Mammary gland development requires both systemic hormones and local growth factor-mediated tissue interactions. Classical hormone ablation/replacement experiments, and more-recent genetic analyses in mice, have shown that post-pubertal gland development requires systemic hormones from ovary [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)], pituitary [growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL)] and adrenal gland (glucocorticoids) (Topper and Freeman, 1980). Loss of ovarian or pituitary function leads to failure of hormone-dependent ductal elongation after puberty, with E and GH participating primarily in ductal elongation and P and PRL participating primarily in alveolar development. Glucocorticoids enhance (but are not essential for) ductal elongation and are required for alveolar function in lactation.. In addition to systemic hormones, local growth factor signaling, both within and among tissue compartments, is essential for many aspects of normal embryonic and postnatal mammary gland development, as well as ...
Carriers of mutations in the cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which represent 1-2% of the general population, have an increased risk of breast cancer. However, experimental evidence that ATM deficiency contributes to human breast carcinogenesis is lacking. We report here that in MCF-10A and MCF-12A cells, which are well established normal human mammary gland epithelial cell models, partial or almost complete stable ATM silencing or pharmacological inhibition resulted in cellular transformation, genomic instability, and formation of dysplastic lesions in NOD/SCID mice. These effects did not require the activity of exogenous DNA-damaging agents and were preceded by an unsuspected and striking increase in cell proliferation also observed in primary human mammary gland epithelial cells. Increased proliferation correlated with a dramatic, transient, and proteasome-dependent reduction of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27(KIP1) protein levels, whereas little or n
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wound healing-like immune program facilitates postpartum mammary gland involution and tumor progression. AU - Martinson, Holly A.. AU - Jindal, Sonali. AU - Durand-Rougely, Clarissa. AU - Borges, Virginia F.. AU - Schedin, Pepper. PY - 2015/4/15. Y1 - 2015/4/15. N2 - Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum have poor survival rates. The process of postpartum mammary gland involution, whereby the lactating gland remodels to its prepregnant state, promotes breast cancer progression in xenograft models. Macrophage influx occurs during mammary gland involution, implicating immune modulation in the promotion of postpartum breast cancer. Herein, we characterize the postpartum murine mammary gland and find an orchestrated influx of immune cells similar to that which occurs during wound healing. Further, the normal involuting gland may be in an immunosuppressed state as discerned by the transient presence of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and IL-10+ macrophages with T cell ...
We have recently demonstrated the regulated expression of HGF/SF and its receptor (c-met) during mouse mammary gland development together with the mitogenic, motogenic and morphogenic effects of exogenous HGF/SF on primary mammary epithelial cells in culture. This study was undertaken to analyze the …
Fifteen pregnant ewes were used to study maternal serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and mammary gland growth at parturition in ewes carrying single (n = 9) and multiple fetuses (n = 6) as compared to five nonpregnant ewes. The experimental ewes were sacrificed at parturition to determine mammary gland growth and development indices (mammary dry fat-free tissue [DFFT], DNA, RNA, collagen, protein, and glycogen). Nonpregnant ewes serum progesterone concentrations (2.89 ± 0.27 ng/ml) and mammary DFFT (2.34 ± 0.21 g), total mammary DNA (0.10 ± 0.01 g), RNA (0.03 ± 0.003 g), collagen (0.11 ± 0.01 g), protein (1.26 ± 0.15 g) and glycogen (0.02 ± 0.002 g) were lower (P , 0.01) than in pregnant ewes. Ewes carrying multiple fetus had higher average serum progesterone concentrations (18.56 ± 1.55 vs. 12.02 ± 1.44 ng/ml), mammary DFFT (45.88 ± 10.56 vs. 26.39 ± 2.02 g), total mammary DNA (1.51 ± 0.30 vs. 0.92 ± 0.09 g), total mammary RNA (0.94 ± 0.23 vs. 0.30 ± 0.05 g), total ...
SHARPIN is a widely expressed multifunctional protein implicated in cancer, inflammation, linear ubiquitination and integrin activity inhibition; however, its contribution to epithelial homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of SHARPIN in mammary gland development, a process strongly regulated by epithelial-stromal interactions. Mice lacking SHARPIN expression in all cells (Sharpincpdm), and mice with a stromal (S100a4‐Cre) deletion of Sharpin, have reduced mammary ductal outgrowth during puberty. In contrast, Sharpincpdm mammary epithelial cells transplanted in vivo into wild‐type stroma, fully repopulate the mammary gland fat pad, undergo unperturbed ductal outgrowth and terminal differentiation. Thus, SHARPIN is required in mammary gland stroma during development. Accordingly, stroma adjacent to invading mammary ducts of Sharpincpdm mice displayed reduced collagen arrangement and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness. Moreover, Sharpincpdm mammary gland stromal ...
BALB/c Mouse Primary Mammary Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. Mouse Primary Mammary Epithelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium for 3-7 days. Cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
Stromal ablation of a conditional Gli2fl allele with Fsp1Cre, a stromally expressed recombinase allele (producing Gli2∆S mice), caused a delay in mammary ductal development, reduced the number of mammary gland stromal cells and volume of extracellular matrix, and caused abnormal mammary duct distension. Stromal Gli2 ablation did not alter development of the ovary or pituitary, nor their production of mammatrophic hormones such as estrogen or growth hormone, but did affect ductal regeneration, as indicated by a fivefold decrease in outgrowth efficiency of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) transplanted into Gli2∆S mammary glands. These findings suggest that Gli2 specifies a stromal niche signaling program that critically regulates MaSC activity. FACS-isolated mammary stromal cells showed Gli2-dependent expression of factors that stimulate epithelial stem cell renewal, ductal outgrowth, and morphogenesis, including specific members of the IGF, WNT, FGF, and HGF families of secreted peptides. ...
The cell polarity protein SCRIB is a critical regulator of polarization, cell migration and tumourigenesis. Whereas SCRIB is known to regulate early stages of mouse mammary gland development, its function in the adult gland is not known. Using an inducible RNAi mouse model for downregulating SCRIB expression, we report an unexpected role for SCRIB as a positive regulator of cell proliferation during pregnancy associated mammary alveologenesis. SCRIB was required in the epithelial cell compartment of the mammary gland. Lack of SCRIB attenuated prolactin-induced activation of the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. In addition, loss of SCRIB resulted in the downregulation of PRLR at cell surface and accumulation in intracellular structures that express markers of the Golgi apparatus and the recycling endosome. Unlike its role in virgin gland as a negative regulator cell proliferation, SCRIB is a positive regulator of mammary epithelial cell proliferation during pregnancy. ...
The mammary gland is a branched epithelial organ comprised of myoepithelial, ductal and alveolar cells that are derived from resident stem and progenitor cells. The progression from mammary gland stem cell(s) to the differentiated mammary gland cell types is poorly understood. Here, I describe the identification and characterization of two luminal progenitor cell populations in the mouse mammary gland, and investigate the role of the transcription factor C/EBPβ in their development. In Chapter 2, I describe the isolation of two luminal progenitor cell populations (Sca1+ and Sca1- luminal cells) and show that they are differentially primed in their gene expression towards ductal and alveolar cell fates, respectively. Furthermore, I show that in vivo genetic priming affects the in vitro differentiation potential of Sca1+ and Sca1- luminal cells. In Chapter 3, I show that C/EBPβ is required for the appropriate specification of ductal and alveolar lineages, and in its absence, alveolar lineage ...
