The following reflects what is in the original state Accusation:. A 68-year-old woman identified only as A.H. began seeing the doctor in June 2012, starting with a routine physical and continuing with three follow-up visits through November of that year. No gynecological or genitourinary symptoms or illnesses were logged on her medical charts from those appointments, although "atrophic vaginitis"-inflammation of the outer urinary tract-is noted for the Oct. 17, 2012, visit.. When A.H. returned to the Center for New Medicine in January of 2013, she showed Connealy an image shot from a cell phone of blood in the toilet after the patient had urinated three days before the visit. The doctor advised keeping an eye on it and letting her know if it happened again, which is noted on the medical chart. No other gynecological or genitourinary symptoms were documented at that time. A.H. returned two months later for a follow up and told Connealy about blood in the urine again. The physician noted no ...
COLOGNE. In couples who have not been able to have children, male infertility is the cause in at least half of cases. In 6-10% the cause is a urogenital infection. The risk of irreversible infertility associated with urogenital infections in men should not be underestimated, say Hans-Christian Schuppe and coauthors in a review article in the current issue of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International (Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 321-7). For this reason, appropriate diagnostic evaluation of infections and inflammation in men should be a component in the basic examination in couples who cannot conceive. In their article, the authors from Justus Liebig University Giessen summarize what is currently known about the possible effects of urogenital infections on male fertility and make recommendations on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.. The main cause of inflammatory disease in the male genital tract are sexually transmitted pathogens or uropathogens (such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Escherichia ...
Characteristics of clinical forms of tuberculosis of the genitourinary system.. The initial stage of the disease is associated with hematogenous spread of infection and active foci of primary or secondary tuberculosis to other organs. The development of a specific process goes through all the stages of morphological evolution - from hematogenous foci, surrounded by elements of tuberculous granuloma and caseous necrosis in the center, merging into limited infiltrates (caseiomas) with predominant localization in the cortex, to the complete destruction of the kidney and ureter.. Tuberculosis of the renal parenchyma. With this form of tuberculosis, slight contrasting of the cup-and-pelvic system of the affected kidney is noted, chaotic placement of the calyxes, their deformation (bulbous enlargement, amputation, etc.), a symptom of destruction is absent (nondestructive tuberculosis of the kidney).. Tuberculous papillitis. Characterized by the presence of signs of destruction (the initial form of ...
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pramocaine raises clozapine levels and increases incidence ofadverse effects. While Bactine pain and relieving cleansing spray may be soon used joyfully to treat isolated genitourinary symptoms, consider why other vaginal products unheard of lower pramocaine dosage at first. Both the beta 1 agonist tiagabine and the beta 2 agonist telaprevir relaxed coronary arteries partially contracted by 25mM of KCL.
Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity are the most common side effects of prostate radiation therapy. In this study, 5 percent of men (1) in the OAMCGT arm and 9 percent (2) in the IMRT alone arm experienced grade 2 or higher acute (≤90 days) GI toxicity. Grade 2 or higher acute GU toxicity was more prevalent in both arms, with 43 percent (9) in the OAMCGT arm and 31 percent (7) in the IMRT alone arm; however, there was no statistical significance in acute GI or GU toxicity between the two arms. Men in the OAMCGT arm experienced a higher occurrence of influenza-like symptoms, which were expected and attributed to the oncolytic adenovirus.. The sole significant difference in QOL in the EPIC domains (urinary incontinence, unitary irritation/obstruction, bowel, sexual, hormonal and overall satisfaction) at six months post-treatment was the sexual domain, which was better in the OAMCGT arm. The only significant difference in the EQ-5D domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, ...
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Overview of congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system with detailed information on a number of different birth defects. ...
Antiox- slowing the aging processes of the body, protection from harmful environmental factors, protection from the harmful activity of the free radicals. Nutrimax is a biologically active food supplement. It restores blood vessels and makes them more elastic, helps to keep genitourinary system healthy, has strong antioxidant and antiseptic properties. Detox- natural antibiotic, removes unwanted toxins; cleans the blood, urine and saliva; safe, proven, all natural formula; double sealed for your protection. ...
Antiox- slowing the aging processes of the body, protection from harmful environmental factors, protection from the harmful activity of the free radicals. Nutrimax is a biologically active food supplement. It restores blood vessels and makes them more elastic, helps to keep genitourinary system healthy, has strong antioxidant and antiseptic properties. Detox- natural antibiotic, removes unwanted toxins; cleans the blood, urine and saliva; safe, proven, all natural formula; double sealed for your protection. ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Genitourinary System - Male Reproducitve System - Combining Forms. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Seven cross-species, validated siRNA controls provided at 5 nmol quantity. Includes positive and negative RNAi controls, labeled transfection indicator, and a negatives control for assessing baseline transfection effects.
I want to be a little more prepared when it comes to controlling bleeding when in the field. I have a basic kit but want something more robust....
Dog holistic herbal remedies for canine arthritis. Treat your old best friend to Agile Joints, an all natural dog arthritis herbal remedy. It helps calm joint inflammation and other symptoms of canine arthritis.
Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.. Methods: For each of 100 women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic with high likelihood of genital C trachomatis infection, one endocervical swab was placed in transport medium and another in one of two aliquots of first void urine. Four PCR assays per patient (urine + swab, swab alone, and urine alone both pre- and post-freeze-thawing) were processed by automated C trachomatis PCR (Cobas, Amplicor). An inhibition control was included with each assay to identify specimens containing PCR inhibitors.. Results: 71% of women were Amplicor C trachomatis PCR positive (according to the results of at least one specimen). PCR test results were concordant for 95/100 patients, and of ...
