Mammary gland development requires both systemic hormones and local growth factor-mediated tissue interactions. Classical hormone ablation/replacement experiments, and more-recent genetic analyses in mice, have shown that post-pubertal gland development requires systemic hormones from ovary [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)], pituitary [growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL)] and adrenal gland (glucocorticoids) (Topper and Freeman, 1980). Loss of ovarian or pituitary function leads to failure of hormone-dependent ductal elongation after puberty, with E and GH participating primarily in ductal elongation and P and PRL participating primarily in alveolar development. Glucocorticoids enhance (but are not essential for) ductal elongation and are required for alveolar function in lactation.. In addition to systemic hormones, local growth factor signaling, both within and among tissue compartments, is essential for many aspects of normal embryonic and postnatal mammary gland development, as well as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wound healing-like immune program facilitates postpartum mammary gland involution and tumor progression. AU - Martinson, Holly A.. AU - Jindal, Sonali. AU - Durand-Rougely, Clarissa. AU - Borges, Virginia F.. AU - Schedin, Pepper. PY - 2015/4/15. Y1 - 2015/4/15. N2 - Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum have poor survival rates. The process of postpartum mammary gland involution, whereby the lactating gland remodels to its prepregnant state, promotes breast cancer progression in xenograft models. Macrophage influx occurs during mammary gland involution, implicating immune modulation in the promotion of postpartum breast cancer. Herein, we characterize the postpartum murine mammary gland and find an orchestrated influx of immune cells similar to that which occurs during wound healing. Further, the normal involuting gland may be in an immunosuppressed state as discerned by the transient presence of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and IL-10+ macrophages with T cell ...
Fifteen pregnant ewes were used to study maternal serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and mammary gland growth at parturition in ewes carrying single (n = 9) and multiple fetuses (n = 6) as compared to five nonpregnant ewes. The experimental ewes were sacrificed at parturition to determine mammary gland growth and development indices (mammary dry fat-free tissue [DFFT], DNA, RNA, collagen, protein, and glycogen). Nonpregnant ewes serum progesterone concentrations (2.89 ± 0.27 ng/ml) and mammary DFFT (2.34 ± 0.21 g), total mammary DNA (0.10 ± 0.01 g), RNA (0.03 ± 0.003 g), collagen (0.11 ± 0.01 g), protein (1.26 ± 0.15 g) and glycogen (0.02 ± 0.002 g) were lower (P , 0.01) than in pregnant ewes. Ewes carrying multiple fetus had higher average serum progesterone concentrations (18.56 ± 1.55 vs. 12.02 ± 1.44 ng/ml), mammary DFFT (45.88 ± 10.56 vs. 26.39 ± 2.02 g), total mammary DNA (1.51 ± 0.30 vs. 0.92 ± 0.09 g), total mammary RNA (0.94 ± 0.23 vs. 0.30 ± 0.05 g), total ...
SHARPIN is a widely expressed multifunctional protein implicated in cancer, inflammation, linear ubiquitination and integrin activity inhibition; however, its contribution to epithelial homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of SHARPIN in mammary gland development, a process strongly regulated by epithelial-stromal interactions. Mice lacking SHARPIN expression in all cells (Sharpincpdm), and mice with a stromal (S100a4‐Cre) deletion of Sharpin, have reduced mammary ductal outgrowth during puberty. In contrast, Sharpincpdm mammary epithelial cells transplanted in vivo into wild‐type stroma, fully repopulate the mammary gland fat pad, undergo unperturbed ductal outgrowth and terminal differentiation. Thus, SHARPIN is required in mammary gland stroma during development. Accordingly, stroma adjacent to invading mammary ducts of Sharpincpdm mice displayed reduced collagen arrangement and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness. Moreover, Sharpincpdm mammary gland stromal ...