HC11 is a normal mouse mammary epithelial cell line that requires certain growth factors, such as EGF or bFGF, to respond optimally to lactogenic hormones and produce the differentiation marker beta-casein. Growth in insulin (Ins) or PDGF does not produce cells competent to respond to lactogenic hormones. Here we show that competency for differentiation is due at least in part to the modulation of extracellular matrix components. In particular we have studied laminin and tenascin. EGF alters endogenous laminin assembly. In addition, promotion of competency can be partially mimicked by plating HC11 cells on the E8 laminin fragment, which is able to induce lactogenic responsiveness in cells grown in the absence of EGF or bFGF. The production and assembly of tenascin is also dependent upon the growth conditions of the HC11 cells. EGF- or bFGF-grown competent cells produce tenascin but do not assemble it at the extracellular matrix as efficiently as Ins- or PDGF-grown, non-competent cells. This ...
Model for different phases of mammary gland branching morphogenesis. Before puberty, the mammary epithelial is small and simply branched. In response to the rel
Dive into the research topics of The serine/threonine kinase, Krct, affects endbud morphogenesis during murine mammary gland development. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a high degree of intra- and intertumoral diversity, which impedes accurate patient stratification, prognosis and optimal treatment. The mammary gland consists of a complex network of epithelial ducts which end in clusters of alveoli, called terminal ductal lobular units (TDLUs) which are the functional units of the mammary gland. Postnatal mammary gland development and homeostasis require an enormous regenerative output, suggesting the existence of tissue stem/progenitor cells and a high degree of cellular plasticity to ensure functional robustness, i.e. the production and secretion of milk during lactation. Therefore, the observed heterogeneity in breast cancer is likely the result of normal mammary gland architecture and functionality. Unfortunately, the identification and characterization of human stem/progenitor cells and the analysis of cellular plasticity are hampered by the limited applicability of currently used murine in vivo assays and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine Relieves the Inflammatory Response and Enhances the Casein Expression in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells Induced by Lipopolysaccharide. AU - Wu, T.. AU - Wang, Chao. AU - Ding, L.. AU - Shen, Y.. AU - Cui, H.. AU - Wang, M.. AU - Wang, H.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - © 2016 Tianyou Wu et al.As one of functional active amino acids, L-arginine holds a key position in immunity. However, the mechanism that arginine modulates cow mammary inflammatory response in ruminant is unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine on inflammatory response and casein expression after challenging the bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were divided into four groups, stimulated with or without LPS (10 µg/mL) and treated with or without arginine (100 µg/mL) for 12 h. The concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Toll-like ...
Mammary glands are milk-secreting adaptations of sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli lined with milk-secreting epithelial cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells and a rich capillary network. These alveoli join up to form lactiferous ducts that drain into openings in the areola. In human females (and males) there are usually two mammary glands, one in each breast, although polythelia (accessory nipples) and polymastia (accessory glands) can occur anywhere along the two milk lines from the knee to the neck. The milk lines are two roughly-parallel lines along the front of the body along which mammary glands and nipples may develop. They are easier to visualize on dogs or cats, where there are from 3 to 5 pairs of nipples following the milk lines. In general most mammals develop mammary glands in pairs along these lines, with a number approximating the number of young typically birthed at a ...
Introduction: Macrophages comprise an essential component of the mammary microenvironment necessary for normal gland development. However, there is no viable in vivo model to study their role in normal human breast function. We hypothesized that adding primary human macrophages to the murine mammary gland would enhance and provide a novel approach to examine immune-stromal cell interactions during the humanization process. Methods: Primary human macrophages, in the presence or absence of ectopic estrogen stimulation, were used to humanize mouse mammary glands.
The Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family consists of 23 members, which play important roles during development, homeostasis and pathogenesis by controlling proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells in multiple organs. Among FGFs, we are interested in the role of FGF10 and its receptor, FGFR2b in development of ectodermal derivatives such as mammary gland, limbs and incisors. In this study we mainly used rtTA transactivator/tetracycline promoter approach allowing inducible and reversible attenuation of the FGFR2b pathway throughout the embryonic and adult mouse upon addition of doxycycline. Our study in mammary gland demonstrates the importance of FGFR2b signaling pathway for maintenance of the terminal end buds (TEBs) at the tip of the adult mammary gland. TEBs consist of transit amplifying cells (TACs), which are developed from adult mammary stem cells. We also report that while FGFR2b signaling is not crucial for the regenerative potential of the mammary epithelial stem cells, it ...
Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its
Several Wnt genes are expressed in the postnatal mouse mammary gland and are thought to be involved in mammary gland development. Ectopic expression of Wnt-1, which is not normally expressed in the mammary gland, drives the formation of a pre-neoplastic hyperplasia. Cell culture-based assays have shown that Wnt-1 and some mammary-expressed Wnts transform C57MG cells. This has led to the suggestion that Wnt-1 functions as an oncogene through the inappropriate activation of developmental events that are normally controlled by the transforming class of Wnts. In this study, Wnt-7b was expressed in vivo using recombinant retroviruses. Wnt-7b did not alter normal mammary gland development despite having similar effects to Wnt-1 in cell culture. We conclude that the in vitro classification of Wnts as transforming does not correlate with the transformation in vivo. To facilitate the analysis of Wnt-expression, a lacZ-containing, bicistronic recombinant retrovirus was developed. Immunohistochemistry ...
Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. It is an autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells, fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). This protein interacts with the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells. Estradiol and progesterone mostly induce amphiregulin expression to mediate ductal development of the mammary glands. Amphiregulin has been found to be essential for mammary ductal development, as evidenced by absence of ductal growth in amphiregulin knockout mice. This is similar to the phenotypes of EGFR and ERα knockout mice, which also show absence of ductal growth. Mutations in this encoded protein are associated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000109321 - ...
The SMA-negative cells in all three cases showed distinct negativity to ER and CK8, in sharp contrast with the overlying epithelial cells that showed strong ER and CK8 positivities (data not shown). The distribution of these SMA-negative ME cells seemed to be independent of the ductal size, length, and architecture.. Our findings are consistent with those of a recent study showing that a vast majority of the ME cells in both normal and ductal carcinoma in situ displayed distinct immunostaining to p63, SM-MHC, and calponin, whereas a single or a cluster of a few ME cells in some ducts failed to show immunoreactivity to all these three markers [28]. However, our study differs from this study [28] and previous studies [3, 4] in four aspects: first, the SMA-negative cells were segmented, accounting for at least one-third or all of the ME cells in involved ducts; second, we tested for more ME cell markers; third, the SMA-negative cells assessed were morphologically similar to their adjacent ...
