...