BALB/c Mouse Primary Mammary Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. Mouse Primary Mammary Epithelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium for 3-7 days. Cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
Stromal ablation of a conditional Gli2fl allele with Fsp1Cre, a stromally expressed recombinase allele (producing Gli2∆S mice), caused a delay in mammary ductal development, reduced the number of mammary gland stromal cells and volume of extracellular matrix, and caused abnormal mammary duct distension. Stromal Gli2 ablation did not alter development of the ovary or pituitary, nor their production of mammatrophic hormones such as estrogen or growth hormone, but did affect ductal regeneration, as indicated by a fivefold decrease in outgrowth efficiency of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) transplanted into Gli2∆S mammary glands. These findings suggest that Gli2 specifies a stromal niche signaling program that critically regulates MaSC activity. FACS-isolated mammary stromal cells showed Gli2-dependent expression of factors that stimulate epithelial stem cell renewal, ductal outgrowth, and morphogenesis, including specific members of the IGF, WNT, FGF, and HGF families of secreted peptides. ...
The cell polarity protein SCRIB is a critical regulator of polarization, cell migration and tumourigenesis. Whereas SCRIB is known to regulate early stages of mouse mammary gland development, its function in the adult gland is not known. Using an inducible RNAi mouse model for downregulating SCRIB expression, we report an unexpected role for SCRIB as a positive regulator of cell proliferation during pregnancy associated mammary alveologenesis. SCRIB was required in the epithelial cell compartment of the mammary gland. Lack of SCRIB attenuated prolactin-induced activation of the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. In addition, loss of SCRIB resulted in the downregulation of PRLR at cell surface and accumulation in intracellular structures that express markers of the Golgi apparatus and the recycling endosome. Unlike its role in virgin gland as a negative regulator cell proliferation, SCRIB is a positive regulator of mammary epithelial cell proliferation during pregnancy. ...
The mammary gland is a branched epithelial organ comprised of myoepithelial, ductal and alveolar cells that are derived from resident stem and progenitor cells. The progression from mammary gland stem cell(s) to the differentiated mammary gland cell types is poorly understood. Here, I describe the identification and characterization of two luminal progenitor cell populations in the mouse mammary gland, and investigate the role of the transcription factor C/EBPβ in their development. In Chapter 2, I describe the isolation of two luminal progenitor cell populations (Sca1+ and Sca1- luminal cells) and show that they are differentially primed in their gene expression towards ductal and alveolar cell fates, respectively. Furthermore, I show that in vivo genetic priming affects the in vitro differentiation potential of Sca1+ and Sca1- luminal cells. In Chapter 3, I show that C/EBPβ is required for the appropriate specification of ductal and alveolar lineages, and in its absence, alveolar lineage ...
HC11 is a normal mouse mammary epithelial cell line that requires certain growth factors, such as EGF or bFGF, to respond optimally to lactogenic hormones and produce the differentiation marker beta-casein. Growth in insulin (Ins) or PDGF does not produce cells competent to respond to lactogenic hormones. Here we show that competency for differentiation is due at least in part to the modulation of extracellular matrix components. In particular we have studied laminin and tenascin. EGF alters endogenous laminin assembly. In addition, promotion of competency can be partially mimicked by plating HC11 cells on the E8 laminin fragment, which is able to induce lactogenic responsiveness in cells grown in the absence of EGF or bFGF. The production and assembly of tenascin is also dependent upon the growth conditions of the HC11 cells. EGF- or bFGF-grown competent cells produce tenascin but do not assemble it at the extracellular matrix as efficiently as Ins- or PDGF-grown, non-competent cells. This ...
Model for different phases of mammary gland branching morphogenesis. Before puberty, the mammary epithelial is small and simply branched. In response to the rel
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a high degree of intra- and intertumoral diversity, which impedes accurate patient stratification, prognosis and optimal treatment. The mammary gland consists of a complex network of epithelial ducts which end in clusters of alveoli, called terminal ductal lobular units (TDLUs) which are the functional units of the mammary gland. Postnatal mammary gland development and homeostasis require an enormous regenerative output, suggesting the existence of tissue stem/progenitor cells and a high degree of cellular plasticity to ensure functional robustness, i.e. the production and secretion of milk during lactation. Therefore, the observed heterogeneity in breast cancer is likely the result of normal mammary gland architecture and functionality. Unfortunately, the identification and characterization of human stem/progenitor cells and the analysis of cellular plasticity are hampered by the limited applicability of currently used murine in vivo assays and the ...