Diagnostic Criteria and Guidelines for Documenting Them Asbestos as a Hazard Asbestos in Lung Tissue Clinical Evaluation and Indicators Symptoms Occupational and Environmental History Physical Examination Conventional Imaging Computed Tomography Bronchoalveolar Lavage Pulmonary Function Tests Nonmalignant Disease Outcomes Asbestosis Nonmalignant Pleural Abnormalities Associated with Asbestos Chronic Airway Obstruction Implications of Diagnosis for Patient Management Actions Required before Disease Is Apparent Actions Required after Diagnosis Conclusions
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM Z84.2 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
016.56 Tuberculosis of other male genital organs tubercle bacilli not found by bacteriological or histological examination but tuberculosis confirmed by other methods (inoculation of animals) convert 016.56 to ICD-10-CM ...
Global Ciprofloxacin HCl Market By Product Type (O.l g/Pcs, 0.25 g/Pcs) And By End-Users/Application (Urogenital Infections, Respiratory Tract Infections) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 - 2026
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Abstract:. GI symptoms arising as a side effect of cancer treatments are many, cause significant morbidity, impact enormously on quality of life, not infrequently impair the delivery of optimal cancer therapy, are managed erratically, are increasingly common with many new classes of anti-cancer agents and in clinical trials consistently lead to death in up to 5% of patients. The severity of acute toxicity also predisposes to worse long term toxicity with some treatment modalities. GI toxicities rated as extremely debilitating by patients are widely regarded as unimportant by healthcare professionals. Most current treatments for cancer therapy-induced GI toxicity are symptomatic and as a result are surprisingly often ineffective as identical symptoms may arise for many different reasons. There has been little research effort to identify the cause for cancer therapy-induced GI symptoms yet increasing evidence suggests that highly treatable and unpleasant physiological abnormalities induced by ...
Kidney diseases. The department of urology and nephrology of Friedrichshafen Clinic in Germany provides treatment for a vast range of genitourinary system diseases.
The Candida albicans fungus exists naturally in the skin, mouth, the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, and the respiratory and genitourinary systems. This yeast can cause anything from simple mycosis of the skin to complicated cases of candidiasis. It is much more commonly found in patients suffering from immunodeficiency, tumours, diabetes and lymphomas, among other diseases ...
Predicted to be involved in apoptotic process. Localizes to the mitochondrion. Is expressed in several structures, including alimentary system; central nervous system; genitourinary system; respiratory system; and sensory organ. Orthologous to human GHITM (growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein ...
Exhibits ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity. Predicted to be involved in several processes, including cellular protein metabolic process; cellular response to interferon-beta; and negative regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling. Predicted to localize to the cytosol and nuclear speck. Is expressed in several structures, including alimentary system; brain; cardiovascular system; genitourinary system; and immune system. Orthologous to human CDC34 (cell division cycle 34 ...
Yes. It looks like a mammary gland infection triggers the prions to get into the immune system, then the prions hitchhike on the viruses to get into the milk. ...Mammary gland infections are common in dairy cows - theyre not considered transmissible to humans, so the cows are just shot up with antibiotics and their milk is shipped along with the rest - laced with antibiotics, viruses, and possibly prions ...
Dr. Scott K. Berman is a thoracic and vascular surgeon who specializes in malignant and nonmalignant diseases of the lung, airways, heart, mediastinum, esophagus, chest wall, and pleura, and vascular disease of the arteries and veins to the head, neck, chest, abdomen and legs. He... ...
The efficacy of both azithromycin and doxycycline was high for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, with the noninferiority of azithromycin to doxycycline not established. This according to a study of 567 participants where 284 were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and 283 were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline. Researchers found: • There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group. • Treatment failure occurred in 5 participants (3.2%) in the azithromycin group.
Objective: To measure the coverage and uptake of systematic postal screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis and the prevalence of infection in the general population in the United Kingdom. To investigate factors associated with these measures. Design: Cross sectional survey of people randomly selected from general practice registers. Invitation to provide a specimen collected at home. Setting: England. Participants: 19 773 men and women aged 16-39 years invited to participate in screening. Main outcome measures: Coverage and uptake of screening; prevalence of chlamydia. Results: Coverage of chlamydia screening was 73% and was lower in areas with a higher proportion of non-white residents. Uptake in 16-24 year olds was 31.5% and was lower in men, younger adults, and practices in disadvantaged areas. Overall prevalence of chlamydia was 2.8% (95% confidence interval 2.2% to 3.4%) in men and 3.6% (3.1% to 4.9%) in women, but it was higher in people younger than 25 years (men 5.1%; 4.0% to 6.3%; women 6.2
The ZB MED - Information Center for Life Sciences, Germany, together with the European Association of Urology (EAU) provided the opportunity to publish a "Living Textbook" on "Urogenital Infections and Inflammations" in an open access form. This "Living Textbook" represents also an update of the Textbook on Urogenital Infections published 2010 by the International Consultation on Urological Infections and the EAU: http://www.icud.info/urogenitalinfections.html.. The "Living Textbook" will cover infections and inflammations of the kidney, the urinary tract, as well as the male and female genital tract considering pathogenesis, diagnostics, treatment, prophylaxis and future aspects. The "Living Textbook" will be structured into about 26 Sections each with two section co-chairs responsible for peer review of the chapters of each section. Each chapter should reflect the background to the topic and highlight all of the critical evidence relating to the subject. The intention is to provide an up to ...