Here, we have established distinct roles for FAK kinase-dependent and -independent functions in the regulation of luminal progenitors and basal MaSCs and in promoting tumorigenesis and breast cancer heterogeneity. As summarized in Fig. 6L, in the normal mammary gland, FAK ablation in MFCKO mice decreases (broken lines) the colony-forming activity of luminal progenitors (red to pink) and the self-renewal potential of basal MaSCs (green to light green). In MFCKD mice, loss of FAK kinase activity impairs the maintenance of luminal progenitors, but does not affect basal MaSCs, accounting for their normal ductal outgrowth. Both luminal progenitors and basal MaSCs might serve as targets for transformation by oncogenes such as PyMT to form MaCSCs (brown) with deregulated self-renewal (more lines). The decreased content of MaCSCs and their compromised tumorigenicity (broken lines; orange) in MFCKO-MT mice suggest either luminal progenitors or basal MaSCs (both depleted in MFCKO mice) could be the cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Parity-induced mammary epithelial cells are multipotent and express cell surface markers associated with stem cells. AU - Matulka, Laurice A.. AU - Triplett, Aleata A.. AU - Wagner, Kay Uwe. PY - 2007/3/1. Y1 - 2007/3/1. N2 - Parity-induced mammary epithelial cells (PI-MECs) are defined as a pregnancy hormone-responsive cell population that activates the promoter of late milk protein genes during the second half of pregnancy and lactation. However, unlike their terminally differentiated counterparts, these cells do not undergo programmed cell death during post-lactational remodeling of the gland. We previously demonstrated that upon transplantation into an epithelial-free mammary fat pad, PI-MECs exhibited two important features of multipotent mammary epithelial progenitors: a) self-renewal, and b) contribution to ductal and alveolar morphogenesis. In this new report, we introduce a new method to viably label PI-MECs. Using this methodology, we analyzed the requirement of ovarian ...
Table 1: Modulatory Effect of Fermented Papaya Extracts on Mammary Gland Hyperplasia Induced by Estrogen and Progestin in Female Rats
Inhibitory Activity of YKL-40 in Mammary Epithelial Cell Differentiation and Polarization Induced by Lactogenic Hormones: A Role in Mammary Tissue Involution. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In this study, we have used techniques from cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics to investigate the role of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in MMTV‐PyMT mouse mammary gland tumor cells. Shp2 expression is highly upregulated in PyMT tumor cells, compared with normal mammary gland epithelial cells. Genetic ablation or pharmacological blockage of Shp2 inhibited cell proliferation and self‐renewal of PyMT tumor cells. Remarkably, following Shp2 ablation and inhibition, we observed strong induction of senescence, as evidenced by characteristic markers: high levels of senescence‐associated β‐gal (SA‐β‐gal), p27, phosphorylated serine 18 of p53 (p53‐pSer18), and histone 3 lysine trimethylation (H3K9me3). In contrast, blocking Shp2 did not lead to apoptosis. We also evaluated the role of known downstream signaling systems and identified target genes of Shp2 that are essential in senescence regulation: Shp2 controls Src, Fak, and Mek1 to activate the expression of the genes Skp2, Aurka, ...
Mammary stem cells (MaSC) and progenitor cells are important for mammary gland development and maintenance and may give rise to mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSC). Yet, there remains limited understanding of how these cells contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we show that conditional deletion of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in embryonic mammary epithelial cells (MaEC) decreases luminal progenitors and basal MaSCs, reducing their colony-forming and regenerative potentials in a cell-autonomous manner. Loss of FAK kinase activity in MaECs specifically impaired luminal progenitor proliferation and alveologenesis, whereas a kinase-independent activity of FAK supported ductal invasion and basal MaSC activity. Deficiency in luminal progenitors suppressed tumorigenesis and MaCSC formation in a mouse model of breast cancer. In contrast with the general inhibitory effect of FAK attenuation, inhibitors of FAK kinase preferentially inhibited proliferation and tumorsphere formation of luminal progenitor-like, but not
Differentiation of mammary epithelium during pregnancy is defined by the sequential activation of mammary-specific genes in response to hormonal stimuli. Key to the unprecedented and more than 10,000-fold induction of specific gene sets is the transcription factor (TF) STAT5A. However it is not clear how this common TF can activate mammary-specific genes at this magnitude. In a quest to identify mammary-specific super enhancers we used ChIP-seq to monitor histone modifications and TFs that bind to the more than 300 mammary-specific loci. Common to them was the presence of strong enhancer marks (H3K27ac) that coincided with the binding of several TFs, including STAT5, MED1, GR and NFIB and PolII. Since STAT5 is the immediate responder to hormones controlling mammary epithelium, we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in mice to address its importance in the establishment and function of enhancers. STAT5 binding to three putative enhancers in the most highly activated mammary-specific gene, Wap, was ...
Tumorigenesis is often described as a result of accumulated mutations that lead to growth advantage and clonal expansion of mutated cells. There is evidence in the literature that cancer cells are influenced by the microenvironment. Our previous studies demonstrated that the mouse mammary gland is capable of redirecting mouse cells of non-mammary origins as well as Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-neu transformed cells toward normal mammary epithelial cell fate during gland regeneration. Interestingly, the malignant phenotype of MMTV-neu transformed cells was suppressed during serial transplantation experiments. Here, we discuss our studies that demonstrated the potential of the regenerating mouse mammary gland to redirect cancer cells of different species into a functional tumor-free mammary epithelial cell progeny. Immunochemistry for human specific CD133, mitochondria, cytokeratins as well as milk proteins and FISH for human specific probe identified human epithelial cell progeny in ducts, lobules,
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and have been shown to be critical regulators to the fine-tuning of epithelial immune responses. However, the role of miRNAs in bovine responses to E. coli and S. aureus, two mastitis causing pathogens, is not well understood. The global expression of miRNAs in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells) challenged with and without heat-inactivated Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) or Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr was profiled using RNA-Seq. A total of 231 known bovine miRNAs were identified with more than 10 counts per million in at least one of 13 libraries and 5 miRNAs including bta-miR-21-5p, miR-27b, miR-22-3p, miR-184 and let-7f represented more than 50% of the abundance. One hundred and thirteen novel miRNAs were also identified and more than one third of them belong to the bta-miR-2284 family. Seventeen miRNAs were significantly (P | 0.05) differentially regulated by the presence of
Donor Tissue Features. Isolated from pregnant caprine mammary parenchyma during third trimester of pregnancy. Cell Characteristics. Batch Number: 13-2201. Vial Content: 1 x 106 cells. Seeding density: 1.5 x 104 cells/cm2 Culture medium: AvantiCell ME-GNM-01 recommended. Recovery from frozen: ,80%. Population doubling: 3-4 days. Negative for Mycoplasma by real-time PCR. Negative for yeast, fungus and bacteria. ...
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is widely recognised as an important factor that regulates many steps of normal mammary gland (MG) development, including branching morphogenesis, functional differentiation and involution. Tif1γ has previously been reported to temporally and spatially control TGFβ signalling during early vertebrate development by exerting negative effects over SMAD4 availability. To evaluate the contribution of Tif1 γ to MG development, we developed a Cre/LoxP system to specifically invalidate the Tif1g gene in mammary epithelial cells in vivo. Tif1g-null mammary gland development appeared to be normal and no defects were observed during the lifespan of virgin mice. However, a lactation defect was observed in mammary glands of Tif1g-null mice. We demonstrate that Tif1 γ is essential for the terminal differentiation of alveolar epithelial cells at the end of pregnancy and to ensure lactation. Tif1 γ appears to play a crucial role in the crosstalk between TGFβ and ...
