To the Editor: Human astroviruses (HAstVs), first identified in 1975, are now considered an important cause of viral gastroenteritis, predominately infecting children ,2 years of age (1,2). HAstVs are classified into 8 serotypes. A unique astrovirus, MLB1 (AstV-MLB1), recently was discovered in a fecal sample from a child with diarrhea in Australia (3); subsequently, at least 6 novel astroviruses have been discovered from fecal samples, including AstV-MLB2, AstV-MLB3, HMO AstV-A/VA2, HMO AstV-C/VA1, HMO AstV-B/VA3, and AstV-VA4 (4-7). The prevalence of novel astroviruses in China remains unclear.. Fecal specimens were collected during July 2010-June 2011 from 723 children ,5 years of age who had acute gastroenteritis. Samples were from all of 295 eligible children brought for care to First Hospital of Lanzhou University (Lanzhou, China) and every fifth eligible child (n = 428) brought for care on 2 days of the week (Tuesday and Thursday) at Nanjing Childrens Hospital (Nanjing, China). The ...
Since they were identified in 1975, human astroviruses have been considered one of the most important agents of viral acute gastroenteritis in children. However, highly divergent astroviruses infecting humans have been recently discovered and associated with extra-intestinal infections. The report of cases of fatal meningitis and encephalitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals, has broadened their disease spectrum. Although zoonotic transmission among animal and human astroviruses has not been clearly recognized, the genetic similarity between some human and animal viruses makes it likely to occur. This review provides an update on the epidemiology of both classic and novel human astroviruses, and a comprehensive view on confirmed or potential association between astrovirus and human disease.
Infectious diarrhea leads to significant mortality in children, with 40 % of these deaths occurring in Africa. Classic human astroviruses are a well-established etiology of diarrhea. In recent years, seven novel astroviruses have been discovered (MLB1, MLB2, MLB3, VA1/HMO-C, VA2/HMO-B, VA3/HMO-A, VA4); however, there have been few studies on their prevalence or potential association with diarrhea. To investigate the prevalence and diversity of these classic and recently described astroviruses in a pediatric population, a case-control study was performed. Nine hundred and forty nine stools were previously collected from cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhea and matched controls of patients less than 5 years of age in Kenya and The Gambia. RT-PCR screening was performed using pan-astrovirus primers. Astroviruses were present in 9.9 % of all stool samples. MLB3 was the most common astrovirus with a prevalence of 2.6 %. Two subtypes of MLB3 were detected that varied based on location in Africa. In this case
Until today, classic human astroviruses have not been associated with central nervous system infections in immunocompetent patients. A 16-month-old Caucasian girl presented with repetitive generalized seizures with a 4-day history of watery diarrhea, which had already gradually improved. Initially, the prolonged seizures ceased after systemic midazolam treatment and were thought to be fever associated. However, her mental status remained altered, and after seizure recurrence, she was transferred to our pediatric intensive care unit. Seizure control was achieved by a combination of high-dose levetiracetam and phenobarbital, but she remained unconscious. An electroencephalogram at this time revealed generalized high voltage theta activity. All laboratory analyses, including extended blood and cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and a brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. On day 4, the child gradually became conscious, but was very agitated and not able to walk. Since an electroencephalogram at this time
Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and therefore serve as robust reverse genetic tools to study RNA viruses. A DNA-launched rescue system initiates the transcription of viral genomic cDNA from eukaryotic promoter in transfected cells, generating homogenous RNA transcripts in vitro and thus enhancing virus rescue efficiency. As one of the hazardous pathogens to ducklings, the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of duck astrovirus type 1 (DAstV-1) is limited. The construction of a DNA-launched rescue system can help to accelerate the study of the virus pathogenesis. However, there is no report of such a system for DAstV-1. In this study, a DNA-launched infectious clone of DAstV-1 was constructed from a cDNA plasmid, which contains a viral cDNA sequence flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HdvRz) sequence at both terminals of the viral genome. A silent nucleotide mutation creating a Bgl II site in the ORF2 gene was made to distinguish
The etiology of a large proportion of gastrointestinal illness is unknown. In this study, random Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing approaches were used to analyze fecal specimens from a gastroenteritis outbreak of unknown etiology in a child care center. Multiple sequences with limited identity to known astroviruses were identified. Assembly of the sequences and subsequent reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends generated a complete genome of 6,586 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus, named astrovirus VA1 (AstV-VA1), is highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Based on RT-PCR, specimens from multiple patients in this outbreak were unequivocally positive for Ast-VA1. ...