Mammary glands are milk-secreting adaptations of sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli lined with milk-secreting epithelial cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells and a rich capillary network. These alveoli join up to form lactiferous ducts that drain into openings in the areola. In human females (and males) there are usually two mammary glands, one in each breast, although polythelia (accessory nipples) and polymastia (accessory glands) can occur anywhere along the two milk lines from the knee to the neck. The milk lines are two roughly-parallel lines along the front of the body along which mammary glands and nipples may develop. They are easier to visualize on dogs or cats, where there are from 3 to 5 pairs of nipples following the milk lines. In general most mammals develop mammary glands in pairs along these lines, with a number approximating the number of young typically birthed at a ...
Introduction: Macrophages comprise an essential component of the mammary microenvironment necessary for normal gland development. However, there is no viable in vivo model to study their role in normal human breast function. We hypothesized that adding primary human macrophages to the murine mammary gland would enhance and provide a novel approach to examine immune-stromal cell interactions during the humanization process. Methods: Primary human macrophages, in the presence or absence of ectopic estrogen stimulation, were used to humanize mouse mammary glands.
The Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family consists of 23 members, which play important roles during development, homeostasis and pathogenesis by controlling proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells in multiple organs. Among FGFs, we are interested in the role of FGF10 and its receptor, FGFR2b in development of ectodermal derivatives such as mammary gland, limbs and incisors. In this study we mainly used rtTA transactivator/tetracycline promoter approach allowing inducible and reversible attenuation of the FGFR2b pathway throughout the embryonic and adult mouse upon addition of doxycycline. Our study in mammary gland demonstrates the importance of FGFR2b signaling pathway for maintenance of the terminal end buds (TEBs) at the tip of the adult mammary gland. TEBs consist of transit amplifying cells (TACs), which are developed from adult mammary stem cells. We also report that while FGFR2b signaling is not crucial for the regenerative potential of the mammary epithelial stem cells, it ...
Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its
Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. It is an autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells, fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). This protein interacts with the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells. Estradiol and progesterone mostly induce amphiregulin expression to mediate ductal development of the mammary glands. Amphiregulin has been found to be essential for mammary ductal development, as evidenced by absence of ductal growth in amphiregulin knockout mice. This is similar to the phenotypes of EGFR and ERα knockout mice, which also show absence of ductal growth. Mutations in this encoded protein are associated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000109321 - ...
The SMA-negative cells in all three cases showed distinct negativity to ER and CK8, in sharp contrast with the overlying epithelial cells that showed strong ER and CK8 positivities (data not shown). The distribution of these SMA-negative ME cells seemed to be independent of the ductal size, length, and architecture.. Our findings are consistent with those of a recent study showing that a vast majority of the ME cells in both normal and ductal carcinoma in situ displayed distinct immunostaining to p63, SM-MHC, and calponin, whereas a single or a cluster of a few ME cells in some ducts failed to show immunoreactivity to all these three markers [28]. However, our study differs from this study [28] and previous studies [3, 4] in four aspects: first, the SMA-negative cells were segmented, accounting for at least one-third or all of the ME cells in involved ducts; second, we tested for more ME cell markers; third, the SMA-negative cells assessed were morphologically similar to their adjacent ...