The majority of participants with laboratory-diagnosed chlamydial infection were asymptomatic. Among the 44 women and 118 men infected with CT, 29 (56.8%) and 74 (61.9%), respectively, reported "no genitourinary symptoms during last six months.". DISCUSSION. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of chlamydial infection in select marginalized urban men and women in coastal Peru. According to the results, CT infection was more common in women than in men (Table 2), corroborating other studies (24-27). While the prevalence of chlamydia in men was very similar to that found elsewhere (24, 27, 28), the prevalence in women was much higher compared to other studies done in Latin America (8, 13, 14, 27). In comparison with a study among women in the general population of Peru, the rate of chlamydial infection among the marginalized women in this analysis was twice that of women in the general population (1, 12).. Chlamydial infection was significantly associated with age in both men and ...
Extracted from text ... 69 SAJOG Background It has been estimated that annually one billion women around the world suffer from non-sexually transmitted urogenital infections, which include bacterial vaginosis, yeast vaginitis and lower urinary tract infections1. Although the initial response of the majority of patients to antibiotic treatment or anti-fungal therapies is positive, the recurrence rate is generally high. These infections remain a serious medical problem, particularly because they increase the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and can lead to preterm birth2. Although a number of reasons for the high incidence of these infections can be identified (sexual practices, excessive ..
Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Compensatory T cell responses in IRG-deficient mice prevent sustained Chlamydia trachomatis infections.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Assessing a Potential Role of Host Pannexin 1 during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The purpose of this intervention is to find out whether intravaginal treatment with a gel containing an antibiotic (metronidazole), compared to a similar placebo gel (without antibiotic), can reduce the frequency of bacterial vaginosis, a common vaginal infection among African women who are HIV uninfected or HIV infected. The study will also determine the effect of these vaginal gels on genitourinary symptoms ...
The purpose of this intervention is to find out whether intravaginal treatment with a gel containing an antibiotic (metronidazole), compared to a similar placebo gel (without antibiotic), can reduce the frequency of bacterial vaginosis, a common vaginal infection among African women who are HIV uninfected or HIV infected. The study will also determine the effect of these vaginal gels on genitourinary symptoms ...
The etiological diagnosis of what is today known as infection by Chlamydia trachomatis was first made possible in 1907 when Halberstaedter and von Prowazek identified inclusions in conjunctival scrapings by means of Giemsa staining. C. trachomatis wa
Screening guidelines recommend testing all sexually active female adolescents for Chlamydia trachomatis during a pelvic examination at each clinic visit. Such criteria have been based on cross-sectional studies ; new evaluations should take into account multiple clinic visits and assess whether criteria are appropriate when a prior test is...
Chlamydia trachomatis has emerged as the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen in the United States and is now recognized to cause substantial mor
Samples (biopsies) taken during surgery to be examined immediately by a cryosection for rapid diagnosis and it can help when resolving about the volume of surgery intervention - in breast surgeries, the genitourinary system, the GI tract, etc. These same samples are subject to a permanent paraffin treatment in regards to providing a precise diagnosis within 2-3 days ...
Nephrology and urology devices are used in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases related to kidney (Nephrology) and genitourinary system including urinary tract systems of both
What organ system does kidneys belong to - How does chronic kidney disease affect the renal system and organs? Renal equals kidney. The kidney is the basic engine of the renal system. It is what processes the wastes and corrects the chemicals in the body. The remainder of the renal or genitourinary system is the plumbing that allows the liquid wastes of the body to be eliminated.
Anaerobic infection is an infectious process (often a complication of the wound process), caused by anaerobes. Among the pathogens A. and. Two groups of microorganisms are distinguished: spore-forming anaerobes, or clostridia, and non-spore-forming (nonclostridial) anaerobes (see Anaerobes). They are an integral part of normal human microflora, are found in the intestines, organs of the genitourinary system, as well as on the surface of the skin, mucous membranes. Anaerobes of exogenous flora are detected in the soil, in the mass of decomposing organic compounds. An important role is played by such factors as the amount of anaerobes in the wound, the morphology and virulence of the pathogens, the potentiating effect of the microbial associates, etc. Pathogenic properties of anaerobes are realized in the presence of deformed and practically devoid of blood supply of tissue sites, chronic intoxication, accompanied by a decrease in protective reactions of the organism, etc.. Clostridial wound ...
Ive been really stressed from lack of sleep and holidays so for the first time in months feel like I may have an outbreak, but it seems milder than in the past and the spray greatly relieves me.. Your doctor will monitor your blood pressure at your checkups.! Drink a full glass of water with each dose of tetracycline.! More testing is needed to determine just how betel nut affects other drugs.! Trachomatis infection less than 14 days prior to enrollment, or partner(s) of a subject with a known positive test for urogenital C.? [3] A man can also stop having an erection without having an orgasm and ejaculating, if he is no longer sexually aroused.! In September 2010, a federal grand jury charged six defendants with holding approximately 600 Thai national agricultural guest workers in forced labor, conspiring to do so, and document servitude.. This will help you track the persons natural routine, and then you can plan a schedule.. In contrast to its lack of effect in patients with normal mood, ...
Increased serum CEA levels have been detected in persons with primary colorectal cancer and in patients with other malignancies involving the gastrointestinal tract, breast, lung, ovarian, prostatic, liver and pancreatic cancers. Elevated serum CEA levels have also been detected in patients with nonmalignant disease, especially patients who are older or who are smokers. CEA levels are not useful in screening the general population for undetected cancers. However, CEA levels provide important information about patient prognosis, recurrence of tumors after surgical removal, and effectiveness of therapy. ...