Background Health of mammary glands is fundamental for milk and dairy products hygiene and quality, with huge impacts on consumers welfare. Methods This study aims to investigate the microbial agents (bacteria, fungi and lentiviruses) isolated from 89 macroscopically healthy udders of regularly slaughtered small ruminants (41 sheep, 48 goats), also correlating their presence with the histological findings. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between lesions and positivity for different microbial isolates, animal age and bacteria. Results Twenty-five samples were microbiologically negative; 138 different bacteria were isolated in 64 positive udders. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most prevalent bacteria isolated (46.42%), followed by environmental opportunists (34.76%), others (10.14%) and pathogens (8.68%). Most mammary glands showed coinfections (75%). Lentiviruses were detected in 39.3% of samples. Histologically, chronic non-suppurative mastitis was
The recent report by Shackleton and colleagues [1] demonstrating the generation of a functional mammary gland in the mouse from a single stem cell has important implications for understanding mammary development and carcinogenesis. The existence of stem cells capable of generating the entire epithelial components of the mammary gland has long been postulated. Stem cells are defined by their ability to undergo self-renewal, as well as lineage specific differentiation. Previous studies providing indirect evidence for the existence of these cells utilized transplantation of retrovirus tagged epithelial fragments into the cleared fat pads of recipient mice [2]. Evidence for the existence of mammary stem and progenitor cells has also been provided by in vitro studies. These studies have identified cell populations capable of giving rise to all three epithelial cell types found in the adult gland, ductal and alveolar epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells. Shackleton and colleagues provide more ...
Deregulated estrogen signaling is evidently linked to breast cancer pathophysiology, although the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)5a, integral to normal mammary gland development, is less clear. A mouse model of mammary epithelial cell-targeted deregulated estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression [conditional ERα in mammary epithelium (CERM)] was crossed with mice carrying a germ line deletion of Stat5a [Stat5a−/−] to investigate interactions between ERα and Stat5a in mammary tissue. CERM, CERM/Stat5a+/−, CERM/Stat5a−/−, Stat5a+/−, Stat5a−/− and wild-type (WT) mice were generated to test the roles of ERα and Stat5a on pubertal differentiation and cancer progression with and without exposure to the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Only CERM/Stat5a−/− mice demonstrated delayed pubertal terminal end bud differentiation. Without DMBA exposure, Stat5a loss abrogated ERα-initiated hyperplastic alveolar nodule (HAN) ...
Glycoproteomic analysis of two mouse mammary cell lines during transforming growth factor (TGF)-Beta induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition
During pregnancy, certain hormones trigger specialized mammary stem cells to create milk-producing cells essential to lactation. Scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center have found that mammary stem cells associated with the pregnant mammary gland are related to stem cells found in breast cancer.
The mammary gland factor MGF has been described as a developmentally and environmentally regulated nuclear factor required for transcription of the milk protein gene beta-casein. In the current study the individual role of lactogenic hormones in the activation of MGF DNA binding and the functional relation of MGF to known transcription factors was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. DNA binding of MGF was rapidly induced by PRL in mammary epithelial cells. The activation was not inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The effect of PRL on MGF did not require costimulation of cells with the other lactogenic hormones, insulin, and glucocorticoids. Thus, MGF is the first example of a nuclear factor directly regulated by PRL. The MGF complexes formed upon initiation of lactation in the mammary gland and upon stimulation of mammary epithelial cells with PRL migrated at the same position in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, whereas the MGF complex found in mammary
Different clonal cell lines have been isolated from cultures of mammary gland epithelium of lactating cows udder and have been grown in culture media containing high concentrations of hydrocortisone, insulin, and prolactin. These cell (BMGE+H), which grow in monolayers of typical epithelial appearance, are not tightly packed, but leave intercellular spaces spanned by desmosomal bridges. The cells contain extended arrays of cytokeratin fibrils, arranged in bundles attached to desmosomes. Gel electophoresis show that they synthesize cytokeratins similar, if not identical, to those found in bovine epidermis and udder, including two large (mol wt 58,500 and 59,000) and basic (pH range: 7-8) and two small (mol wt 45,500 and 50,000) and acidic (pH 5.32 and 5.36) components that also occur in phosphorylated forms. Two further cytokeratins of mol wts 44,000 (approximately pH 5.7) and 53,000 (pH 6.3) are detected as minor cytokeratins in some cell clones. BMGE+H cells do not produce vimentin filaments ...
Differentiation of mammary epithelia - posted in Cell Biology: Hello! I am trying to induce organoid formation in bovine mammary epithelial cells using type 1 rat-tail collagen gel as the substrate for cell attachment. Does anybody have a reliable protocol for mammary cell differentiation? Please contact me if you do. Thank you.
Role of miRNAs in mammary gland development and lactation. Palaniappan Ramanathan. University of Colorado Denver. Executive Summary:. 1. Specific Objective: To produce a functional annotation ...
The mammary gland epithelium comprises two major cell types: basal and luminal. Basal cells interact directly with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and express higher levels of the ECM receptors, integrins, than luminal cells. We show that deletion of beta1 integrin from basal cells abolishes the regenerative potential of the mammary epithelium and affects mammary gland development. The mutant epithelium was characterized by an abnormal ductal branching pattern and aberrant morphogenesis in pregnancy, although at the end of gestation, the secretory alveoli developed from beta1 integrin-positive progenitors. Lack of beta1 integrin altered the orientation of the basal-cell division axis and in mutant epithelium, in contrast to control tissue, the progeny of beta1 integrin-null basal cells, identified by a genetic marker, was found in the luminal compartment. These results reveal, for the first time, the essential role of the basal mammary epithelial cell-ECM interactions mediated by beta1 integrins in the
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Minireview: Mouse models of Rho GTPase function in mammary gland development, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncogenic transformation of mammary epithelial cells by transforming growth factor beta independent of mammary stem cell regulation. AU - Dunphy, Karen A.. AU - Seo, Jae Hong. AU - Kim, Daniel J.. AU - Roberts, Amy L.. AU - Tao, Luwei. AU - DiRenzo, James. AU - Balboni, Amanda L.. AU - Crisi, Giovanna M.. AU - Hagen, Mary J.. AU - Chandrasekaran, Thiruppavai. AU - Gauger, Kelly J.. AU - Schneider, Sallie Smith. AU - Jerry, D. Joseph. PY - 2013/7/25. Y1 - 2013/7/25. N2 - Background: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is transiently increased in the mammary gland during involution and by radiation. While TGFβ normally has a tumour suppressor role, prolonged exposure to TGFβ can induce an oncogenic epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program in permissive cells and initiate the generation of cancer stem cells. Our objective is to mimic the transient exposure to TGFβ during involution to determine the persistent effects on premalignant mammary epithelium.Method: ...
Mammary gland hyperplasia is one of the most common female diseases, and most women suffer from it because of anxiety. Doctors suggestion is, treats the mammary gland proliferation, must adjust the good mood, the good mood is mammary gland proliferation treats one of best methods.1, to maintain a comfortable mood, emotional stability. If the mood…
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Mammary gland morphogenesis and development requires input from several genetic and epigenetic pathways regulated by hormones and growth factors including estrogens ( 1, 2). Estrogens mediate their actions through estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, nuclear steroid receptors that classically regulate transcription either by directly binding to estrogen response elements of target genes ( 3- 5) or indirectly via protein-protein interactions with other transcription factors like SP1 or activator protein 1 (AP-1; ref. 6). In both cases, coregulatory proteins are also recruited to the promoter, and together ERs and these factors elicit changes in mRNA and protein levels of ER target genes and, ultimately, a physiologic response ( 4- 6). Because estrogen signaling controls the balance of growth and apoptosis in normal breast epithelial cells, a disruption of this balance contributes to abnormal cell growth and can lead to tumorigenesis ( 4, 7). Therefore, it is important to identify and elucidate ...
J:98338 Chu EY, Hens J, Andl T, Kairo A, Yamaguchi TP, Brisken C, Glick A, Wysolmerski JJ, Millar SE, Canonical WNT signaling promotes mammary placode development and is essential for initiation of mammary gland morphogenesis. Development. 2004 Oct;131(19):4819-29 ...