Here, we have established distinct roles for FAK kinase-dependent and -independent functions in the regulation of luminal progenitors and basal MaSCs and in promoting tumorigenesis and breast cancer heterogeneity. As summarized in Fig. 6L, in the normal mammary gland, FAK ablation in MFCKO mice decreases (broken lines) the colony-forming activity of luminal progenitors (red to pink) and the self-renewal potential of basal MaSCs (green to light green). In MFCKD mice, loss of FAK kinase activity impairs the maintenance of luminal progenitors, but does not affect basal MaSCs, accounting for their normal ductal outgrowth. Both luminal progenitors and basal MaSCs might serve as targets for transformation by oncogenes such as PyMT to form MaCSCs (brown) with deregulated self-renewal (more lines). The decreased content of MaCSCs and their compromised tumorigenicity (broken lines; orange) in MFCKO-MT mice suggest either luminal progenitors or basal MaSCs (both depleted in MFCKO mice) could be the cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Parity-induced mammary epithelial cells are multipotent and express cell surface markers associated with stem cells. AU - Matulka, Laurice A.. AU - Triplett, Aleata A.. AU - Wagner, Kay Uwe. PY - 2007/3/1. Y1 - 2007/3/1. N2 - Parity-induced mammary epithelial cells (PI-MECs) are defined as a pregnancy hormone-responsive cell population that activates the promoter of late milk protein genes during the second half of pregnancy and lactation. However, unlike their terminally differentiated counterparts, these cells do not undergo programmed cell death during post-lactational remodeling of the gland. We previously demonstrated that upon transplantation into an epithelial-free mammary fat pad, PI-MECs exhibited two important features of multipotent mammary epithelial progenitors: a) self-renewal, and b) contribution to ductal and alveolar morphogenesis. In this new report, we introduce a new method to viably label PI-MECs. Using this methodology, we analyzed the requirement of ovarian ...
Table 1: Modulatory Effect of Fermented Papaya Extracts on Mammary Gland Hyperplasia Induced by Estrogen and Progestin in Female Rats
Inhibitory Activity of YKL-40 in Mammary Epithelial Cell Differentiation and Polarization Induced by Lactogenic Hormones: A Role in Mammary Tissue Involution. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In this study, we have used techniques from cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics to investigate the role of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in MMTV‐PyMT mouse mammary gland tumor cells. Shp2 expression is highly upregulated in PyMT tumor cells, compared with normal mammary gland epithelial cells. Genetic ablation or pharmacological blockage of Shp2 inhibited cell proliferation and self‐renewal of PyMT tumor cells. Remarkably, following Shp2 ablation and inhibition, we observed strong induction of senescence, as evidenced by characteristic markers: high levels of senescence‐associated β‐gal (SA‐β‐gal), p27, phosphorylated serine 18 of p53 (p53‐pSer18), and histone 3 lysine trimethylation (H3K9me3). In contrast, blocking Shp2 did not lead to apoptosis. We also evaluated the role of known downstream signaling systems and identified target genes of Shp2 that are essential in senescence regulation: Shp2 controls Src, Fak, and Mek1 to activate the expression of the genes Skp2, Aurka, ...
Mammary stem cells (MaSC) and progenitor cells are important for mammary gland development and maintenance and may give rise to mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSC). Yet, there remains limited understanding of how these cells contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we show that conditional deletion of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in embryonic mammary epithelial cells (MaEC) decreases luminal progenitors and basal MaSCs, reducing their colony-forming and regenerative potentials in a cell-autonomous manner. Loss of FAK kinase activity in MaECs specifically impaired luminal progenitor proliferation and alveologenesis, whereas a kinase-independent activity of FAK supported ductal invasion and basal MaSC activity. Deficiency in luminal progenitors suppressed tumorigenesis and MaCSC formation in a mouse model of breast cancer. In contrast with the general inhibitory effect of FAK attenuation, inhibitors of FAK kinase preferentially inhibited proliferation and tumorsphere formation of luminal progenitor-like, but not
Differentiation of mammary epithelium during pregnancy is defined by the sequential activation of mammary-specific genes in response to hormonal stimuli. Key to the unprecedented and more than 10,000-fold induction of specific gene sets is the transcription factor (TF) STAT5A. However it is not clear how this common TF can activate mammary-specific genes at this magnitude. In a quest to identify mammary-specific super enhancers we used ChIP-seq to monitor histone modifications and TFs that bind to the more than 300 mammary-specific loci. Common to them was the presence of strong enhancer marks (H3K27ac) that coincided with the binding of several TFs, including STAT5, MED1, GR and NFIB and PolII. Since STAT5 is the immediate responder to hormones controlling mammary epithelium, we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in mice to address its importance in the establishment and function of enhancers. STAT5 binding to three putative enhancers in the most highly activated mammary-specific gene, Wap, was ...