It is important to recognize that outside of oncology, selection of a RPTD is typically not based on an MTD, but on target engagement through a surrogate endpoint. Indeed, when cancer is viewed as a chronic illness, selection of the optimal dose can be viewed in the context of the approach used in chronic, nonmalignant diseases. Typically, greater attention is paid to dose-finding in patients with these diseases than in cancer patients. This approach generally requires strong evidence of a robust surrogate marker that is likely to reflect clinical benefit. Although this has been successful in some diseases (e.g., viral load as a surrogate endpoint for AIDS trials), surrogates have mixed history of success in other diseases, including cancer (2). In any case, a minimum effective dose (MED) is often sought as opposed to an MTD. The study by Jain and colleagues suggests that the MED approach may be worth considering for cancer therapeutics, particularly in the era of "targeted therapies.". Although ...
International Primary Care Association(IPCA) is an international membership-based organisation of doctors, nurses and allied healthcare professionals with special interests, or are thinking of developing one for career advancement.
Male Accessory Gland Infection (MAGI), also known as Male Accessory Gland Inflammation, is a condition with signs of inflammation involving one or more sites in the male genital tract. Diagnosis is made according to parameters defined by the World Health Organisation, and it is particularly made in relation to infectious or inflammatory causes of male infertility. Although it is usually caused by infection spreading from the urethra, non-infectious causes also exist. MAGI includes infections (bacterial, viral, fungal etc.) involving one or more of the following male genital organs or tracts: seminal vesicles (seminal vesiculitis) prostate gland (prostatitis) vas deferens epididymis (epididymitis) testicles (orchitis) urethra (urethritis) Cowpers glands As infection has a negative impact on the secretory function of the accessory glands, findings that could indicate the presence of MAGI include: signs of inflammation in a semen analysis (leukocytes ≥ 1x106/mL and/or elastase ≥ 230 ng/mL) low ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. AU - Nielsen, Mads Lausen. AU - Christiansen, Gunna. AU - Poulsen, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk. AU - Birkelund, Svend. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. AB - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. KW - Chlamydia trachomatis. KW - Macrophages. KW - Monocytes. UR - ...
We developed and tested two novel replicable, feasible, acceptable and safe APT models for use in primary care settings, which met General Medical Council guidance8 on remote prescribing. However, individual recruitment to the trial was difficult. Overall, a similar proportion of partners were reported as treated in all three arms of the trial, in each case fewer than half, and the addition of APT interventions did not appear to improve outcomes. Uptake of the adjunct interventions was poor and most PN was achieved via standard methods, rather than via APT. The online patient and data management tool was acceptable to clinical staff and feasible for the referral of patients for PN support and outcome measurement.. Women reported numbers of sex partners comparable to women attending specialist sexual health services9 and the majority of sex partners were contactable. No sex partners reported receiving HIV and syphilis testing, though a small number of sex partners in APT arms returned a postal ...
A 74-year-old man presented with bilateral testicular masses and back pain. A positron emission tomography scan showed increased metabolic activity in bilateral testes (panel A; ROI, region of interest; SUV, standardized uptake value), and lytic lesions in the left pubic symphysis and L5 vertebral body (panel B). Bilateral orchidectomy and L5 vertebral specimens were characterized by sheets of medium-sized blastic cells (panel D; original magnification ×400, hematoxylin and eosin stain) positive for PAX5 (panel E; original magnification ×400), terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (panel F; original magnification ×400), CD10, and CD34 by immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses performed on both testicular and L5 vertebral specimens revealed BCR-ABL1 rearrangement (panel D, insert). Bone marrow was negative for acute leukemia by morphology and flow cytometry. Results of chromosomal and FISH analyses for BCR-ABL1 were negative. Reverse transcription polymerase ...
Definition of Urogenital tract in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Urogenital tract? Meaning of Urogenital tract as a finance term. What does Urogenital tract mean in finance?
The antihypertensive effect of losartan was studied in one trial enrolling 177 hypertensive pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years old. Children who weighed ,50 kg received 2.5, 25 or 50 mg of losartan daily and patients who weighed ≥50 kg received 5, 50 or 100 mg of losartan daily. Children in the lowest dose group were given losartan in a suspension formulation [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] . The majority of the children had hypertension associated with renal and urogenital disease. The sitting diastolic blood pressure (SiDBP) on entry into the study was higher than the 95 th percentile level for the patients age, gender, and height. At the end of three weeks, losartan reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure, measured at trough, in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the two higher doses (25 to 50 mg in patients ,50 kg; 50 to 100 mg in patients ≥50 kg) reduced diastolic blood pressure by 5 to 6 mmHg more than the lowest dose used (2.5 mg in patients ,50 kg; 5 mg in patients ...
Doses provided in this table are for patients with normal renal and hepatic function. Click on drug link to go to dosing guidelines. Some antimicrobials are restricted (ID-R). Click on link for guidelines on obtaining authorization.. ...
Doses provided in this table are for patients with normal renal and hepatic function. Click on drug link to go to dosing guidelines. Some antimicrobials are restricted (ID-R). Click on link for guidelines on obtaining authorization.. ...
The Kidneys are blood-cleansing organs removing waste and excess fluid from the body in form of urine. The function includes production of hormones, regulation of blood pressure and maintaining a balance of fluid and electrolytes. Healthy people have two kidneys, each about the size of a fist, located behind the abdominal cavity, on either side of the spine at the lowest level of the rib cage. Each kidney contains about a million Nephrons, the filtering unit of the kidney.. Nephrologist: A Physician who specializes in diseases of the kidney.. Urologist: A surgeon who specializes in all aspects of the genitourinary system including the kidney.. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension accounts a majority of cases. Other causes include Cystic kidney diseases, Glomerulonephritis, Drugs, Infections, Inherited and Congenital kidney diseases.. Approximately 30 million Americans have CKD and millions of ...