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are isomers of octadecadienoic acid (18:2 n6) found in ruminant-derived food products, predominantly as cis-9, trans-11 CLA (9,11 CLA). Spreadable animal fat substitutes and weight loss supplements are generally mixtures of 9,11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10,12 CLA). These isomers have markedly different biological effects. Notably, 10,12 CLA intake reduces adiposity while inducing hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Both 9,11 CLA and 10,12 CLA have been proposed to afford anti-cancer properties given their ability to inhibit the growth of experimental cancers in vitro and in vivo. However, 10,12 CLA also enhanced mammary tumorigenesis in mice over-expressing the ErbB2 oncogene and mixed isomer supplementation increased tumor burden in mice that express polyoma virus middle-T antigen. These findings demonstrate the importance of resolving the effects of dietary CLAs on mammary gland (MG) development, particularly given their effects on metabolism. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cdc42 overexpression induces hyperbranching in the developing mammary gland by enhancing cell migration. AU - Bray, Kristi. AU - Gillette, Melissa. AU - Young, Jeanette. AU - Loughran, Elizabeth. AU - Hwang, Melissa. AU - Sears, James C.. AU - Vargo-Gogola, Tracy. PY - 2013/9/30. Y1 - 2013/9/30. N2 - Introduction: The Rho GTPase Cdc42 is overexpressed and hyperactivated in breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue. Cdc42 regulates key processes that are critical for mammary gland morphogenesis and become disrupted during the development, progression, and metastasis of breast cancer. However, the contribution of Cdc42 to normal and neoplastic mammary gland development in vivo remains poorly understood. We were therefore interested in investigating the effects of Cdc42 overexpression on mammary gland morphogenesis as a first step toward understanding how its overexpression may contribute to mammary tumorigenesis.Methods: We developed a tetracycline-regulatable Cdc42 ...
Gap junctions are intercellular channels made of connexins (Cxs) that allow direct communication between adjacent cells. Modulation of Cxs has been associated with abnormal development and function of the mammary gland and breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying their expression during normal mammary gland are not yet known. Cxs interact with components of tight and adherens junctions. Thus, we hypothesized that the expression levels of Cxs vary during mammary gland development and are regulated through stage-dependent interactions with members of the tight and adherens junctions. Our specific objectives were to: 1) determine the expression of Cxs and tight and adherens junction proteins throughout development and 2) characterize Cxs interactions with components of tight and adherens junctions. Murine mammary glands were sampled at various developmental stages (pre-pubescent to post-weaning). RT-qPCR and western-blot analyses demonstrated differential expression patterns for all gap ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ectodysplasin target gene Fgf20 regulates mammary bud growth and ductal invasion and branching during puberty. AU - Elo, Teresa. AU - Lindfors, Päivi H.. AU - Lan, Qiang. AU - Voutilainen, Maria. AU - Trela, Ewelina. AU - Ohlsson, Claes. AU - Huh, Sung Ho. AU - Ornitz, David M.. AU - Poutanen, Matti. AU - Howard, Beatrice A.. AU - Mikkola, Marja L.. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Mammary gland development begins with the appearance of epithelial placodes that invaginate, sprout, and branch to form small arborized trees by birth. The second phase of ductal growth and branching is driven by the highly invasive structures called terminal end buds (TEBs) that form at ductal tips at the onset of puberty. Ectodysplasin (Eda), a tumor necrosis factor-like ligand, is essential for the development of skin appendages including the breast. In mice, Eda regulates mammary placode formation and branching morphogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. ...
The process leading to the rise of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in rat mammary tissue after the onset of lactation was investigated. The kinetics of change in enzyme activity and enzyme immunotitratable with antibody against avian liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase were determined during the course of lactogenic differentiation. The antibody inactivates and specifically precipitates acetyl-CoA carboxylase from rat mammary tissue as well as that from chicken liver cytosol. Characterization of the immunoprecipitate of the mammary tissue carboxylase by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis reveals a single biotin-containing polypeptide of about 230000mol.wt. This molecular weight is approximately twice that reported for the avian liver enzyme. However, chicken liver cytosol prepared in the presence of trypsin inhibitor and subjected to immunoprecipitation gives rise to a biotin-containing subunit of 230000mol.wt. as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel ...
Stromal mediators play a fundamental role in promoting mammary differentiation, and the contact between mammary epithelial cells and components of the basement membrane contributes to the prolactin-induced transcription of milk proteins [47]. Using the Tet-off system for inducible CTGF/CCN2 expression in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cell background, CTGF/CCN2 not only enhanced the early transcription of β-casein in response to lactogenic hormone, but also contributed to the formation of mammospheres, a hallmark of terminal differentiation in these cells. In addition, exogenous CTGF/CCN2 enhanced the formation of differentiated MCF10A acini in three dimensional cultures, extending the role of CTGF/CCN2 to another culture system which is likely to be structurally and physiologically relevant to the in vivo setting [42]. The role of CTGF/CCN2 in lactogenic differentiation may depend on its function in the expression and stabilization of matrix-integrin complexes, an activity which promotes ...
In life, when a woman finds a lump in her chest, she should never take it lightly, because it may be caused by some breast diseases. Is there any lump in hyperplasia of mammary glands?. When women suffer from hyperplasia of mammary glands, there will be lumps. Moreover, hyperplasia of mammary glands is also a common breast disease in women, which is mainly manifested as galactorrhea, lumps, pain and other problems.. What are the manifestations of hyperplasia of mammary glands?. 1. Pain. When women suffer from hyperplasia of mammary glands, they usually feel obvious breast pain before menstruation. And the pain is sometimes on one side and sometimes on both sides. However, with the gradual end of menstruation, this phenomenon will gradually reduce or disappear.. 2. Emotional instability. If women always have bad mood, it cant be ruled out that it is the hyperplasia of mammary glands, because women are often in depression, depression, anxiety and sorrow. However, if a woman is in this mood for a ...
CDC27 is a core component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, whose oscillatory activity is responsible for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. Here, in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG), CDC27 expression is controlled posttranscriptionally through the RNA binding protein poly(rC) binding protein 1 (PCBP1)/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (HNRNP E1). shRNA-mediated knockdown of HNRNP E1 abrogates translational silencing of the Cdc27 transcript, resulting in constitutive expression of CDC27. Dysregulated expression of CDC27 leads to premature activation of the G2-M-APC/C-CDC20 complex, resulting in the aberrant degradation of FZR1/CDH1, a cofactor of the G1 and late G2-M-APC/C and a substrate normally reserved for the SCF-βTRCP ligase. Loss of CDH1 expression and of APC/C-CDH1 activity, upon constitutive expression of CDC27, results in mitotic aberrations and aneuploidy in NMuMG cells. ...
As the only nutritional source for newborn piglets, porcine colostrum and milk contain critical nutritional and immunological components including carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins (immunoglobulins). However, porcine milk composition is more complex than these three components. Recently, scientists identified additional and novel components of sow colostrum and milk, including exosomes, oligosaccharides, and bacteria, which possibly act as biological signals and modulate the intestinal environment and immune status in piglets and later in life. Evaluation of these nutritional and non-nutritional components in porcine milk will help better understand the nutritional and biological function of porcine colostrum and milk. Furthermore, some important functions of the porcine mammary gland have been reported in recent published literature. These preliminary studies hypothesized how glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids are transported from maternal blood to the porcine mammary gland for milk synthesis.