Tumorigenesis is often described as a result of accumulated mutations that lead to growth advantage and clonal expansion of mutated cells. There is evidence in the literature that cancer cells are influenced by the microenvironment. Our previous studies demonstrated that the mouse mammary gland is capable of redirecting mouse cells of non-mammary origins as well as Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-neu transformed cells toward normal mammary epithelial cell fate during gland regeneration. Interestingly, the malignant phenotype of MMTV-neu transformed cells was suppressed during serial transplantation experiments. Here, we discuss our studies that demonstrated the potential of the regenerating mouse mammary gland to redirect cancer cells of different species into a functional tumor-free mammary epithelial cell progeny. Immunochemistry for human specific CD133, mitochondria, cytokeratins as well as milk proteins and FISH for human specific probe identified human epithelial cell progeny in ducts, lobules,
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and have been shown to be critical regulators to the fine-tuning of epithelial immune responses. However, the role of miRNAs in bovine responses to E. coli and S. aureus, two mastitis causing pathogens, is not well understood. The global expression of miRNAs in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells) challenged with and without heat-inactivated Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) or Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr was profiled using RNA-Seq. A total of 231 known bovine miRNAs were identified with more than 10 counts per million in at least one of 13 libraries and 5 miRNAs including bta-miR-21-5p, miR-27b, miR-22-3p, miR-184 and let-7f represented more than 50% of the abundance. One hundred and thirteen novel miRNAs were also identified and more than one third of them belong to the bta-miR-2284 family. Seventeen miRNAs were significantly (P | 0.05) differentially regulated by the presence of
Donor Tissue Features. Isolated from pregnant caprine mammary parenchyma during third trimester of pregnancy. Cell Characteristics. Batch Number: 13-2201. Vial Content: 1 x 106 cells. Seeding density: 1.5 x 104 cells/cm2 Culture medium: AvantiCell ME-GNM-01 recommended. Recovery from frozen: ,80%. Population doubling: 3-4 days. Negative for Mycoplasma by real-time PCR. Negative for yeast, fungus and bacteria. ...
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is widely recognised as an important factor that regulates many steps of normal mammary gland (MG) development, including branching morphogenesis, functional differentiation and involution. Tif1γ has previously been reported to temporally and spatially control TGFβ signalling during early vertebrate development by exerting negative effects over SMAD4 availability. To evaluate the contribution of Tif1 γ to MG development, we developed a Cre/LoxP system to specifically invalidate the Tif1g gene in mammary epithelial cells in vivo. Tif1g-null mammary gland development appeared to be normal and no defects were observed during the lifespan of virgin mice. However, a lactation defect was observed in mammary glands of Tif1g-null mice. We demonstrate that Tif1 γ is essential for the terminal differentiation of alveolar epithelial cells at the end of pregnancy and to ensure lactation. Tif1 γ appears to play a crucial role in the crosstalk between TGFβ and ...
Background Health of mammary glands is fundamental for milk and dairy products hygiene and quality, with huge impacts on consumers welfare. Methods This study aims to investigate the microbial agents (bacteria, fungi and lentiviruses) isolated from 89 macroscopically healthy udders of regularly slaughtered small ruminants (41 sheep, 48 goats), also correlating their presence with the histological findings. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between lesions and positivity for different microbial isolates, animal age and bacteria. Results Twenty-five samples were microbiologically negative; 138 different bacteria were isolated in 64 positive udders. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most prevalent bacteria isolated (46.42%), followed by environmental opportunists (34.76%), others (10.14%) and pathogens (8.68%). Most mammary glands showed coinfections (75%). Lentiviruses were detected in 39.3% of samples. Histologically, chronic non-suppurative mastitis was
The recent report by Shackleton and colleagues [1] demonstrating the generation of a functional mammary gland in the mouse from a single stem cell has important implications for understanding mammary development and carcinogenesis. The existence of stem cells capable of generating the entire epithelial components of the mammary gland has long been postulated. Stem cells are defined by their ability to undergo self-renewal, as well as lineage specific differentiation. Previous studies providing indirect evidence for the existence of these cells utilized transplantation of retrovirus tagged epithelial fragments into the cleared fat pads of recipient mice [2]. Evidence for the existence of mammary stem and progenitor cells has also been provided by in vitro studies. These studies have identified cell populations capable of giving rise to all three epithelial cell types found in the adult gland, ductal and alveolar epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells. Shackleton and colleagues provide more ...