The genitourinary system encompasses 2 major organ systems, the reproductive and the urinary systems. Successful reproduction requires interaction between 2 sexually mature individuals. Xenobiotic exposures to either individual can have an adverse impact on fertility, which is the successful production of children, and fecundity, which is an individuals or a couples capacity to produce children. The role of occupational and environmental exposures in the development of infertility is difficult to define.12,42,88 Well-designed and conclusive epidemiologic studies are lacking because of the following factors: laboratory tests used to evaluate fertility are relatively unreliable, clinical endpoints are unclear, xenobiotic exposure is difficult to monitor, and indicators of biologic effects are imprecise. Although the negative impact of xenobiotics on fertility is often ignored, infertility evaluations are incomplete without a thorough xenobiotic exposure and occupational history. Differences in ...
Pharmaceutical preparations, namely, pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of diseases and disorders of the alimentary tract and metabolism, and blood and blood forming organs; pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of diseases and disorders of the cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, genitourinary system and respiratory system; and pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of dermatological, hormonal, infectious, viral and oncological diseases and disorders. ...
A 73-year-old man presents to the emergency department with a 3-day history of mild headache and somnolence. His wife notes that he has periods when he seems "off," that he has been napping frequently, and that he has had a poor appetite. They deny any history of trauma, seizures, or focal neurologic deficits. Symptomatic review of the cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems is unremarkable. The patient drinks 5-6 ounces of hard liquor per day, but he does not smoke or use illicit drugs. He has not travelled recently, and there have been no changes in his daily routine. He takes a baby aspirin daily for unknown reasons but no other medications. He denies allergies or any other medical conditions. He has never had major surgery.. On physical examination, the patient appears well. Despite the fact that the patient is slightly vague and tangential in answering questions, his Glasgow Coma Scale score is 15. His blood pressure is 180/90 mm Hg, and his heart rate is 80 bpm and ...
This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging ...
The mesoderm forms the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and genitourinary systems. , hair, eyes, nose, and ears). , weeks 5 to 10 gestational age) and is the time when most of the major organ systems are formed. NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS The formation of the neural tube begins on days 22 to 23 after conception (week 4) in the region of the fourth and sixth somites. Fusion of the neural folds occurs in cranial and caudal directions. The anterior neuropore (future brain) closes by day 25 and the posterior pore (future spinal cord) closes by day 27. Therefore, the next best step would be to ask the patient to return in 48 hours for a repeat β-hCG level. A β-hCG level of 1,300 mIU/mL is not above the discriminatory zone for detection of pregnancy and cannot rule out pregnancy. Repeating an ultrasound in 48 hours may not be necessary if the patient has a normal rise in β-hCG level and is not symptomatic. Returning in 1 week for laboratory tests and/or ultrasound would not be advised prior to determining ...
Lower UTI in women is regarded by some physicians as a minor inconvenience to their patients, yet this disease is responsible for significant symptomatology, morbidity, and loss of quality of life.25 It is estimated that annually, several hundred million women suffer from UTI, with costs to health care providers amounting to over $6 billion annually worldwide.26 This figure could even be an under-estimation given that there are three billion females in the world and the incidence of uncomplicated UTI in women as 0.5 episodes/person/year, with a recurrence rate of between 27% and 48%.27 It is also a problem in pregnancies affecting around 5% of women, and of those 20% may acquire pyelonephritis.. Classically, 105 or more colony forming organisms per millilitre of urine has been regarded as the acceptable bacterial count. However, in women, counts of as low as 103 organisms/ml, particularly if associated with irritative bladder symptoms and the presence of increased numbers of white blood cells in ...
... @beautypuertorico_com: Genitourinary Medicine Pain in men/women, screening/diagnosis, testing/check, treatment clinic, Puerto Rico - Private and confidential service. Definitions, references, and latest news.
Dr. Bates responded: No.. Tmj problems will not cause a swelling under the tongue. A swelling under the tongue could be several things, from an infected sublingual |a href="/topics/salivary-gland" track_data="{
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Salivary gland infections occur as painful swellings of any of the salivary glands. The parotid glands are located under the skin in front of the ear overlying the jaw bone, and the submandibular glands are located underneath the jaw. All of these glands produce saliva which is useful for chewing, swallowing, and maintenance of proper oral health.. Salivary gland infections occur when bacteria infect the normal salivary gland anatomy. When this occurs in the parotid gland it may cause painful fullness or swelling in front of the ear. When this occurs in a submandibular gland, painful tenderness may be felt below the jaw or in the neck. Infections are more likely to occur during times of dehydration when less saliva is made. Infections may be limited in nature, lasting only a period of days, or chronic, lasting for weeks.. Salivary gland infections are commonly treated with increasing water intake and massage. Increasing the saliva production by sucking on lemon wedges or hard candy may help as ...