Staphylococcus aureus is a major mastitis-causing pathogen in dairy cows. The latex agglutination-based Staphaurex test allows bovine S. aureus strains to be grouped into Staphaurex latex agglutination test (SLAT)-negative [SLAT(2)] and SLATpositive [SLAT(+)] isolates. Virulence and resistance gene profiles within SLAT(2) isolates are highly similar, but differ largely from those of SLAT(+) isolates. Notably, specific genetic changes in important virulence factors were detected in SLAT(2) isolates. Based on the molecular data, it is assumed that SLAT(+) strains are more virulent than SLAT(2) strains. The objective of this study was to investigate if SLAT(2) and SLAT(+) strains can differentially induce an immune response with regard to their adhesive capacity to epithelial cells in the mammary gland and in turn, could play a role in the course of mastitis. Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) were challenged with suspensions of heat inactivated SLAT(+) (n = 3) and SLAT(2) (n = 3) ...
Foster, R C., Changes in mouse mammary epithelial cell size during mammary gland development. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1437 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Liver × receptors stimulate lipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cell culture but do not appear to be involved in diet-induced milk fat depression in cows. AU - Harvatine, Kevin J.. AU - Boisclair, Yves R.. AU - Bauman, Dale E.. N1 - Funding Information: Supported in part by National Research Initiative Competitive Grants no. 2006- 35206-16643 from the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2010-65206-20723 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Cornell Agricultural Experiment Station, and Penn State University. Funding Information: Supported in part by National Research Initiative Competitive Grants no. 2006-35206-16643 from the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2010-65206-20723 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Cornell Agricultural Experiment ...
Glucosidase II is an endoplasmic-reticulum-localized enzyme that cleaves the two internally alpha-1,3-linked glucosyl residues of the oligosaccharide Glc alpha 1----2Glc alpha 1----3Glc alpha 1----3Man5-9GlcNAc2 during the biosynthesis of asparagine-linked glycoproteins. We have purified this enzyme to homogeneity from the lactating bovine mammary gland. The enzyme is a high-mannose-type asparagine-linked glycoprotein with a molecular mass of approx. 290 kDa. Upon SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, the purified enzyme shows two subunits of 62 and 64 kDa, both of which are glycosylated. The pH optimum is between 6.6 and 7.0. Specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the bovine mammary enzyme also recognize a similar antigen in heart, liver and the mammary gland of bovine, guinea pig, rat and mouse. These antibodies were used to develop a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for glucosidase II. ...
BACKGROUND: Diuron is widely used in agriculture but its deleterious effects on the reproductive system and mammary gland are still poorly understood. This study evaluated whether early-life-stage exposure to Diuron alters puberty onset or susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant rats received basal diet or diet containing Diuron at 500, 750, and 1,250 ppm, from gestational day 12 to the end of lactation (postnatal day 21 [PND21]). After weaning, female offspring continued receiving basal diet or diet containing Diuron until PND 51. At PND 51, female Sprague-Dawley offspring received a single dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) for initiation of mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were sacrificed on PND 51, 75, and 226 to 233 (week 25) for mammary gland morphology, reproductive organs and tumor analysis, respectively. There were no significant differences among groups on vaginal opening, estrous cycle, ...
In our previous study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly reduced the cell viability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) leading to cell apoptosis, which were prevented by caffeic acid (CA) through inhibiting NF-|i|κ|/i|B activation and reducing proinflammatory cytokine expression. While the underlying mechanism remains unclear, here, we determined that LPS induced the extensive microstructural damage of bMEC, especially the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Then, the obvious reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and expression changes of apoptosis-associated proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and casepase-3) indicated that apoptosis signaling through the mitochondria should be responsible for the cell viability decrease. Next, the high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were employed to verify that the MAPK and JAK-STAT signaling pathways also were the principal targets of LPS. Following, the
TY - JOUR. T1 - The fibronectin binding proteins of Staphylococcus aureus are required for adhesion to and invasion of bovine mammary gland cells. AU - Lammers, A.. AU - Nuijten, P.J.M.. AU - Smith, H.E.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. U2 - 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb08783.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb08783.x. M3 - Article. VL - 180. SP - 103. EP - 109. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. ER - ...
Androgens have important physiological effects in women while at the same time they may be implicated in breast cancer pathologies. However, data on the effects of androgens on mammary epithelial proliferation and/or breast cancer incidence are not in full agreement. We performed a literature review evaluating current clinical, genetic and epidemiological data regarding the role of androgens in mammary growth and neoplasia. Epidemiological studies appear to have significant methodological limitations and thus provide inconclusive results. The study of molecular defects involving androgenic pathways in breast cancer is still in its infancy. Clinical and nonhuman primate studies suggest that androgens inhibit mammary epithelial proliferation and breast growth while conventional estrogen treatment suppresses endogenous androgens. Abundant clinical evidence suggests that androgens normally inhibit mammary epithelial proliferation and breast growth. Suppression of androgens using conventional estrogen
Lengthy noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly proven to enjoy major regulatory assignments in development and disease. malignancy, suggests like a putative tumor suppressor gene. locus is definitely sponsor to three C/D-box snoRNAs, and its transcription initiates from your antisense strand near the 5 end of the protein-coding gene and during mouse mammary gland development and mammary epithelial cell differentiation. In contrast to earlier assumptions that noncoding snoRNA sponsor transcripts occurred only as vehicles to generate snoRNAs, we found that knockdown of by RNA interference inside a mammary epithelial cell collection resulted in an increase in markers of proliferation and differentiation, despite snoRNA levels remaining regular relatively. Furthermore, we present which the three snoRNAs usually do not take place in equimolar ratios but instead that their comparative levels may differ drastically in various conditions, recommending their stability is normally governed. Provided ...
Transcription from the beta-casein milk protein gene promoter is induced by the synergistic action of glucocorticoid and prolactin hormones in the murine mammary epithelial cell line, HC11. We analyzed the binding of nuclear proteins to the promoter and determined their binding sites. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine the function of nuclear factor binding. During lactogenic hormone induction of HC11 cells, the binding of two nuclear factors increased. The binding of two other nuclear factors, present in uninduced cells, decreased. The basal activity of the promoter could be increased to and above the level of the induced wild-type promoter when the recognition sequences of the negatively regulated factors were mutated. This suggests that the beta-casein promoter is regulated by the relief of the repression of transcription. An essential tissue-specific factor was also found in nuclear extracts from the mammary glands of mice. Mutation of its recognition sequence in the beta-casein ...
Meg, Drop the temp down to -30. That usually helps. Spray the blade and the anti-roll plate with cryo spray as well. -Derek [email protected] wrote: > Hi all, > I have a grad student who needs help with frozen sectioning of mouse mammary > tissue. He has not been able to cut any sections because it is fatty tissue. I > havent been able to watch him cut yet; I will be doing that tomorrow. In the > meantime, if someone has suggestions and also a protocol, that would be very > helpful. Thanks again. > Meg Berger > Histologist > Animal and Poultry Sciences > VA Tech > > > _______________________________________________ > Histonet mailing list > [email protected] > http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet > -- Derek Papalegis HT (ASCP) Histotechnician Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine Tufts University 136 Harrison Avenue Boston, MA 02111 phone: 617 636-2971 fax: 617 636-8354 _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list ...