A study of intestinal disease in the UK, published in 1999 determined incidence as 3.8/1000 patient years in the community (95%CI, range2.3-6.4), the fourth most common known cause of viral gastroenteritis. Studies in the USA have detected astroviruses in the stools of 2-9% of children presenting symptoms; illness is most frequent in children of less than two years, although outbreaks among adults and the elderly have been reported. Early studies carried out in Glasgow demonstrated that a significant proportion of babies excreting virus particles, 12%, did not exhibit gastrointestinal symptoms, and seroprevalence studies carried out in the US have shown that 90% of children have antibody to HastV-1 by age 9, suggesting that (largely asymptomatic) infection is common. There is, as with most viral causes of gastroenteritis, a peak of incidence in the winter.. ...
Astrovirus, Serotype 1 antibody LS-C543605 is an HRP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to astrovirus Astrovirus, Serotype 1. Validated for ELISA and WB.
These RNA viruses are said to cause about 5% of infant gastroenteritis (range, 2%-9%). Symptoms are various combinations of vomiting and diarrhea, lasting 0.5-4.0 days. They originally were identified by EM of stool specimens. Culture is also possible using special procedures. EIA test methods using homemade reagents have been described.. ...
The prevalence of the recently identified astrovirus MLB1 in a cohort of children with diarrhea in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, was defined by reverse transcription-PCR. Of 254 stool specimens collected in 2008, 4 were positive for astrovirus MLB1. These results show that astrovirus MLB1 is circulating in North America.
Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are members of the Astroviridae family which are recognized as one of the most common cause of viral gastroenter...
The PreQ1-I riboswitch is a cis-acting element identified in bacteria which regulates expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of the nucleoside queuosine (Q) from GTP. PreQ1 (pre-queuosine1) is an intermediate in the queuosine pathway, and preQ1 riboswitch, as a type of riboswitch, is an RNA element that binds preQ1. The preQ1 riboswitch is distinguished by its unusually small aptamer, compared to other riboswitches. Its atomic-resolution three-dimensional structure has been determined, with the PDB ID 2L1V. Three subcategories of the PreQ1 riboswitch exist: preQ1-I, preQ1-II, and preQ1-III. PreQ1-I has a distinctly small aptamer, ranging from 25 to 45 nucleotides long, compared to the structures of PreQ1-II riboswitch and preQ1-III riboswitch. PreQ1-II riboswitch, only found in Lactobacillales, has a larger and more complex consensus sequence and structure than preQ1-I riboswitch, with an average of 58 nucleotides composing its aptamer, which forms as many as five base-paired ...
The small, single-stranded positive-sense RNA astroviruses are mostly known to be enteric viruses. In recent years, though, different astroviruses were reported in association with neurological disease in various species. In cattle, two distinct neurotropic astrovirus genotype species were described in numerous cases of nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, with one of these viruses also reported in similar circumstances in several sheep. Here, we retrieved archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissues of a muskox diagnosed with a comparable disease pattern in 1982 and investigated them for the presence of neurotropic astroviruses with various techniques. Initially, tissue samples scored positive for both neurotropic astroviruses by immunohistochemistry; however, unexpected results with further immunohistochemical testing, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR prompted us to submit an RNA extract from the animals brain material to next-generation sequencing. We were thus able to obtain the full
Astrovirus originated from astron, a Greek word for star because of the five-pointed or six-pointed side projection which can be detected by negative stained electron microscopy (EM). They were first described by Madeley & Cosgrove in 1975 as the causal for gastroenteritis in infants. Astrovirus disease is known as the causal for gastroenteritis, it is usually mild but more serious cases have been discovered in poultry. Astrovirus is most commonly found in turkeys and can lead to mortality. In 1980, turkey astrovirus was first described and was linked with turkey poults in the UK that were suffering from diarrhea and increased mortality. They were discovered in the U.S. the same year. Although replication is only routinely detected in the intestines, experimentally infected poults show thymus and bursal atrophy and the virus can be isolated in other tissues. ...