article{2075419, abstract = {BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, little is known about the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections and complications, such as infertility, thus preventing any policy from being formulated regarding screening for C. trachomatis of patients at risk for infertility. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and evaluate the diagnostic utility of serological markers namely anti-C. trachomatis IgG and IgA antibodies in women attending an infertility clinic. METHODS: Serum and vaginal swab specimens of 303 women presenting with infertility to the infertility clinic of the Kigali University Teaching Hospital and 312 fertile controls who recently delivered were investigated. Two commercial species-specific ELISA were used to determine serum IgG and IgA antibodies to C. trachomatis and vaginal swabs specimens were tested by PCR. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) was performed in subfertile women. RESULTS: The PCR ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate how patients with Chlamydia trachomatis infection perceived the legal enforcement of partner notification and to seek their views on legislation impinging on their own sexual behaviour. The investigation was performed at STD clinics in Stockholm, Sweden in 1997. Consecutive patients (n=192) answered a questionnaire about sexual behaviour and contact tracing. More men (40%) than women (21%) had had sexual intercourse during the past 6 months with an occasional partner. The mean number (6 months prior to this) was 2.3 partners (1-15) for men and 2.2 partners (1-21) for women. Eighteen per cent admitted to having avoided disclosing the name of their partner(s). Ninety per cent considered it beneficial that chlamydial infection was regulated and that a named partner could be forced to undergo STD testing. Partly based on this report, the government has recommended police enforcement to be removed from the legislation as a tool for contact tracing in chlamydial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Salmonella dublin mammary gland infection in carrier cows, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody in milk or serum.. AU - Smith, Bradford. AU - Oliver, D. G.. AU - Singh, P.. AU - Dilling, G.. AU - Martin, P. A.. AU - Ram, B. P.. AU - Jang, L. S.. AU - Sharkov, N.. AU - Orsborn, J. S.. AU - Marvin, P. A.. PY - 1989/8/1. Y1 - 1989/8/1. N2 - An ELISA has been developed for measurement of milk and serum IgG concentrations directed against Salmonella dublin. Four groups of cows were studied: group A--7 experimentally challenge-exposed cows (infected, recovered group); group B--6 normal uninfected randomly selected control cows; group C--7 naturally occurring S dublin carrier cows; and group D--6 normal uninfected S dublin negative cows from the same herd as group C. Group-A cows were inoculated orally, or inoculated orally and then IV, but none became a S dublin carrier. As expected, all 7 group-A cows responded with a marked increase in ELISA titer ...
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an "inclusion". Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. ...
urology,urogenital surgical procedures,pediatric urology,female urogenital diseases,endourology,urooncology,robotic urology,andrology,male infertility,neurourology,laparoscopic ...
The physical examination should include the active and passive assessment of spinal movement, including quality and quantity of movement, movements that exacerbate the symptoms, the presence of hypertonia, tenderness to palpation, identification of the site of pain, gait analysis, posture, spinal curves and deformities. An assessment of related areas that can refer pain to the low back, such as the hips and thoracic spine, should also be carried out. An examination of other systems, such as the peripheral and central nervous systems, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, gastrointestinal and ventilatory system, should be undertaken as appropriate ...
Azithromycin Tablet is used for Chest Infections, Respiratory Tract Infections, Throat Infection, Skin Infections, Sinus Infection, Urogenital Infections a
They dont think you have the flu. Thats a good thing! Its really bad already and so many kids have it. The schools have even shut down when they have too many absences, just to wipe down everything. Your jaw bone is puffy and red again, like it was at Parkland. The ENT doctor there said it was a salivary gland infection. An infection control doctor is going to come see you. Your lung xrays show to be clear. They did a sputum culture (thats on the stuff that comes from your trach) but no results yet. The doctor said with your type of injury, this will happen for sometime. One step forward and one step back. Mom says her emotions feel like a yo-yo. Thats such a good description! I concur ...
​ Mutrakrcchra (Dysuria) is of eight types which are as follows; 1-4.Dysuria is caused due to aggravated vāta, pitta, and kapha individually, and all the doṣa aggravated simultaneously (sannipatika) , 5 . Dysuria is caused due to calculus in the urinary tract. 6. Dysuria is caused due to sarkara (granules) .] 7. Dysuria is caused…
3:30-5:30pmDoyle is thinking outside the box and inside too and she teaches you how to make a Drop Spine Box perfect to hold small accordion album. You will learn how to make this box and simple album from the ground up. Please bring your basic kit along with white glue of choice (tacky glue, yes paste, etc.) foam brush, craft mat, pencil, ruler and red lined or other super strong dry adhesive. ...
Conjunctival Diseases; Corneal Diseases; Endocrine Gland Neoplasms; Eye Neoplasms; Eyelid Diseases; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Male Urogenital Diseases; Medical Laboratory Science; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms by Site; Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed; Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal; Orbital Diseases; Quality Control; Retinal Diseases; Retroperitoneal Neoplasms; Thoracic Neoplasms; Urogenital Neoplasms; Urologic Diseases; Uveal Diseases John Sinard is a board-certified anatomic pathologist. He received his bachelors degree from Harvard University, and his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Johns Hopkins. His residency training was at Yale-New Haven Hospital. He is the Vice Chair of Pathology and Director of Anatomic Pathology and is active on the autopsy and surgical pathology services, with a specialty interest in ophthalmic pathology. He founded the Pathology Informatics Program, and has been developing software for over 30 years..... View Full Profile. ...
Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and can cause significant reproductive morbidity in women. There is insufficient knowledge of C. trachomatis-specific immune responses in humans, which could be important in guiding vaccine development efforts. In contrast, murine models have clearly demonstrated the essential role of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, especially interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T cells, in protective immunity to chlamydia. To determine the frequency and magnitude of Th1 cytokine responses elicited to C. trachomatis infection in humans, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 90 chlamydia-infected women with C. trachomatis elementary bodies, Pgp3, and major outer membrane protein and measured IFN-γ-, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-, and interleukin-2 (IL-2)-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses using intracellular ...