Model of the pathways required for secretory activation and lactation that are perturbed in Src-/- mice. A) PRLR EXPRESSION. In normal mice PRLR expression incr
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Integrins are cell adhesion receptors which mediate interactions between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton. They are heterodimers composed of α and β subunits. As adhesion receptors, integrins are important for cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and therefore are essential for the structural integrity of an organ. Moreover, integrin-extracellular matrix interactions play important roles in the coordinated integration of external and internal cues that are essential for proper development. β1 integrin is the most widely expressed integrin and controls various developmental processes, including neurogenesis, chondrogenesis, skin and hair follicle morphogenesis, and myoblast fusion. To determine the role of β1 integrin in normal development of the mouse mammary gland, with a particular emphasis on how β1 integrins influcence proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis; we examined the consequence of conditional deletion of β1 integrin in mammary epithelia. ...
We have established a spontaneously immortalised mammary epithelial cell line, BME65Cs. This cell line exhibits the majority of normal MECs features, whereas growth character, the ability to form colonies and expression of relevant breast tumor genes are significantly different from breast cancer cells (MCF-7). These data suggest that BME65Cs cells are not derived from malignant transformations. Whether or not in vitro spontaneous transformation is correlated with in vivo benign tumor transformation, the immortal BME65Cs cell line will be a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis and cellular senescence. In contrast, TERT or SV40 gene mediated immortalization by the random integration of exogenous genes may bring an unforeseeable influence on natural gene expression and regulation.. There are three types of human mammary epithelial cell progenitors have been identified. The first is thought to be a luminal-restricted progenitor; the second type is a bipotent progenitor ...
Scott, D G. and Daniel, C W., Filaments in the division furrow of mouse mammary cells. (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 1754 ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. However, the role of miRNAs in bovine mammary gland responses to heat stress is not well understood. In the present study, we performed a deep RNA sequencing analysis to identify miRNAs associated with the heat stress potential of the bovine mammary gland. We identified 27 miRNAs that were differentially expressed significantly between the mammary tissue of Holstein cattle heat stress and normal conditions. Twenty miRNAs had higher expression in the mammary tissue of heat-stressed Holstein cattle. The seven highest differentially expressed candidate miRNAs (bta-miR-21-5p, bta-miR-99a-5p, bta-miR-146b, bta-miR-145, bta-miR-2285 t, bta-miR-133a, and bta-miR-29c) identified by deep RNA sequencing were additionally evaluated by stem-loop qPCR. Enrichment analyses for targeted genes revealed that the major differences between miRNAs expression in the mammary gland of heat-stressed versus
INTRODUCTION Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) is a key regulator in normal mammary gland development and acts as a growth factor in breast cancer development. We have developed the CERM mouse model with targeted ERα overexpression and deregulation specifically to the mammary gland. By 4 months of age, the CERM mice develop ERα-initiated mammary ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in-situ which mimic human disease (Frech et al., 2005). In women, there is evidence that early full-term pregnancy decreases lifetime ERα-positive breast cancer risk. Paradoxically, there is also evidence that breast cancer risk is transiently increased within ten years of early full-term pregnancy (Schedin, 2006). One potential mechanism for the lifetime protective effect is believed to occur via differentiation (Russo et al., 2006). In addition, it is well established that STAT5a, a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, is highly activated during pregnancy and lactation, and is involved in alveolar proliferation ...
The pituitary gland has been found to be an important factor in mammary development in primates. Hypophysectomy in 12 sexually immature monkeys caused significant inhibition of estradiol (E2)-induced mammary growth and development. A histological index of mammary development in sexually immature hypophysectomized animals was lower (0.82) than in intact E2-treated controls (3.4; P less than 0.008). Hypophysectomy also inhibited growth of the mammary gland as judged by a size index. Despite the hypophysectomy, E2 stimulated some, albeit blunted, mammary growth and development, which may have been due to incomplete hypophysectomy. Selective inhibition of prolactin by ergot drugs in intact animals did not prevent full mammary development, suggesting that there may be pituitary mammogens other than prolactin, or that very low or unmeasurable concentrations of prolactin were sufficient to synergize with E2 to cause full acinar development. The mean histological index was 3.08 in E2-treated animals and ...
Anecdotal reports of nursing mothers have long suggested that giving milk is a lot easier in second and subsequent pregnancies, compared with a first pregnancy. Now, researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) are able to explain why.. Their work shows the mammary gland forms a long-term memory of pregnancy that primes it to respond to the hormonal changes that announce succeeding pregnancies. The memory lasts throughout an individuals reproductive years. The results appear online in Cell Reports.. Secretion of the hormones estrogen and progesterone set the stage for dramatic changes that take place in the breast during pregnancy: a massive proliferation of mammary epithelial cells, and the formation of thousands of ductal structures, which support milk production and transport during lactation.. A team led by HHMI Investigator Greg Hannon, a CSHL Professor and also a Professor and Senior Group Leader at the CRUK Cambridge Institute at the University of Cambridge, hypothesized that ...
The ROBO1 gene encodes a member of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) family, a subset of the Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). The ROBO1 protein functions as an integral membrane receptor for SLIT1 and SLIT2, and is involved in axon guidance and cell migration. It is particularly involved in axonal navigation at the ventral midline of the neural tube, thus ensuring appropriate nervous system development. The protein is also engaged in the biological processes of chemorepulsion involved in postnatal olfactory bulb interneuron migration, cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis, inhibition of mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation and inhibition of the chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. Researchers have noted the presence of a splice variant, designated DUTT1, that differs in function from ROBO1. While ROBO1 plays a role in neuronal development, DUTT1 is believed to be involved in tumor suppression. Haploinsufficiency of the ROBO1 gene has been suggested to predispose ...
Annen, E.L., A.V. Capuco, P.C. Gentry, L.H. Baumgard, and R.J. Collier. 2003. Late gestation and advanced lactation at cessation of milking do not delay mammary epithelial apoptosis in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 86 (suppl. 1):117. Annen, E.L., A.C. Fitzgerald, P.C. Gentry, and R.J. Collier. 2004a. Effects of continuous milking and bST supplementation on subsequent milk yield and composition and mammary epithelial cell proliferation. J. Dairy Sci. 87(suppl. 1):132. Annen, E.L., C.M. Steining, A.C. Fitzgerald, M.E. Dwyer, B.A. Crooker and R.J. Collier. 2004b. Effects of continuous milking and intramammary infusion of prostaglandin E2 on subsequent milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 87(suppl. 1):132. Annen, E.L., R.J. Collier, M.A. McGuire, and J.L. Vicini. 2004c. Effect of dry period length on milk yield and mammary epithelial cells. J. Dairy Sci. 87(E Suppl.):E66-E76. Annen, E.L., R.J. Collier, M.A. McGuire, J.L. Vicini, J.M. Ballam, and M.J. Lormore. 2004d. Effect of modified dry period ...