Astrovirus infections cause gastroenteritis in mammals and have been identified as causative agents of diverse pathologies in birds such as hepatitis in ducks and poult enteritis mortality syndrome...
Most astrovirus infections in humans are detected in the winter months (in temperate regions) and in the rainy season (in tropical climates). Incubation period: 3-4 days Associated diseases: gastroenteritis, celiac disease, intussusception (Fields 622). Symptoms: diarrhea in 72% - 100% in all cases, duration from 2-3 days Abdominal pain: 50% Vomiting: 20% - 70% Fever…
Incidence and Prevalent Types of Norwalk virus, Sapporo virus and Human astrovirus in Pediatric Gastroenteritis in Hiroshima ...
It has T=3 icosahedral symmetry (insert picture) The capsid is about 35 nm, spikes protrude from 30 vertices. The cellular tropism: enterocytes / epithelial cells of the intestinal tract. Works Cited Human Astroviruses. National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2015. Knipe, David M., and Bernard N. Fields. Chapter…
Kemenesi G, Dallos B, Görföl T, Boldogh S, Estók P, Kurucz K, Kutas A, Földes F, Oldal M, Németh V, Martella V, Bányai K, Jakab F: Molecular survey of RNA viruses in Hungarian bats: discovering novel astroviruses, coronaviruses and caliciviruses, VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES 14: (12) pp. 846-855 ...
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7/24/11: Bartolo Colon limits the As to two runs on eight hits over eight strong innings, recording four strikeouts en route to the win
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全台灣球迷都記得的一場比賽(((這場由郭泓志主投的比賽3幾乎最後的焦點都放在他一個人身上》不但打敗了強投 John Maine 獲得本場比賽勝投3這支全壘打也是大聯盟史上 back-to-back-to-back 全壘打記錄中唯一一次由投手擊出第三支全壘打》而事後他稍微誇張的甩棒動作也一度成為討論焦點》小小郭那場比賽的球具也被送至名人堂展覽了 ...
2011 對台灣的棒球迷們而言3是個幸福的一年3MLB全明星賽首次來台舉行3就連停辦兩年的亞洲職棒大賽3亦由台灣接手舉辦3雖然統一獅最後的成績差強人意3但還是給了我美好的一年》在職棒22年全部比賽結束後3統一獅依序在台北及高雄舉行兩場的全隊簽名會》可惜十月底在阪急台北店的那場總冠軍球迷會3不巧和高美濕地馬拉松撞期3只好放棄3而這場在夢時代的簽名會3又正好和 屏東單車國道馬拉松 同一天3此等大好良機就不能錯過啦!先在此感謝 PTT 統一獅版的一位熱心版友3在官方購物商城慶祝封王的期間3以會員VIP可享七折的優惠3幫我代購了兩顆空白大球3及一顆陳鏞基背號的空白球》 ...
BACKGROUND: Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and therefore serve as robust reverse genetic tools to study RNA viruses. A DNA-launched rescue system initiates the transcription of viral genomic cDNA from eukaryotic promoter in transfected cells, generating homogenous RNA transcripts in vitro and thus enhancing virus rescue efficiency. As one of the hazardous pathogens to ducklings, the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of duck astrovirus type 1 (DAstV-1) is limited. The construction of a DNA-launched rescue system can help to accelerate the study of the virus pathogenesis. However, there is no report of such a system for DAstV-1. METHODS: In this study, a DNA-launched infectious clone of DAstV-1 was constructed from a cDNA plasmid, which contains a viral cDNA sequence flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HdvRz) sequence at both terminals of the viral genome. A silent nucleotide mutation creating a Bgl II site in the ORF2 ...
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Betting analysis for the 2011 MLB season matchup between Cleveland and LA Angels. Includes ats, over/under and straight up odds analysis.
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Barry M. Bloom has been a national reporter for MLB.com since 2002 and has more than 35 years of experience covering sports.
Barry M. Bloom has been a national reporter for MLB.com since 2002 and has more than 35 years of experience covering sports.
The Yankees won a marathon game 5-4 in 18 innings, completing a three-game sweep of the Cubs. The teams set an MLB record for combined strikeouts with 48.
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Adam Rosales ranges towards the line and makes a nice backhanded stop on Wilmer Flores grounder before throwing him out to end the 6th
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