Deregulated estrogen signaling is evidently linked to breast cancer pathophysiology, although the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)5a, integral to normal mammary gland development, is less clear. A mouse model of mammary epithelial cell-targeted deregulated estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression [conditional ERα in mammary epithelium (CERM)] was crossed with mice carrying a germ line deletion of Stat5a [Stat5a−/−] to investigate interactions between ERα and Stat5a in mammary tissue. CERM, CERM/Stat5a+/−, CERM/Stat5a−/−, Stat5a+/−, Stat5a−/− and wild-type (WT) mice were generated to test the roles of ERα and Stat5a on pubertal differentiation and cancer progression with and without exposure to the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Only CERM/Stat5a−/− mice demonstrated delayed pubertal terminal end bud differentiation. Without DMBA exposure, Stat5a loss abrogated ERα-initiated hyperplastic alveolar nodule (HAN) ...
Glycoproteomic analysis of two mouse mammary cell lines during transforming growth factor (TGF)-Beta induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition
During pregnancy, certain hormones trigger specialized mammary stem cells to create milk-producing cells essential to lactation. Scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center have found that mammary stem cells associated with the pregnant mammary gland are related to stem cells found in breast cancer.
The mammary gland factor MGF has been described as a developmentally and environmentally regulated nuclear factor required for transcription of the milk protein gene beta-casein. In the current study the individual role of lactogenic hormones in the activation of MGF DNA binding and the functional relation of MGF to known transcription factors was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. DNA binding of MGF was rapidly induced by PRL in mammary epithelial cells. The activation was not inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The effect of PRL on MGF did not require costimulation of cells with the other lactogenic hormones, insulin, and glucocorticoids. Thus, MGF is the first example of a nuclear factor directly regulated by PRL. The MGF complexes formed upon initiation of lactation in the mammary gland and upon stimulation of mammary epithelial cells with PRL migrated at the same position in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, whereas the MGF complex found in mammary
Different clonal cell lines have been isolated from cultures of mammary gland epithelium of lactating cows udder and have been grown in culture media containing high concentrations of hydrocortisone, insulin, and prolactin. These cell (BMGE+H), which grow in monolayers of typical epithelial appearance, are not tightly packed, but leave intercellular spaces spanned by desmosomal bridges. The cells contain extended arrays of cytokeratin fibrils, arranged in bundles attached to desmosomes. Gel electophoresis show that they synthesize cytokeratins similar, if not identical, to those found in bovine epidermis and udder, including two large (mol wt 58,500 and 59,000) and basic (pH range: 7-8) and two small (mol wt 45,500 and 50,000) and acidic (pH 5.32 and 5.36) components that also occur in phosphorylated forms. Two further cytokeratins of mol wts 44,000 (approximately pH 5.7) and 53,000 (pH 6.3) are detected as minor cytokeratins in some cell clones. BMGE+H cells do not produce vimentin filaments ...
Differentiation of mammary epithelia - posted in Cell Biology: Hello! I am trying to induce organoid formation in bovine mammary epithelial cells using type 1 rat-tail collagen gel as the substrate for cell attachment. Does anybody have a reliable protocol for mammary cell differentiation? Please contact me if you do. Thank you.
Role of miRNAs in mammary gland development and lactation. Palaniappan Ramanathan. University of Colorado Denver. Executive Summary:. 1. Specific Objective: To produce a functional annotation ...