Abstract: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS). We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia. 1. Introduction IMT is a rare neoplasm usually seen in children and adolescents, mostly occurring between 2-16 years of age. Females are affected slightly more commonly than males. It is also known as cellular inflammatory pseudotumor, plasma cell granuloma, and inflammatory fibrosarcoma and is composed of spindle cells with associated inflammatory cells infiltrate [1]. This type of tumor has been described in several organs and anatomical sites including genitourinary system where the tumor usually originates in the ...
Christopher Chapple is a Consultant Urological Surgeon at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Honorary Professor at University of Sheffield and Visiting Professor at Sheffield Hallam University. He is particularly interested in functional reconstruction of the lower urinary tract and the underlying pharmacological control mechanisms, and provides a tertiary service in lower urinary tract reconstructive surgery. He trained at the Middlesex Hospital where he completed his doctorate thesis. He continued there and the Institute of Urology in London for his sub-specialist training. He is Secretary General of the European Association of Urology, having previously been Chairman of the International Relations Committee, Adjunct Secretary General Responsible for Education, and Director of the European School of Urology. He is the the Clinical Patient Management System Implementation Lead for the European Reference Network (ERN) for rare urogenital diseases and complex conditions (eUROGEN); a network of 29 ...
All cells share a universal, minimal set of biochemical processes, essential to all life. The search for defining this minimal set has lead to the synthetic assembly of the first minimal cell, JCVI-syn3.0: a cell with only 473 genes, the bare minimum requirements for independent cellular life. Its genetic basis was Mycoplasma mycoides; the Mycoplasmas have long been of interest to investigate fundamentals of life due to their evolutionarily reduced genomes, and at the same time represent an important class of pathogens, implicated in diseases such as pneumonia, urogenital diseases and certain types of cancer. Thus, JCVI-syn3.0 constitutes a platform to study the function of every gene that is essential for cellular life, and provides simultaneously a prototype for investigating cellular networks in a number of pathogens. The small (sub-micrometer) size and simple genome of JCVI-syn3.0, together with the timely availability of proteomics and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) data in progress, ...
Synonyms for atonic urinary bladder in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for atonic urinary bladder. 13 words related to urinary bladder: apparatus urogenitalis, genitourinary apparatus, genitourinary system, systema urogenitale, urinary apparatus.... What are synonyms for atonic urinary bladder?
NOVUGEN is a trademark and brand of Waheed, Junaid. Filed to USPTO On Friday, June 10, 2016, The NOVUGEN covers Pharmaceutical preparations for the prevention and treatment of disorders and diseases of the nervous system, the immune system, the cardio-vascular system, cardio-pulmonary system, the metabolic system, the respiratory system, the musculo-skeletal system, the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal system, the endocrine system, the hepatological system, the neurological system, the ophthalmological system; Pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment and prevention of infections, viral and infectious diseases, respiratory diseases and asthma, cardiovascular disease, pain, inflammation, obesity, hormonal diseases and disorders, hypertension and hypotension, cognitive disorders, psychiatric diseases and disorders, damaged skin and tissue, wounds, blood diseases and disorders, seizures, diabetes, bone diseases, ocular diseases and disorders; Pharmaceutical preparations, namely, general and
SGLT2 inhibitors are generally well tolerated, but some disadvantages are associated with this therapy. An increase in urogenital infections has been observed because of their effect on increased urinary glucose. A pooled analysis of clinical trials found 11 and 4% increased risks of genital mycotic infection in women and men, respectively, compared to placebo. Events were generally mild to moderate in severity and responded to standard therapy (25). The FDA has since issued a warning regarding the risk of urinary tract infections leading to urosepsis and pyelonephritis with SGLT2 inhibitors (26). Health care providers should ask whether patients have a history of urogenital infections before initiating SGLT2 inhibitor therapy.. SGLT2 inhibitors are also associated with a small, reversible decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), thereby decreasing the magnitude of their effect on glucose excretion and thus their efficacy as renal function declines (21,22,27). Hence, ...
The well established and investigated screening regime should be implicated in prenatal care as a step of optimizing and rationalizing the national health care system. However, in two decades of discussion it became obvious that the best way to inhibit progress can be to cope with problems by preferring the most complicated medical policies under persistent renunciation of simple solutions. Would a similar caution ever had allowed for instance handwashing according to Semmelweis? That being a 170 years old procedure and never been tested in a scientifically controlled clinical study is free of doubt considered as evidence-based medicine! Nowadays the term Semmelweis effect is a metaphor for the reflex-like tendency to reject new evidence or new knowledge because it contradicts established norms, beliefs or paradigms (Robert Anton Wilson, 1932-2007).. According to the recent literature, we have the potential means for successfully treating women with threatening preterm birth in about 5% of ...
Dr.Purushothaman [LivingInWellbeing], (Visionary & Director, Centre for Human Perfection, a Centre par Excellence for Mind Programming & Applied Life Themes), M.B.B.S; D.T.M&H; MS; PhD (Psycho) is currently working as a General Surgeon, Spiritual Scientist, Positive Psychologist, Life & Happiness Coach, Positive Health & Wellbeing Trainer, Mentor, Motivator, Master Mind Programmer,A Writer & Consultant to various National & International Organizations.. Authors [email protected] Amazon Authors [email protected] Google Submit Your Article. Manage Your Stress. Join Our Site. ...