Background Tumor cell lines that can be tracked in vivo during tumorigenesis and metastasis provide vital tools for studying the specific cellular mechanisms that mediate these processes as well as investigating therapeutic targets to inhibit them. The goal of this study was to engineer imageable mouse mammary tumor cell lines with discrete propensities to metastasize to bone in vivo. Two novel luciferase expressing cell lines were developed and characterized for use in the study of breast cancer metastasis to bone in a syngeneic mouse model. Results The 4T1.2 luc3 and 66c14 luc2 cell lines were shown to have high levels of bioluminescence intensity in vitro and in vivo after orthotopic injection into mouse mammary fat pads. The 4T1.2 luc3 cell line was found to closely model the sites of metastases seen in human patients including lung, liver, and bone. Specifically, 4T1.2 luc3 cells demonstrated a high incidence of metastasis to spine, with an ex-vivo BLI intensity three orders of magnitude above the
AP-2 transcription factors play pivotal roles in orchestrating embryonic development by influencing the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of cells. Furthermore, AP-2 transcription factors have been implicated in carcinogenesis, a process where the normal growth and differentiation program of cells is disturbed. To experimentally address the potential involvement of AP-2 in mammary gland tumorigenesis, we generated mice overexpressing AP-2gamma by transgenesis using the mouse mammary tumor virus-long terminal repeat as the transgene-driving promoter unit. In the mammary gland, transgene expression elicited a hyperproliferation that, however, was counterbalanced by the enhanced apoptosis of epithelial cells leading to a hypoplasia of the alveolar epithelium during late pregnancy. In addition, secretory differentiation was impaired, resulting in a lactation failure. In male transgenic mice, the seminal vesicles were sites of strong transgene expression. There the effects of AP-2gamma on ...
With the adoption of 3D methods and complex co-culturing becoming a growing trend, cell culture media optimization has also become a challenging factor for researchers. Lonza helps researchers ease this transition with BulletKit™ Growth Media, which are robust in supporting co-culture studies. Depending on the specific needs of the co-culture, Lonzas scientific support team can offer proven solutions supported by a long history of published literature. For cancer research in particular, where both cell lines and primary cells are equally significant, BulletKit™ Media provides researchers with added flexibility and reduced variability across their experiments as the same media can be used to support the growth of both cell types. This also simplifies experimental design. Take for instance, MEGM™ Mammary Growth BulletKit™, which has been utilized by researchers to support growth of Lonzas primary mammary epithelial cells and well-established breast cell lines, MCF-10A and MCF-12. For ...
Video created by Иллинойсский университет в Урбане-Шампейне for the course Lactation Biology. The peripartum period, the time shortly before, during, and after giving birth, is a time of rapid changes in the mammary gland, the mother, and the ...
Citation: Kress, C., Ballester, M., Devinoy, E., Rijnkels, M. 2010. Epigenetic modifications in 3D: Nuclear organization of the differentiating mammary epithelial cell. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. 15:73-83. Interpretive Summary: Mammary gland maturation occurs after birth. The way DNA is packaged in the cells nucleus is important for gene expression regulation and tissue maturation. Current knowledge of nuclear organization in mammary epithelial cells is discussed in this paper. During maturation of the mammary gland, the organization of the nucleus changes overall and the nuclear localization of genes that are specifically expressed in the mature gland changes. How cells are organized within the tissue is important for mammary gland maturation and influences the organization of the nucleus of the cells. Complex pathways integrate signals from outside of the cell and are important for mammary gland maturation. This study provides researchers with a greater understanding of ...
Older research outputs will score higher simply because theyve had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 195,121 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile - i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it ...
Mammary epithelial cells culture model systems have identified a number of genes whose alterations are involved in mammary carcinoma cell line development..
Title: Ultrasonography of udder and teat in dairy animals. Authors: NR Amin, DB Patil, DN Kelawala, PV Parikh, DR Mer, KS Gameti and KM Gohil. Source: Ruminant Science (2017)-6(1):173-177.. Cite this reference as: Amin NR, Patil DB, Kelawala DN, Parikh PV, Mer DR, Gameti KS and Gohil KM (2017). Ultrasonography of udder and teat in dairy animals. Ruminant Science 6(1):173-177.. Abstract. Thirty eight bovines (cow-26 and buffalo-12), udder and teats were examined by ultrasonography (USG) using 7.5 to 18 MHz frequency transducers by contact gel and water bath methods. Contact gel technique provided better visualization of teat cistern and water bath technique gave good detail of distal portion of teat. The glandular parenchyma was seen as homogenous hypoechoic with anechoic alveoli. The lactiferous ducts and vessels of bovine mammary gland appeared as anechoic structures. Three layers of teat wall were clearly seen: outer hyperechoic, middle hypoechoic and inner hyperechoic. Teat cistern appeared ...
Abstract Background The mammary glands of pigs share many functional and morphological similarities with the breasts of humans, raising the potential of their utility for research into the mechanisms underlying normal mammary function and breast carcinogenesis. Here we sought to establish a model for the efficient manipulation and transformation of porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMEC) in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Methods We utilized a vector encoding the red florescent protein tdTomato to transduce populations of pMEC from Yorkshire -Hampshire crossbred female pigs in vitro and in vivo. Populations of primary pMEC were then separated by FACS using markers to distinguish epithelial cells (CD140a-) from stromal cells (CD140a+), with or without further enrichment for basal and luminal progenitor cells (CD49f+). These separated pMEC populations were transduced by lentivirus encoding murine polyomavirus T antigens (Tag) and tdTomato and engrafted to orthotopic or ectopic sites in ...
This study aimed to describe the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) from mammary gland tissues collected from dairy cows with Streptococcus agalactiae-induced mastitis and to identify differentially expressed miRNAs related to mastitis. The mammary glands of Chinese Holstein cows were challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae to induce mastitis. Small RNAs were isolated from the mammary tissues of the test and control groups and then sequenced using the Solexa sequencing technology to construct two small RNA libraries. Potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using the RNAhybrid software, and KEGG pathways associated with these genes were analysed. A total of 18 555 913 and 20 847 000 effective reads were obtained from the test and control groups, respectively. In total, 373 known and 399 novel miRNAs were detected in the test group, and 358 known and 232 novel miRNAs were uncovered in the control group. A total of 35 differentially expressed miRNAs ...
The vast majority of breast cancer-associated variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are located to non-protein coding genomic regions. Although some have been shown to regulate the expression of specific genes, novel approaches to elucidate the in vivo mechanisms underlying such breast cancer susceptibility loci are needed. The gene desert located on human chromosomal band 8q24, proximal to MYC and PVT1, and distal to FAM84B, harbors 2 common, low-penetrance breast cancer variants. We generated a megadeletion mouse model lacking 430 Kb of sequence orthologous to the breast cancer-associated locus of the 8q24 gene desert. Homozygous megadeletion mice are viable, fertile, lactate sufficiently to nourish their pups, but maintain a 10% lower body weight mainly due to decreased adiposity. We found that the mutation altered mammary gland development, resulting in less branch points, terminal end buds and altered luminal/basal ratio. Using a reciprocal mammary gland ...
These events induce a proliferative hereditary program (Shape 2) thats appropriately controlled during mammary gland development but clearly becomes deleterious when recapitulated and deregulated in cancer cells expressing abundant cyclin D1. Understanding the functional linkage between PRs and cell pattern regulatory proteins such as for example cyclins and CDKs might provide novel focuses on to prevent or reverse the looks of early lesions and halt cell pattern progression in hormonally controlled breasts tumors. cyclin D1 copurified in whole-cell lysates of transiently transfected COS-1 cells and in PR-positive T47D breasts cancers cells expressing endogenous cyclin D1. PRs, cyclin D1, and SP1 had been recruited towards the promoter in progestin-treated T47D breasts cancers cells. Mutation of PR Ser345 to Ala (S345A) or inhibition of CDK2 activity using roscovitine disrupted PR/cyclin D1 relationships with DNA and clogged mRNA manifestation. Discussion of phosphorylated PRs with SP1 and ...