The mammary gland epithelium comprises two major cell types: basal and luminal. Basal cells interact directly with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and express higher levels of the ECM receptors, integrins, than luminal cells. We show that deletion of beta1 integrin from basal cells abolishes the regenerative potential of the mammary epithelium and affects mammary gland development. The mutant epithelium was characterized by an abnormal ductal branching pattern and aberrant morphogenesis in pregnancy, although at the end of gestation, the secretory alveoli developed from beta1 integrin-positive progenitors. Lack of beta1 integrin altered the orientation of the basal-cell division axis and in mutant epithelium, in contrast to control tissue, the progeny of beta1 integrin-null basal cells, identified by a genetic marker, was found in the luminal compartment. These results reveal, for the first time, the essential role of the basal mammary epithelial cell-ECM interactions mediated by beta1 integrins in the
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Minireview: Mouse models of Rho GTPase function in mammary gland development, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncogenic transformation of mammary epithelial cells by transforming growth factor beta independent of mammary stem cell regulation. AU - Dunphy, Karen A.. AU - Seo, Jae Hong. AU - Kim, Daniel J.. AU - Roberts, Amy L.. AU - Tao, Luwei. AU - DiRenzo, James. AU - Balboni, Amanda L.. AU - Crisi, Giovanna M.. AU - Hagen, Mary J.. AU - Chandrasekaran, Thiruppavai. AU - Gauger, Kelly J.. AU - Schneider, Sallie Smith. AU - Jerry, D. Joseph. PY - 2013/7/25. Y1 - 2013/7/25. N2 - Background: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is transiently increased in the mammary gland during involution and by radiation. While TGFβ normally has a tumour suppressor role, prolonged exposure to TGFβ can induce an oncogenic epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program in permissive cells and initiate the generation of cancer stem cells. Our objective is to mimic the transient exposure to TGFβ during involution to determine the persistent effects on premalignant mammary epithelium.Method: ...
Mammary gland hyperplasia is one of the most common female diseases, and most women suffer from it because of anxiety. Doctors suggestion is, treats the mammary gland proliferation, must adjust the good mood, the good mood is mammary gland proliferation treats one of best methods.1, to maintain a comfortable mood, emotional stability. If the mood…
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Mammary gland morphogenesis and development requires input from several genetic and epigenetic pathways regulated by hormones and growth factors including estrogens ( 1, 2). Estrogens mediate their actions through estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, nuclear steroid receptors that classically regulate transcription either by directly binding to estrogen response elements of target genes ( 3- 5) or indirectly via protein-protein interactions with other transcription factors like SP1 or activator protein 1 (AP-1; ref. 6). In both cases, coregulatory proteins are also recruited to the promoter, and together ERs and these factors elicit changes in mRNA and protein levels of ER target genes and, ultimately, a physiologic response ( 4- 6). Because estrogen signaling controls the balance of growth and apoptosis in normal breast epithelial cells, a disruption of this balance contributes to abnormal cell growth and can lead to tumorigenesis ( 4, 7). Therefore, it is important to identify and elucidate ...
J:98338 Chu EY, Hens J, Andl T, Kairo A, Yamaguchi TP, Brisken C, Glick A, Wysolmerski JJ, Millar SE, Canonical WNT signaling promotes mammary placode development and is essential for initiation of mammary gland morphogenesis. Development. 2004 Oct;131(19):4819-29 ...
Mammary gland: Mammary gland, milk-producing gland characteristic of all female mammals and present in a rudimentary and generally nonfunctional form in males. Mammary glands are regulated by the endocrine system and become functional in response to the hormonal changes associated with parturition. In the
mammary gland and aided in the elucidation of the mechanisms of the response to diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage diets (grazing vs. hay) near the time of ewe parturition on the relationship between the fatty acid profile and gene expression in the mammary gland of the Churra Tensina sheep breed. Results: In this study, the forage type affected the C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 (CLA) and long-chain saturated fatty acid (LCFA) content, with higher percentages during grazing than during hay feeding. This may suggest that these FAs act as regulatory factors for the transcriptional control of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) gene, which was more highly expressed in the grazing group (GRE). The most highly expressed gene in the mammary gland at the fifth week of lactation is CAAT/ enhancer- binding protein beta (CEBPB), possibly due to its role in milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland. More stable housekeeping genes in the ovine mammary gland that would ...
The results of infrared thermal imaging in patients with pathological changes in mammary glands are presented in the article. It is shown that mammary glands - umj.com.ua
Immunoelectron microscopy of mammary gland tissue from lactating rats investigating potential structural interactions between mature lipid droplets, a...
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Like other skin appendages, the embryonic mammary gland develops via extensive epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Early stages in embryonic mammary development strikingly resemble analogous steps in