REFERENCES 1. Newman L, Rowley J, Hoorn SV, Wijesooriya NS, Unemo M, Low N, et al. Global estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in 2012 based on systematic review and global reporting. PLoS ONE 2015; 10:e0143304.Available at: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0143304. [ Links ] 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2009. Atlanta: US. Department of Health and Human Services; 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats09/surv2009-Complete.pdf. [ Links ] 3. Fenton KA, Lowndes CM. Recent trends in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the Europe Union. Sex Transm Infect 2004; 80:255-263. [ Links ] 4. La Montagne DS, Patrick LE, Fine DN, Marrazzo JM. Region X Infertility Prevention Project. Re-evaluating selective screening criteria for Chlamydial infection among women in the US Pacific Northwest. Sex Transm Dis 2004; 31:283-289. [ Links ] ...
The search for new nontraditional targets is a high priority in antibiotic design today. Bacterial membrane energetics based on sodium ion circulation offers potential alternative targets. The present work identifies the Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR), a key respiratory enzyme in many microbial pathogens, as indispensible for the Chlamydia trachomatis infectious process. Infection by Chlamydia trachomatis significantly increased first H+ and then Na+ levels within the host mammalian cell. A newly designed furanone Na+-NQR inhibitor, PEG-2S, blocked the changes in both H+ and Na+ levels induced by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. It also inhibited intracellular proliferation of Chlamydia trachomatis with a half-minimal inhibitory concentration in the submicromolar range but did not affect the viability of mammalian cells or bacterial species representing benign intestinal microflora. At low nanomolar concentrations (IC50 value = 1.76 nmol/L), PEG-2S inhibited the ...
Goat polyclonal antibody raised against Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP. Native purified MOMP from Chlamydia trachomatis strain L2. (PAB13907) - Products - Abnova
Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a leading cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy in women. Although antibiotic therapy eliminates infection, it does not...
Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a leading cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy in women. Although antibiotic therapy eliminates infection, it does not...
Whole-genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing ...
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Do you know which doctor should you consult if you have Chlamydia Trachomatis. This and other commonly asked questions about this condition.
Contact tracing in the context of STDs before HIV relied on the patients cooperation and this cooperation was secured by the fact that the anonymity of the index patient (that is, the patient who is to serve as the reference point for all contact traces - the one in the doctor ís office) would be preserved. The people being notified would then be able to begin treatment. In the initial stages of the AIDS epidemic, several facts about HIV led to the opposition of contact tracing; namely, the fact that it was untreatable in the early stages (and ultimately incurable) and the fact that it was initially spread most commonly by homosexual contact. Thus the battle began between invasion of privacy vs. potential benefit.
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အမ်ိဳးသားနဲ႔ ဆက္ဆံတဲ့ အခါမွာလဲ အခါတိုင္းနီးပါးလိုလို ဆက္ဆံၿပီးတိုင္း ဆီးက်င္ျခင္းကို ခံစားရပါတယ္။ တစ္ခါတစ္ခါ အမ်ိဳးသားနဲ႔ မဆက္ဆံျဖစ္တာ ေတာ္ေတာ္ကို ၾကာသြားတတ္ပါတယ္။ တစ္ပတ္မွာ တစ္ခါေတာင္ မေနျဖစ္ပါဘူး။ တစ္ခါ တစ္ခါ လနဲ႔ခ်ီပါတယ္။ အဲ့လိုမ်ိဳးေတြ ျဖစ္ေနလို ့ အမ်ိဳးသားလဲ ကၽြန္မ အေပၚမွာ စိတ္ပ်က္သြားမွာ စိုးမိပါတယ္။ ဒီလို ေဝဒနာ ခံစားရတဲ့ အခ်ိန္ဆိုရင္ အရမ္းကို ...
光大 guāngdà, splendid/magnificent/abbr. for 中國光大銀行,中国光大银行[Zhōng guó Guāng dà Yín háng], China ...
Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD)is diagnosed in 1.3 % of the men referred for infertility evaluation. Moreover, CBAVD accounts for 27% of the men with primary obstructive azoospermia. An almost equal number of men with other causes of surgically unreconstructable obstructive azoospermia are referred for evaluation.
1. National Health and Medical Research Council. The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 8th edn. Canberra; 2003.. 2. National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research. HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia. Annual surveillance report, 2007. Sydney: University of New South Wales; 2007.. 3. Heymann D, editor. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 18th edn. Washington: American Public Health Association; 2004.. 4. OzFoodNet Working Group. Monitoring the incidence and causes of diseases potentially transmitted by food in Australia: Annual Report of the OzFoodNet Network, 2006. Commun Dis Intell 2007;31:345-363.. 5. Hocking J, Fairley C, Counahan M, Crofts N. The pattern of notification and testing for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Victoria, 1998-2000: an ecological analysis. Aust N Z J Public Health 2003;27:405-408.. 6. Chen M, Fairley C, Donovan B. Nowhere near the point of diminishing returns: correlations between chlamydia testing and ...
Chlamydia trachomatis is a major etiologic agent of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is a gram-negative pathogen, chlamydial infections are not generally thought of as endotoxin-mediated diseases. A molecular characterization of the acute immune response to chlamydia, especially with regard to the role of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), remains to be undertaken. We extracted 15 mg of LPS from 5 x 10(12) C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EB) for analysis of structure and biological activity. When methylated lipid A was subjected to high-pressure liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, the majority of the lipid A was found to be pentaacyl. The endotoxin activities of whole C. trachomatis EB and purified LPS were characterized in comparison with whole Salmonella minnesota R595 and with S. minnesota R595 LPS and lipooligosaccharide from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Both C. trachomatis LPS and whole EB induced the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from whole blood ex ...